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which (said he) I will never betray wealth is committed, ought of duty nor give over, God, her Majesty, therein to join with me. And if all the laws, my own conscience my honorable friends should forsake and duty, being with me. He me, especially in so good a cause, concluded with requesting Bur and not put their helping hand to leigh to persevere, satisfied with the redress of these enormities, the justice as well as importance of (being indeed a matter of state, and the cause, and convinced of the not of the least moment) I shall groundlessness of the complaints. think my coming unto this place
For the further encouragement to have been for my punishment, of his Lordship, the Archbishop and my hap very hard, that, when sent him a schedule of the number I think to deserye best, and in a of Puritan preachers in his province, manner consume myself to satisfy with their degrees, confronting that which God, her Majesty, and them with the nonconformists, by the church requireth of me, I should which it appeared that there were be evilly rewarded. Sed meliora seven hundred and eighty-six con spero, formists, and forty-nine recusants. “ It is objected by some, that my But as some of the Lords still ap- desire of uniformity, by way of peared to consider the proceedings subscription, is for the better mainof the associated prelates harsh, tenance of my book. They are mine his Grace vindicated himself in other enemies that say so; but I trust correspondence to this effect. my friends have a better opinion of
“God knoweth how desirous I me. Why should I seek for any have been, from time to time; to confirmation of my book after have my doings approved by my twelve years approbation ? * Or ancient and honorable friends. For what shall I get thereby more than which cause, since my coming to already I have ? And yet, if subthis place, I have done nothing of scription may confirm it, it is conimportance against these sectaries, firmed long ago by the subscription without good advice. I have risen almost of all the clergy of England up early, and sat up late, to yield before my time. Mine enemies reasons, and make answer to their likewise, and the slanderous tongues contentions and their seditious ob of this uncharitable sect, report jections. And shall I now say, that I am revolted, become a papist, I have lost my labour ? Or shall and I know not what. But it promy just dealing with disobedient ceedeth from their lewdness, and and irregular persons, cause my not from any desert of mine. I am former professed and ancient friends, further burthened with wilfulness. to hinder my just proceedings, and I hope my friends are better permake them speak of my doings, suaded of me, to whose consciences yea, and of myself, what they list? I appeal. It is strange, that a man Solomon saith, that an old friend is of my place, dealing by so good better than a new. I trust those warrant as I do, should be so enthat love me indeed will not so countered, and for not yielding, be lightly cast off their old friends for counted wilful. But I must be any of these new-fangled and fac- content; Vincit qui patitur. There tious sectaries, whose fruits are to is a difference betwixt wilfulness make division, and to separate old and constancy. I have taken upon and assured friends. In my own me, by the place which I hold private affairs I know that I shall under her Majesty, the defence of stand in need of friends ; but in these the religion, and the rites of the public actions, I see no cause why.
*"The Answer to Cartwright's AdmoI should seek friends, seeing they nition," to which he seems to refer, was to whom the care of the common published in 1572.
Church of England, to appease the tempts, unless I will become Æsop's schisms and sects therein, to reduce block, and undo all that which all the ministers thereof to uniform- hitherto hath been done. And how ity, and to due obedience, and not then shall I be able to perform my to waver with every wind; which duty, according to her Majesty's also my place, my person, my duty, expectation? It is certain, that if the laws, her Majesty, and the way be given unto them, upon goodness of the cause, do require their unjust surmises and clamours, of me, and wherein the Lords of it will be the cause of that confuher Highness's most honourable sion, which hereafter the state will privy Council (all things consider- be sorry for. I neither care for the ed) ought in duty to assist and honour of this place I hold (which countenance me. But how is it is onus unto me) nor the largeness possible that I should perform the of the revenue, neither any worldly charge which I have undertaken, thing, I thank God, in respect of after so long liberty, and lack of dis- doing my duty; neither do I fear cipline, if a few persons, so meanly the displeasure of man, nor the evil qualified, (as most of these factious tongue of the uncharitable, who sectaries are,) should be counte- call me tyrant, pope, knave, and nanced against the whole state of lay to my charge things that I the clergy of greatest account both never did nor thought. For I know for learning, years, staidness, wis that this is the work of that accuser dom, religion, and honesty; and the devil, that he may tear in pieces open breakers and impugners of the the servants of God with lies, that law, young in years, proud in con- he may dishonour their glorious ceit, contentious in disposition, name with false surmises, that they should be maintained against their who through the clearness of their governors, seeking to reduce them own conscience are shining bright, to order and to obedience. The might have the filth of other men's first fruits of heretics, and the first slanders cast upon them. So was births and endeavours of schismatics Cyprian himself used, and other are these, to admire themselves, godly bishops, to whom I am not and in their swelling pride to comparable. But that which most contemn any that are set over of all grieveth me, and is to be them. Thus do men fall from the wondered at, and lamented, is, that church of God; thus is a foreign some of those which give counteunhallowed altar erected; and thus nance to these men, and cry out for is Christ's peace, and God's ordi- a learned ministry, should watch nation and unity rebelled against their opportunity, and be instruFor mine own part, I neither have ments and means to place most undone nor do any thing in these mat- learned men in the chiefest places ters, which I do not think myself and livings of the ministry, thereby in conscience and duty bound to do, to make the state of the bishops and which her Majesty hath not and clergy contemptible, and I fear with earnest charge committed saleable. This hypocrisy and disunto me, and which I am not well sembling with God and man in able to justify to be most requisite pretending one thing, and doing for this church and state; whereof, another) goeth to my heart, and next to her Majesty (though most maketh me to think that God's unworthy, or at the least most un- judgments are not far off. The day happy) the chief care is committed will come, when all men's hearts unto me; which I will not by the shall be opened. In the mean time grace of God neglect, whatsoever I will depend upon him, who never come upon me therefore. Neither faileth those who put their trust in may I endure their notorious con- Him.”
Whatever constitutional warmth of the hospital of East-bridge in is discoverable in these extracts, Canterbury. preserved by Sir George Paule, He now deemed it expedient to their insertion is necessary to show form a bond of union with Sir the integrity of the Primate, who, Christopher Hatton, the Vice-chamsuffering under invidious aspersion, berlain to Elizabeth, through whom, believed himself zealously affected by means of his own chaplain Banin a good cause; and it may not be croft, he could often communicate unprofitable to religionists of a cer. with her Majesty on such impeditain description to learn, that strong ments to measures, which in the attachment to establisbed order and view of both were desirable, as were discipline is as compatible with the offered by the intrigues of persons ultra Calvinistic sentiments of a in high official stations. He was Whitgift, as the Arminian princi- sworn in privy counsellor with the ples of a Laud.
Lord Cobham, in February 1585, He waited this year also, about and had the satisfaction of seeing these matters, upon the Queen, who Lord Buckhurst, another of his bad been solicited in favour of some friends, admitted to the same digof the innovators against the Litur. nity the day after. These appointgy, and soon after sent her highness ments occurring during the absence his answer to all their most plausi- of the Earl of Leicester in the ble objections that were commonly Netherlands, gave umbrage to that urged, giving his reasons for prac- nobleman, who from political views tical suppression in preference to affected the patronage of the nonargumentative refutation. Mean- conformists. There were others while he succeeded in getting some also at the Council-board, who of the sees filled, which had been showed such slight of the Archvacant ever since the ejection of the bishop, that he endeavoured to renpopish bishops, and obtained a pro- der his claim of attendance as little mise from Burleigh to complete obnoxious as possible, by declining the wbole bench. He opposed the its exercise on deliberations of a election of Walter Travers to the merely secular character. “ He mastership of the Temple, and ad- repaired daily (says Fuller) to the vised a restraint to be laid upon the Council Table, early in the mornpress at Cambridge. He was made ing, and after an usual apprecation sensible however of the justness of of a Good-morrow to the Lords, a complaint, presented against the he requested to know if there were excessive fees taken in ecclesiastical any church business to be debated ; courts, and drew up a new regula and if the answer was returned in tion, on the ancient basis; at the the affirmative, he stayed and atsame time prevailing with his So- tended the issue of the matter. But vereign not to give her assent to if no such matter appeared, he some bills passed in parliament, craved leave to be dispensed withal, which affected the existing condition saying, Then, my Lords, here is no of the clerical body; namely, one need of me ; and departed. A comgiving liberty to marry at all times, mendable practice, clearing himself and another for the trial of minis from all aspersions of civil pragters' sufficiency by twelve laymen. maticalness, and tending much to It has been observed that the latter the just support of his reputation.”* served as a precedent for a measure He availed himself of the opporturigidly executed against the Royal nity his new situation afforded him ists in the time of the Common of free access to her Majesty, whose
in the same parliament countenance he generally possessed, he procured an act for the better foundation and relief for the poor * Church History, B. ix. p. 197.
as well as the support of Burleigh of every such sort of books, upon and Walsingham, notwithstanding this condition only, that any of occasional differences on questions them be not had or dispersed abroad, connected with the non-conformists. but first brought to me, or some
The Earl of Leicester, not con- other of her Majesty's privy-coun, tent with having made Cartwright cil, so that they may be delivered, master of his hospital recently or directed to be delivered forth erected at Warwick, attempted by unto such persons only, as by us a most artful address to procure a or some of us shall be thought licence for him to preach without most meet men, upon good consithe subscription; but Whitgift per- derations and purposes, to have the emptorily refused to comply. He reading and perusal of them.” silenced also Travers from preach- The terms of this grant are reing at the Temple ; notwithstand volting to those who live in happier ing, about the same time being days, and enjoy the advantages of called upon for his judgment in the a free press; but at this critical dispute between that divine and the season, when the establishment was celebrated Hooker, he gave his assailed by enemies on every side, opinion less in favour of the Papists and in peril from pretended friends, than the latter had done. His cautionary measures must be allownext care was to frame the statutes ed to be highly expedient, though of cathedrals, so as to make them the restrictions were carried to unsuitable to the spirit of the Reform. justifiable extremes. The Primate ation.
had previously, by special order of In 1586, his name appears among the Queen, drawn up rules for rethose counsellors who condemned gulating the press, which were conSecretary Davison for procuring firmed and set forth by authority the execution of Mary Queen of of the Star-chamber; and he had Scots, without the consent of his exercised his power, as a censor, Sovereign; and upon the discovery by sending a prohibition to Cartof Babington's design to marry that wright from publishing an answer princess, he issued some prayers which he had prepared to the Rheunder the title of “ A form of mish Bible. Had his conduct in prayer for these dangerous times,” these respects been the result of This year he likewise granted a ambitious or tyrannical feeling, he licence to an Italian merchant- would scarcely have rejected the bookseller to import several popish opportunity which at this period books, taking due care however to presented itself of extending the specify his inducement for such ex- sphere of his influence. Sir Thomas traordinary indulgence. “Whereas Bromley, Lord Chancellor, dying sundry books are from time to time on the twelfth of April, 1587, her set forth in the parts beyond seas Majesty made him an offer of the by such as are addicted to the errors vacant dignity, which he declined, of Popery, yet in many respects but recommended Sir Christopher expedient to be had by some of the Hatton, who in consequence was learned in this realm ; containing appointed to that high office on the also oftentimes matter in them twenty-ninth of the same month, against the state of this land, and and the Queen complimented him slanderous unto it, and therefore by making the appointment in his not fit books to pass through every house at Croydon. The advanceman's hand freely : in consideration ment of this friend strengthened whereof I have tolerated Ascanio the party of the Archbishop, and de Renialme, merchant-bookseller, weakened that of Leicester, whose to bring into this realm, from the proceedings had justly been obparts beyond scas, some few copies noxious to all well-wishers of her
Majesty's government. The de connected with designing characters signs of this statesman were soon who too often made religion a cloke after terminated by the stroke of of maliciousness, and under a predeath, by which event it also became tence of reforming zeal would have necessary to elect a new Chancellor proceeded to any seditious extremes for the University of Oxford, in to overturn the established order the room of the deceased nobleman; of things, excited jealous apprewhen the principal members of that hensions in the minds of the ecclelearned body made known to Dr. siastical dignitaries, and of a portion Whitgift their desire of choosing of the nobility, who feared lest, the him, although he was a Cambridge affections of many of the lower man. He replied, “ that he was orders being alienated from the already their friend, whereof they government, they might become might rest assured; and therefore fit agents to promote the views of advised them to make choice of the enemies of the Queen. The some other in near place about the alarm of a Spanish invasion, and Queen, that might assist him on the detection of bigoted or ambitheir behalf : and both at the Coun- tious papists, who under a mask cil-board, and other places of jus- of protestantism, and guidance of tice, right them many ways, both artful Jesuits, were conspiring for the benefit of the University, against both church and state, renand their particular colleges." He dered the faithful subjects of Elizathen recommended to them Sir beth, and sober friends of ReforChristopher Hatton, who had been mation, the more susceptible of a student at Oxford; their accept- possible danger, and seemed to jusance of which recommendation was tify extraordinary vigilance on the not only pleasing to his Grace, as part of the privy-council. Some conferring additional honour on an of the leading divines of the puriintimate friend, but as giving him tanical party were proceeded against a more influential auxiliary in the by the Star-chamber, for setting government in defence of those forth and putting in practice (withecclesiastical or academical regula- out warrant or authority) a new tions on which he was particularly form of common prayer, and admiinterested. This assistance was the nistration of the sacraments, agreemore seasonable, as a number of able to the mode of the reformed scurrilous pamphlets, like those of churches on the Continent. With Martin Marprelate, in which he was respect to Cartwright in particular, severely handled, was published being cited in 1590 before the ecfrom a shifting press, and without clesiastical commission for several the names of their authors, which misdemeanors, and refusing to take rendered thein difficult of detection. the oath ex officio, was sent to the Some of the printers, whilst en Fleet prison; and the Archbishop gaged about a libel, entitled “More drew up a paper containing several work for a Cooper,” were appre- articles, more explicitly against the hended by the Earl of Derby, in Disciplinarians than the former, to the vicinity of Manchester ; who, be subscribed by all licensed preachwith others, concerned in the pub- ers. The next year, Cartwright lication, were proceeeded against in was brought before the Star-chamthe Star-chamber, and censured; ber, and on giving bail for his quiet but upon their submission (at the behaviour, was discharged at the humble suit of the Archbishop) motion of the Archbishop; who, were both delivered out of prison, though he felt it his duty to proceed and eased of their fines.
against this minister as well as Cartwright, Snape, and others, others, was by no means insensible holding conscientious scruples, but of his worth. This esteem was