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17.3te atins to Timothy for 'lis own personal Timothy (12, 13). A similar confrmation guidance.

is loand in i. 4, where, speaking of his great If this Epitle was not written by Paul, it desire to see Timothy, Psal adds, being m'1st have hul lor is author one equal to mindfal of thy tears. The idea of seeing Paal in genias, and similar to him in com- bim brings up the associated idea of the plexion of thoaght and elevation of porpose last time he saw his disciple. When was But two Pauls are as inconceivable as two that? Acenrding to the view we bare given. suns. A Pasi that could descend to decep when he took lease of Timothy at the tearful tion, would by the art prove himself to be interview with the Ephesian elders. The Do Paui.

names mentioned in the last chapter of the The second Epistle to Timothy, which also Epistie confirm the view Demas was conbears the name of Paul as its author (i. l). Reeted with Asia Minor, being known to the was written at a time when the latter was a chareh at Colosse (Col. iv. 14); also Lake, prisoner (%, 12, 16; ii. 9), expecting the called in the same place the beloved physiarrond appearance of the Messiah (10, 12; cian,' as well as Crescens (2 Timothy iv. iv. B), also his own immediate departare 10). Mark, moreover, was connected with (1v.C, seq.), and under trying and painful cir. Asia (Acts xii. 25; xiii. 5, 13. Philem. 24, cumstances (ii. 11, 12), in order to strengthen especially Col. iv. 10). Tvehicus belonged Timothy in the gospel and in his official to Troas (Acts XX. 4); and as be bore the duties as overseer of the church (i. 6, 8; ii. letter to the Colossians (iv. 7), so may be 1, , 21; iv. 1, sey.; and particularly to have borne this letter to Timothy, for he quide and aid him in correcting false doc. was sent by Panl to Epbesas (2 Tim. is. tine and misconduct (ii. lt, seq.; iii. 1, 12), with which church he was well ae67.); as well as to lead him to practise the quainted (Ephes. vi. 2), and Carpus was an virtues of the gospel (ii. 22, seq.), encou- inhabitant of Troas (2 Tim. iv. 13), while ragad by Pani's example, which was well Alexander belonged to Ephesus (Aets we. kowa w him (iii. 10, seq.). From i. 17, 33). Aquila was of Pontus (Acts wii. ? it is probable that Rome was the place Prisca, in 2 Tim. iv. 19, is another form of whence the letter was sent. This conclusion Priscilla, Aquila's wise). Onesiphorus in 13 greatly confirmed by other facts jusi de. declared by Winer to be a Christian «1 Lailed. It this appears that the Epistle was Ephesus (2 Tim. i. 16; iv. 19). Troplisent to Timothy by Paul when a prisoner mus was an Ephesian (Acts xx. 4; xxi. 29) at Rome, suffering greatly for the cause of Eubulus is mentioned only in this chapter, Christ. This endurance arose not merely but the Greek form of the name renders is from his being a prisoner. He had, it seems likely that he was connected with Asia. Of bal a hearing of his cause. On this occa- Pudens, Linus, and Claudia, nothing can son he was forsaken by all, being thus be said, as these names occur in no o:ber mnade like his Lord when in his hour of place. Erastus is found with Panl and To anguish and ignominy, 'all forsook him and mothy in Ephesus, and both are sent by fled. And while Christians of Asia Minor him into Macedonia (Acts xix. 22). Tuus were alienated from the apostle, Demas, se- every name of which we know any thing is duced by his love of the present world, had found to be more or less closely conneetei also abandoned him. Otherstad departed with Ephesus. There is one exception, that Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia, and of Titus, and he, as a fellow-Yorker with Tychicus had been sent to Ephesus. Luke Paul, was doubtless well kuown to Timothy. only way with him. Hence he is led to beg The decisive proof that Timothy was in Asia Timothy to use his best efforts in order to remains to be mentioned. Having requested come to him shortly.

Timothy to come to him at Rome, the apostle The place where Timothy was when Paul adus, the cloke that I left at Troas with wrote to him this second communication, Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee may be probably ascertained by circum. (2 Tim. iv. 13). Troas lay on the northstaures therein found. Thus in i. 15, Paul western extremity of Asia Minor, between unes worris which seem to imply that his Paul in Rome and Timothy, if in Ephesus. son was in Asia and intimately acquainted Natural, therefore, was Paul's request. And with the Christian churches in that land, in proceeding from Ephesus to Rome, Trous especially with the church at Ephesus (18). was a place through which Timothy was The official duties enjoined on Timothy iu likely to pass, not only as having been twice this Epistle are siinilar to those he is re- passed through by Paul (Acts xvi. 8, 1); quired in the former to exercise at Ephesus, xx. 5, seq.), but also as affording the best and the state of mind in regard to errors way to Rome, being at once the shortest and to be guarded against and corrected is also involving least exposure to the sea. similar. In the mention of names in iv. 10, The concurrence of these minute, joci. seq., the laws of association suggest an argu- dental, and independent circumstances, renment tending to show that Timothy was at ders it at the least very probable that TiEpbesus; for no sooner does Paul mention mothy was at Ephesus when Paul wrote to that city, than he immediately adverts to him this bis Second Epistle. This concio

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sion confirms the view given in the previous of arms. Bronze was also used in the for. article, and causes the two letters to give mation of mirrors. Tin (in Greek, kassiteris) and receive aid in the establishment of their was in very remote ages procured from the Pauline origin, and the ascertaining of the Cassirerides, or Scilly Isles (and Cornwall), persou to whom they were sent.

by Phænician navigators and their depenWe are also confirmed in the opinion that dencies, and sent eastward, through Syria and the letter was written by Paul to Timothy Palmyra, to distant parts of Asia (Craik's by the fact, learnt in our minute inquiry History of British Commerce,' i. chap. i.). into these names, that so far as our know. Wilkinson, in his instructive, interesting, and ledge extends, every thing accords with that trustworthy work, The Manners and Cusopinion. The persons mentioned are per- toms of the Ancient Egyptians,' says (iii. sons with whom Paul and Timothy were 253), “The skill of the Egyptians in comacquainted; and most of them were persons pounding metals is abundantly proved by whom the history would lead us to expect in the vases, mirrors, arms, and implements the case. And wben attention is given to of bronze discovered at Thebes and other the cursory mauner in which these names

parts of Egypt; and the numerous methods are let drop from the writer's pen, it is very they adopted for varying the composition of difficult to conceive that we have here to do bronze by a judicious mixture of alloys, are with any thing but a reality.

shown in many qualities of the metal. They The letter bears traces of an anxious had even the secret of giving to bronze blades mind. Paul had been before his judges, a certain degree of elasticity, as may be seen and there stood alone. Some had proved in the dagger of the Berlin Museum. Ano. faithless, others had become prudent. A ther remarkable feature in their bronze is second hearing had probably been less af- the resistance it offers to the effect of the flictive. Still, danger and death seemed near. atmosphere; some continuing smooth and The aged confessor wanted one on whom he bright though buried for ages, and some could rely. He therefore writes to Timothy, presenting the appearance of previous oxidaurging him to come, and, if he could, to tion purposely induced.' See Irox. come before winter (2 Tim. iv. 21). Hence TIPHSAH, a city on the western margin the Epistle wears the appearance of having of the Euphrates, forming the north-eastern been composed a short time before Paul's limit of Solomon's kingdom; probably Thap. imprisonment at Rome issued in his martyr. sacus, afterwards called Amphipolis. dom. As such, it is specially interesting; TIRAS, a son of Japhet, is held to have and as such, its tone of affectionate earnest. been the progenitor of the Thracians (Gen. ness and concern is natural and becoming. X. 2). Thrace was a district on the north

The authenticity of this Epistle has been of Greece, bounded on the east by the Ponquestioned and denied without sufficient ius Euxinus (the Black sea); on the south, grounds. Though we are disposed to assign by the Propontis and the Ægean sea (Archi. a somewhat later date for its composition pelago); on the west, by the river Strymon; than Lardner, namely A. D. 61, we concur and on the north, by the mountainous renge in these his words: “It appears to me very of Ilæmus. The river Hebrus ran through probable that this Second Epistle to Timothy the land. was written at Rome, when Paul was sent TIRHAKAH, a king of Ethiopia or Cushi thither by Festus. And I cannot but think ( See page 440), who made war on Sennethat this ought to be an allowed and deter- cherib when threatening Jerusalem (2 Kings mined point. It is first mentioned by Ire. xix. 9. Is. xxxvii. 9). He is the same as næus (born at Smyrna in the early part of Taracos of Manetho, the third king of the the second century), wbo, speaking of Linus, 25th dynasty, who, as an Ethiopian mosays he is the same as Paul mentions in narch, ruled over a part of Egypt. Accordthose (well-known) Epistles to Timothy.' ing to Strabo, Tirhakah penetrated to the

TIN (L. stannum?) was known to the He- pillars of Hercules, or Gibraltar. Hitzig brews (Numb. xxxi. 22. Ezek. xxii. 18, 20) fixes his reign 714—696 A. C. This is one under the name of bedel, a word which some of the points in which the history of Egypt say comes from a root meaving 'to separate ;' coincides with that of the Hebrews. because, among other mysterious qualities, TIRZAH (H. pleasant), a royal Canaan. tin was held to have the power of separating itish city conqnered by Joshua (Josh. xii. mixed metals. Tin, in Ezek. xxii. 18 (comp. 21), which fell to the share of Epbraim, and Isaiah i. 25), is mentioned among inferior became the capital of the kingrom of Israel metals, as if accounted dross,' where also (1 Kings xiv, 17). Zinri, besieged by Omri, is implied the fact of its entering into amal- destroyed its palace and himself with fire gams. Such a compound was produced (xvi. 17, 18). The latter, having reigned when tin was mixed with copper, forming, in Tirzah six years, transferred the seat of nut brass, which is copper and zinc, but empire to Samaria (23, 24). Tirzah, which bronze--a metal employed before iron, and lay some twelve miles to the east of Samafrom its being hard and capable of receiv. ria, was celebra:ed for the loveliness of its ing an edge, serviceable in the fabrication natural scenery (Cant vi. 4).

TITHES (T. G. zehnte), that is tenths, rests. If, however, we view the enactments seem founded on a reverence for the num- as constituting portions of one tithe-law, the ver ten, which, as the number of the fingers several parts may in the main be found con. and the toes, as well as from certain quali. current, and tithes would thus be a teuth of ties found or fancied in the number itself, the annual increase, appropriated to the ser. was in the primæval ages held a sacred vice of the temple and its servants, as well number, became the foundation of the deci- as to the purposes of hospitality, friendship, mal (L. decem, ten') system of computa- and charity. Should this view find due sup. tion (comp. Numb. xi. 19), and was, in the port, and prove applicable in its fullest imDecalogue or table of Ten Commandmeuts, port, it would, by presenting the tithes as a made the centre of the Mosaic polity. In great national provision for the learned and a religion having such a nucleus (compare needy classes, serve to lessen the force of Matt. xxv. l), tithes could hardly be absent; the objection to the Mosaic polity, that, beespecially as they existed before Mosaism, sides other sources of revenue, the leritical considered as a separate institution, came order, which probably did not constitute into existence. Tithes were given by Abra- more than one-fiftieth of the nation, yet posham to Melchizedek; and the transaction is sessed one-tenth of its annual substance. simply mentioned, as if one that was well Doubtless, with the debasement of the naknown (Gen. xiv. 20. Heb. vii. 2). Jacob tional character, the sacerdotal body, whose also consecrated a tithe of his property to power was very great, worked the system for God (Gen. xxviii. 22).

their own aggrandisement. The Talmudists In the Mosaic law, the tithe, or tenth of speak of a second and a third tithe (comp. all the products of the earth, including the Joseph. Antiq. iv. 8, 22); which, if, as would field, the orchard, and the garden with the appear, they were separate exactions, must flock and the herd - in general, whatever have been found very oppressive. If, in adwas eatable — was annually to be paid by dition, a tenih was payable to the regal goevery Israelite, as tenant of the land, to its vernment (1 Samuel viii. 15), the Israelites, sole proprietor, Jehovah, who appropriated having also so much of their wealth to part the same to the support of the national reli. with in connection with offerings of various gion and worship; and accordingly resigned kinds, purchased at a dear raie the advan. the wealth thus accruing to the levites in vir. tages of their social and religions in stitu. tue of their office, and in consideration of tions. See TAXES. their possessing no share in the land. Of TITLE, a Latin word in English letters, these tithes, the fruits of the earth might be representing the inscription put by Pilate redeemed by the payment of one-fifth beyond over the head of our Lord, declaratory of the what they were worth, not in the general reason why he was crucified. What John (xix. market, we presume, but in the sanctuary 19) with strict propriety speaks of as '& title,' (Lev. xxvii. 30–33. Numb. xviii. 21, seq.). Matthew terms his 'accusation,' and Mark, Of these tithes, the levites had to pay a 'the superscription of his accusation.' This tenth to the priests (Numb. xviii. 20—30. 'title,' as John informs us, was written to the 2 Chron. xxxi. 4–6. Neh. x. 37, 38). In following effect: ‘Jesus of Nazareth, the King Deuter. xiv. 22–27 (comp. xii. 6, seq.), the of the Jews.' Of course it must have been tithe is to be enjoyed in a social meal before written on a tablet of some kind. It was the sanctuary, in company with the levite, usual for the title, inscribed on a piece of strangers, widows, and orphans; and if the wood, to be set on the top of the cross. In distance at which any one lived was too a mixed population the inscription was in great to bring the tithe in kind, he was to divers languages: the grave of the third turn the objects into mouey, and, proceeding Gordian, ou the borders of Persia, bad & to the holy place, expeud it at his pleasure title or inscription written in Greck, Latin, for the above-mertioned purposes (xiv. 28; Persian, Jewish, and Egyptian letters. In xxvi, 12–14). The same passages require the case of the title set over the cross of a tithe - banquet to be held every third year Jesus, the Hebrew (John xix. 20; compare at each dwelling-place. It may not be easy Luke xxiii. 38) naturally stood first, as being to reconcile these injunctions, of which the the vernacular. It is also in agreement with first seems to give all tithes to the levi- what might bave been expected from the tical order, the second to reserve no small existence in Judea of the Roman dominion, portion of them in the hands of the donor that the tablet bearing the charge should who admits the levite as his guest. Winer have a Latin name. That name, titulus, holds the latter ordinances to be an expan. has here a genuine classical sense, such as sion of the original tithe system, designed was current in the age of Augustus; from to favour the levites. This view cannot be sus- which the term afterward deviated more and tained, because the levites are not favoured, more as time went on, till at last it came to but the reverse, and because any change signify a title of honour, and in the plural made in the original legislation, under the to denote a place of worship. The ase of auspices of the sacerdotal order, could hardly the term titulus, therefore, is an argument 1ail to have specially promoted their inte- that the Gospel of John was produced near the age to which the crucifixion refers, and read from right to left. The llebrew is the under circumstances which gave the writer least, the Latin the most distinct. The last opportunities of minute and exact informa. presents in full the word NAZARENUS, tion.

the Nazarene (of Nazareth,' John xix. 19), The tablet bearing the title is said to have with two letters, apparently R and E, which been discovered by Helen, the mother of with X would make REX or King ; so that, Constantine, and by her conveyed (A. D. as John states, the title thus appears to have 3.25) io Rome, where it was preserved in the run—'Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the chur of the Holy Cross ; an at length, in Jews,' and consequently contained the scof1492, to have been anew brought to light, fing implication that Jesus had suffered being found in the vaulted roof of the same death for high treason against the Roman church while it was undergoing repairs. sovereignty. The facts were asserted by an inscription The mention of the three languages, Heand a bull of Pope Alexander VI. Without brew, Greek, and Latin, is in the case perexpressing an opinion as to the identity of fectly natural; for it was requisite that the the discovered with the original title, or en- accusation should be legible to the native tering into the consideration of some verbal population and to the Jews of the disperquestions connected with the subject, we pre- sion, as well as the proselytes, speaking sent to the reader a fuc-simile of the portion Greek and Latin, that had come from all of the title, such as it was seen and described parts of the world in order to celebrate the by Nicquetus (Titulus Sancta Crucis, authore solemnities of the Passover; and well do Honorato Nicqueto, 1695). The inscription these three tongues correspond with and corresponds with the statement of John, pre. symbolize the three great currents of civilisenting traces of the Hebrew first, then the sation and social influence which were theu Greek, and then the Latin. The words, con- gathered together in Jerusalem as

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TITUS was a fellow.labourer with Paul, with Paul, Titus is left by him in the island of Greek parentage (Gal. ii. 1-3), and con- of Crete (Tit. i, 5), was with him in Rome, verted by the apostle, who hence calls him whence he proceeded to Dalmatia (2 Tim. his own son (Tit. i. 4). He remained nn. iv. 10). Paul wrote to him a letter while he circumcised (Gal. ii. 3).

was in Crete, in which he requests Titus to Of the details of his history little is known. come to him at Nicopolis when the apostle Luke, in the Acts of the Apostles, has given should send to bim Artemas or Tycbicus (Tit. no account of him. Paul supplies brief no- iii. 12). These latter facts do not completely tices of Titus, which, though fragmentary, fall in with the known events of Paul's his. are valuable because incidental. From these tory; but as our acquaintance with that his. we learn that Titus accompanied Paul in his tory, especially in its concluding portions, visit from Antioch to Jerusalem (Gal. ii. 1- is fragmentary and defective, we are not al 3). Then is he sent by Paul from Ephesus liberty to determine that they are not to be to Corinth (2 Cor. vii. 13, 14; xii. 18). The received. This would be to draw a positive apostle, having been disappointed in expect- conclusion from our ignorance. If they preing to find at Troas Titus, his brother' sented an obvious contradiction to known (ii. 13), met him in Macedonia (vii. 5, seq.), facts, the state of the case would be far difwhence he again sent him to Corinth, with ferent. As it is, these scattered notices could his Second letter to the church in that city scarcely have been fabricated, and thereforo (vii. 6, 16--18, 23). Continuing to work they possess a claim on our credence, Inse

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formation is not to be rejected because in. of the house of Togarmah' (Ezek. xxvii. 14; complete. Its very rarity enhances its value. Xxxviii. 6) are placed in Armenia.

Tradition makes 'Titus bishop of Crete, in TOLA (H. a worm), son of Puah, of the which island it states that he died.

tribe of Issachar, judged Israel, between The passages referred to above show that Abimelech and Jair, during twenty · three Paul beld Titus in high esteem, and in re- years, and was buried at Shamer, in Ephraim, gard to their coinmon work stood with him the place of his abode (Judg. x. 1–3). iu intimate relations,

TOPAZ, the probably correct rendering Titus, the Epistle of Paul to, professes to of the Hebrew pitdah, in Exodus xxviii. li. have been written by Paul, a servant of God Job xxviii. 19. Ezek. xxviii. 13. and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to Titus, his TOPHET (H. a drum), the place in the own son after the common faith (i. 1-3), vale of Hinnom, on the south-east of Jeruat a time when the apostle looked for the salem, where children were offered to Mo. second appearance of Christ (ii. 13), and loch, and drums (hence the name) were before the time that he had determined to beaten to drown the cries of the innocent pass the winter at Nicopolis (iii. 12), where, sufferers (2 Kings xxiii. 10. Jer. vii. 31, on insufficieut grounds, it has been held the 32). letter was written. From the Epistle itself TORTOISE, the rendering, in Lev. xi. 29 it appears that Paul, having been in Crete of the Hebrew Isahv, the meaning of whicb and found there much disorder, to which he is not known, on which account Wellbeloved could not himself apply a remedy, left Titus preserves in his Translation the word itself. there in order to finish what he had begun; TOWN (T. connected with dun, 'a hill' and to aid him in this arduous office, he or “ascent'), originally a fortified dwelling. wrote to his fellow · labourer this Epistle, place, is a word which, taken in the general which, besides giving directions for the selec. sense of a residence of human beings, stanis tion and appointment of church officers, con- for several Hebrew terms: namely, I. Geer, tains specific exhortations to Titus himself, from a root signifying 'to surround,' is useii and through him to the churches in the is- of the first city on record—that built by Cain land (i. 5), bearing immediately on their (Gen. iv. 17). II. Kiryah, of similar import moral wants, dangers, and duties.

(Numb. xxi. 28. Job xxxix. 7). III. Bath. That the object, tone, aud tendency of the properly daughter' (Gen. xxv. 20), and composition are worthy of Paul, and such as denoting suburbs or small dependent towns might have proceeded from his pen, cannot or villages (Josh. xv. 45, 47). IV. Havors be denied, nor ought we to allow the impres. (1 Kings iv. 13), ‘hamlets' (Judg. x. 4, sion in favour of its authenticity thence de. marg.; comp. Numb. xxxii. 41). V. Hatsehr, rived to be rendered faint, still less to be a walled town' (Gen. xxv. 10), signifying effaced, by our want of materials for confi. an enclosed place, hence 'court' (Exod. dently setting forth the outward relations xxvii. 9; xxxv. 17). VI. Prahsohn, from s under which the Epistle came into exist- root meaning that which is broad, open, un

confined, and hence villages or unwalled Those outward relations are now hidden towns (Judg. v. m. | Sam. vi. 18). VII. in perpetual obscurity. With them, conjec- Djetzorah, a fenced city' or stronghold ture has been more busy than successful. (2 Chron. xi. 10; xii. 4), such as that exhiLardner thinks that Paul, in his third mis- bited in the ensuing views of Jerusaleır., sionary journey, visited Crete on his leav. with its hills, valleys, and walls. ing Ephesus for Macedonia (Acts xix. xx.). The facts here presented show is that Paley, proceeding on the notion, which has human abodes in Canaan were either ham. 10 ground in Scripture, thut Paul suffered lets, villages, enclosed towns, with, in some two imprisonments in Rome, advances the cases, their dependencies, or strong and for. supposition that after his liberation in that tified cities. Towns were obviously secure capital, the apostle took Crete on his way places where the more civilised few took up 10 Asia. Hug assigns the time when Paul, their abode, and developed their resources in his second tour, passed from Corinth under such cover as locality (on eminences) to Ephesus, fixing on Nicopolis, between and enclosures might afford them against Antioch and Tarsus, as the place to which the yet barbarous or semi-barbarous multiTitus was to come. Credner, thinking that tude. In such places also protection was the letter bears in its substance tokens sought against invaders. Originally every of a later state of mind, devies that it was town was an enclosure, if not a fortification written by Paul. On the other hand, it (Numbers xxxii. 17). Hence places where may be satisfactorily maintained that the civilisation is known to have fourished in sute of opinion, and especially the state of early periods were strongholds, or protected morals implied in it, is such as is known by strongholds, as Tyre (Joshua xix. 29. to have anciently prevailed in Crete. See 2 Sam. xxiv. 7). Hills were naturally chosen the article.

as sites. Palestine afforded in this partiTOGARMAH, the third son of Gomer, cular peculiar opportunities. And the conlossendant of Japheth (Gen. x. 3). "They sequent strength of the towos of the Cana

ence.

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