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The En-soph originally manifested itself by man contains really. By his living principle putting forth a first principle, the prototype man belongs to the world Asiah; by the of creation, or Macrocosm, which is termed soul or breath, to the world Yezirah; and the Son of God, or the primitive man, Adam by the intellectual principle or mind, to the Kadmon. This is the human figure which world Beriah ; the last is a portion of the in the vision of Ezekiel soars above the divinity, and as such pre-existent. Van, animals (i. 26, 27). From Adam Kadmon then, is composed of two principles-a good emanated the creation in four degrees or and a bad one. It is his duty to give to the worlds, the first of which represents the former dominion over the latter. After death operating qualities of Adam Kadmon, that he is rewarded according to his works; for is, powers or intelligences proceeding from the mind, Neshamah, is immortal. him, and forming at once his essential qua. These pretended explanations increase the lities and the instruments with which he difficulties they are intended to remove, and works. These qualities are in number ten, only serve to exemplify the folly of attempi. and form the Sephiroth, composed of two ing to dive into the Divine Essence. The sacred numbers-three and seven. The three transition from mind to matter, from absofirst Sephiroth are intellectual, the seven lute good to evil, remains enveloped in an others are only attributes. This is the order impenetrable veil. At least, in its results, in which they emanate one from the other. the system wholly departs from the Mosaic

doctrine and ends in pantheistic mists. In1

stead of God creating all things by his will, we find a system of unintelligible emanations proceeding by some directing fate from we knew not what deified nature.

TRANSFIGURATION, THE, is an important event in the history of our Lord, which is clearly related by three evangelists (Matt. xvii. 2, seg. Mark ix. 2, seq. Luke in ?8, seq.). Matthew and Mark agree in statiog hat Jesus, taking with him Peter, James, and John, withdrew up into a high moun. tain, where he was transfigured; when, ac. cording to the latter, his raiment became white as snow, and according to the former, besides this, his face did shine as the sun. Luke, not using the term 'transfigure,

states that while Jesus was on the mount in 10

prayer, the appearance of his countenance

became different, and his raiment was white Their names are, I. Kether, crown; II, like lightning. Whence it appears that our Hocmah, wisdom; III. Binah, intelligence; Lord underwent externally a change which IV. llesed, grace; V. Gevourah, strength; made his face and his raiment assume an VI. T'iphereth, beanty; VII. Nezach, triumph ; unwonted brilliancs-a brilliancy which is VII. Hod, glory or majesty; IX. Yesod, represented by that of lightning and that of foundation; X. Malcouth, kingdom. Here we the sun. These facts are in general well and the ‘Powers' of Pbilo and the Æors of represented by the term 'transfigured,' which the Gnostics.

in the original strictly signifies a change of This primary world put forth Beriah, cre- form, but is also used of an internal change, tion; that is, the beginning of creation. The as in the transformed' of Rom. xii. 2, and substances of this second world are all the changed' of 2 Cor. iii. 18. The existspiritual; but not having emanated imme. ence of the word in these two passages, diately from En-soph, they are inferior to showing on the part of Paul a reference to Sephiroth. From them, however, comes Ye. the transfiguration, proves that the event was zurah, formation, the world ; which contains known and recognised in the primitive church. angels, incorporeal beings surrounded by An express allusion also is made to it in an a luminous medium; also Asiah, fubrication; Epistle whose authenticity has been qnesthe last emanation, containing bodies subject tioned (2 Pet. i. 17, 18), but whose date tu continual variations, which are born and cannot be placed long after the apostolio perish, rise and fall. To this belongs all age. that is of a material nature. This lowest The event whose existence and nature are world is the seat of evil.

thus made clear, had doubtless a significant Man by his nature partakes of the three import. Peter speaks of then beholding the created worlds, and is on that account majesty of Jesus, as well as hearing the termed Microcosm, Olan Katan, or little Divine attestation as recorded in the Gospels, universe ; for all that Adam Kadmon, or Ma. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am crocosm (great universe), contains virtually, well pleased; hear ye him.' On the occa

iii. 5)

sion, there were present forms which were be gone. Some time must be spent in minis. in some way known to be those of Moses tering in the towns which he was now visiting, and Elijah. Of these two emblems of the and after this a long journey was to be acold and vanishing dispensation, Moses re- complished from Cesarea Philippi south to presented the Law, aud Elijah the Prophets. Tabor. It does not appear that six days They are seen in friendly couverse with could have allowed time for all these events. Jesus. Thus is there intimated that the Moreover, when Christ descended from the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel, are three mountain after the transfiguration was over, ministering spirits sent forth of God on the we are told that a great multitude met Him, same benign erraud, namely, to instruct, and amongst the crowd was a certain man who reconcile and save the world. The whole had brought to Him his child possessed of a transaction, in harmony with the Eastern devil, for the purpose of being cured, a circummethod of teaching by actions and symbols, stance which implies that the Saviour bad been seems to be a striking and impressive lesson some time in the neighbourhood, and that His given to the three chief apostles, designed presence there was well known. This view of and specially fitted to transform their minds, the matter is confirmed, too, by the terms by divesting them of their Jewish notions, which the evangelists employ to describe the and making them aware of the spiritual aims subsequent movements of the disciples. We and tendencies of the Messiah's kingdom ; are told that, after the transfiguration, they and, as subsidiary to this purpose, to ex- departed thence, and passed tbrough Galilee,' hibit Moses and Elijah as in accordance and he came to Capernaum.' The phrase with Jesus, and Jesus himself as the object passing through Galilee is admirably fitted to of God's special approbation. Such an describe a journey from Cesarea Philippi to the event is in spirit and result entirely con. lake of Gennesareth; but such a phrase would gruent with Christianity, whose chief aim is have been altogether improper if applied to the the renewing of the soul of man (Col. iii. 10. short distance between Tabor and Capernaum; 2 Cor. iv. 16. Rom. xii. 2. Tit. iii. 5. John and we may reckon it almost certain that such

This renewal is by the transfigura- a phrase would not bave been employed in retion strikingly and solemnly presented in ference to such a journey by a native of the Jesus, who thus stands at the head of his country, and especially by those who on all church, a grand symbol of the one needful occasions in speaking of the journeyings of the change. The Transfiguration holds the mid- Saviour have used terms characterised by the dle place between the Temptation and the highest degree of topographical accuracy and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, being one of precision. In fine, provided the transfigura. the three great events which in a marked tion took place on Tabor, Christ, after departmanner illustrate the development of the ing from Cesarea Philippi, of which no notice gospel on earth, and the disclosure of the is given, must have passed to the south of Caper. majesty' of its divine promulgator. naum, (for Tabor is situated about twenty

The editor, after mature consideration of miles south-west of that town,) and, after the the point, is of opinion that the transfiguration transfiguration, retraced His steps and ar. could not have taken place on Tabor but on rived at Capernaum, in which case He Hermon. On this question he has expressed must have gone about forty miles out of His bimself as follows in the Modern Judea.' way, for the sole purpose of being transfigured

All the evangelists who speak of the trans- on this mountain, a supposition not very pro. figuration have connected it at the distance of bable. six days with the disclosure Christ made to TREES in Palestine were of old far more his disciples of his approaching death ; this abundant than they are now, when the land disclosure He made while He and they were wears a bare appearance from want of wood. on their way northwards from the lake of In the period of Hebrew prosperity, the coun. Gennesareth to the towns of Cesarea Philippi, try was adorned with the tall and graceful the populous region at the sources of the Jor- cypress, the palm with its branching head, dan; and the following considerations will the outspreading fig, the bushy white mul. satisfy us, we think, that the transfiguration berry, the handsome terebinth, the long-lived took place on some high mountain in tbis cedar, various species of oak, with other trees; neighbourliood, to which Christ led His dis

to say nothing of many shrubs and plants. ciples apart by themselves, and was trans- In Ecclesiasticus xxiv. 13, seq. is an enufigured before them. On the one hand, six meration of many Palestinian trees, to each of days do not appear too many for Christ to which in turn Wisdom compares herself:-spend ministering in the towns of Cesarea "I was cxalted like a cedar in Libanus, and Philippi. And on the other, they appear too as a cyprus-tree upon the mountajus of Herfew to have all the circumstances bappen mon. I was exalted like a palin-tree in En. which must have taken place between the gaddi, and as a rose-plant in Jericho, as a conversation regarding his death and the fair olive-tree in a pleasant field, and grew transfiguration, provided that event took up as a plane-tree by the water. As the tur. place on Tabor. That portion of the journey pentine-tree I stretched out my branches, which remained after the conversation was to and my branches are the branches of honour

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and grace. As the vine brought I forth plea- walnut-tree sometimes joins with the oak to sant savour, and my flowers are the fruit of overshadow the streams beyond Jordan.' We houour and riches.' Some, perhaps many, also cite these words from Robinson: "We trees not mentioned, or at least not recog. stopped for lunch a few rods short of the nised in the Bible, originally adorned the village (Jufna), under a large walnut-tree, surface of Palestine. Of these we may men. Jike the English waluut, the first we had tion the walnut - tree, which was seen by It was growing within the precincts Olin (ii. 418) near Safed, in Galilee. Early of an ancient church. Under the tree, a in May, according to Kitto (“Palestine,' 250), small enclosure contains an altar on which “large walnut-trees may be seen bending to mass is still sometimes celebrated' (iii the ground under their loads of fruit. The 78).

.

seen.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed]

A. Almond

D. Orange.
B. Box.

E. Oleander
C. Fig.

F. Cactus.

G. A young Juniper. It was truly a delight to think that, be- Here it was—on the banks of Elisha's stream, sides the palm, and the oleander, and the now called Ain Sultan (near Jericho). The prickly pear, he (Jesus) knew as well as we clear, rushing waters flowed away under the do the poppy and the wild rose, the cyclamen, spreading branches of gnarled old trees, and and the bind-weed, the various grasses of there were thickets beyond where the mules the way-side, and the familiar thorn.' and horses could scarcely force their way.

*Till now we had not seen forest scenery. The green and golden sheeted lights and

• As

broad shadows on the stream, were to our Joseph. Antiq. v. 1, 22), exerted but little eyes like water to the desert traveller. binding influence on the people at large dur. You Like It' was in my head all day, for ing the disturbed era of the Judges, in con. here was an exact realisation of my concep- sequence of the strong counteractions it had tion of the forest - haunts of Rosalind and to withstand from the Canaanites, who not Jaques' (Martineau, “Eastern Life,' iii. 31, only dwelt in the land, but kept the several 142).

tribes apart one from another. The defective TRIBES (L. tribus), representing (Gen. union occasioned weakness and brought on xlix. 28) the Hebrew shevet, which, accord- national thraldom. The division into tribes, ing to its import, is (10) translated sceptre' however, remained in existence, and when royand 'rod' (Levit. xxvii. 32), are family divi- alty was set up, afforded effectual aid in pro. sions of men that grew naturally out of the moting the national unity; while doing which, patriarchal mode of life, were among the ear- it grew in strength itself, and afforded a spe. liest fixed states in which society was found, cies of representative organisation, which on and have always prevailed in the East, where occasions displayed both power and vigour the most aucient usages have from age to (1 Samuel x. 20, seq. 2 Samuel iii. 17, age been preserved and transmitted. In

seq.; v. 1, seq. ) Kings xii. 2 Chron. xxiv. agreement with other Oriental peoples—as, 17). Before the exile, the tribes kept their for example, the Edomites (Gen. xxxvi.), and separate existence; but after that event the the Isbmaelites, or Arabs (xxv. 12, seq. ; tribal division disappears. Families hencecomp. xvii. 10)-the Hebrews, of an Ara- forth formed the basis of genealogies (Ezra maic nomad race, were in the fourth gene- viii. Nehem. vii.), and their heads were the ration divided into twelve families, according representatives of the nation (x.). But to the names and descendants of the twelve though the tribes as compact civil divisons of Jacob (xlix. 28). These sons were, sions had vanished, yet individuals, froin Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Is. genealogies or tradition, retained a knowsachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph, ledge of the tribes to which they belonged Benjamin. Of these, Levi was not reckoned (Luke ii. 36. Acts xiii. 21. Romans xi. 1); as a tribe, because the Levites had no por- and in the hopes connected with the Mes. tion in the soil of Canaan. Joseph was di. siah, the twelve tribes remained as the reprevided into two, Ephraim and Manasseh sentative of the nation and the basis of the (xlviii. xlix. 28). Four of these sons had expected kingdom (Matt. xix. 28. Apoc. v. slaves for their mothers, namely, Dan, Napha 5, 9; vii. 4, seq.). tali, Gad, and Asher. Each tribe was di. The division into tribes, in connection vided into families, and each family into with the partition among them of the land honses (Numbers i. 2, 18). At the head of of promise, made family registers, as the each tribe was its prince (16). Next stood ground and evidence of family and indivi. the heads of their fathers' houses (Exod. vi. dual rights, of the greatest consequence, and 14. I Chron. v. 15). The highest officer accordingly they became the foundation of was called 'chief over the chief' (Numb. Hebrew history. See GENEALOGY. iii. 32). So among the modern Bedouins In Matt. xxii. 24, the law of Moses is we find emirs, sheikhs, and fathers.

spoken of which requires the brother of a As representatives of the tribes there ap. deceased man, dying childless, to marry his pear, now the twelve triba! princes of Israel widow and raise ap seed to his brother,' or (i. 44), now the heads of the fathers' houses beget children, which should be accounted not (Josh. xiv. 1). Sometimes, without special his own, but his brother's. Many Jewisle reference to the distinction of tribes, the ordinances had for their aim to keep the Hebrews are represented by their elders tribes separate from each other, and the (Exod. iii. 16).

whole nation separate from the rest of the During the wandering in the desert, the world. Such was the purpose of the require. tribes were divided into fonir classes, each of ment-called the law of the Levirate-meuwhich contained three tribes. The head of tioned above. The marriage of a widow by the first class was Judah, with whom were her brother-in-law was accomplished withIssachar and Zebulun; the head of the se- out much ceremony, because the widow of a cond was Reuben, with whom were Simeon brother that had died without children beand Gad; the head of the third was Eplıraim, came forth with the wife of that relative. with whom were Manasseh and Benjamin; Nevertheless, custom required that the union the head of the fourth was Dan, with whom should be acknowledged before two wit. were Asher aud Naphtali (Numb. x. 13, seq. nesses, and that the brother gave the widow See CAMP). In the division of Canaan, two a piece of money. Some are of opinion that tribes and a half settled on the east and nine after the exile in Babylon the law was no and a half on the west of the Jordan (for the longer observed, because the possessions of several localities, see the names and consult the trives were not distinct from each other. the Maps). The tribal system being thus It is said that the German and Italian Jews transported from Egypt, where it was found by do not, or very seldom, act in accordance Moses, into Canaan (Josh. xiii, seq; comp. with its

From the Book of Ruth it appears that out of an old heathen temple, a temple after the law (Deut. xxv. 5, seq.) extended beyond the model of (but on a smaller scale) the brothers to kinsinen, the nearest of which national sanctuary at Jerusalem. This was bad the right of preference, which he was to accomplished under the direction of a priest exert by redeeming the inheritance (iii. 12, named Onias, who emigrated thither from 13; iv. 3, 10). This usage prevailed before Palestine. The temple and its worship foit received from Moses the sanction of law imented jealousies among the Israelites, and (Gen. xxxviii. 8).

were destroyed by the Romans under Vespa"To the twelve tribes which are scattered sian (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 9, 7. J. W. vii. 10, abroad,' is the catholic Epistle of James ad. 3). Alexander settled in his new city, Alex. dressed (i. 1). The original literally runs andria, a considerable number of Jews, girthus - To the twelve tribes which are in ing them equal rights with the Greek inhathe dispersion. Tbis dispersion, which we bitants. Under the first Roman emperors thus see comprised members of the whole the Egyptian Jews lived in happy circumnation, is indicated also in the words the stances, though their liberties were some. strangers,' that is, Jews sojourning in foreigu times invaded by the Greek population, and lands, scattered throughout' (literally, ‘of Augustus saw himself obliged to protect the the dispersion ‘) Pontus, Galatia, Cappado Jews of Cyrene by a special edict (Antiq. cia, Asia, and Bithynia.' The term disper. xvi. 6, 1). But the Jews in Egypt became sion, diaspora, became the recognised Greek more and more disliked Uuder Caligula, word for designating the Jews who dwelt those of Alexandria were insulted and as. beyond the limits of Palestine (John vii. 35; sailed, tbeir synagogues destroyed, and their literally, the dispersion of the Greeks'). And rights annihilated. The Roman commander, we bere (comp. Acts ii. 5) find an historical Flaccus Avilius, took part with their bitter implication that in the days of the apostles enemies. The entreaties of Herod Agrippa, there were members of the Hebrew nation in who acquainted the emperor with these cruel every nation (then known to be) under hea. persecutions, caused only a momentary dis ven. The implication of the New Testament continuance of them. The quarrel grew is confirmed by fact. Scarcely was there, worse ; and even an embassy to the emperor, then, any civilised part of the ancient world conducted by the well-known Philo, Lad in which Jews were not found. These so. nothing but scorn for its result. journers in the dispersion' may be arranged Caligula died, and the Egyptian Jews dres in four groups :-1. The Jews in Assyria, breath. Under Claudius, they regained li. Media, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Persia berty (Antiq. xix. 5, 2). But when Nero (Joseph. Antiq. xv. 3, 1), were derived from had assumed the purple, the old hatred rethose Israelites who in the Babylonish exile vived. Blood and massacre ensued, and at had been transplanted to Eastern lands, where length the temple at Leontopolis fell. In the difference which had existed in Palestine the days of their prosperity, the Jews of between Judah and Israel gradually disap. Alexandria had several synagogues. Two of peared (see CAPTIVITY), and where many the five sections of the city were inhabited Thousands continued to live, apparently in almost exclusively by Jews, who formed prosperous circumstances. They kept up nearly a moiety of the inhabitants. An ecwith their mother country a religious con. clesiastical connection with Jerusalem was nection by the regular transmission of the sustained. The Alexandrine Jews had, with annual temple-tax, or half-shekel per head those of Cyrene (derived from Egypt), a sy. (xviii. 9, 1). A Babylonian Jew was once nagogue of their own in the common metrohigh-priest in Jerusalem (xv. 2, 4, and 3, 1). polis (Acts vi. I), and both of them paid the Their freedom was guaranteed by Alexander annual temple dues (Antiq. xvi. 6, 1). The the Great. They were favoured by the Seleu. Jews of Alexandria made the Greek language cide, since by martial services they promoted their own, and employed it in their worship as the views of those monarchs. II. Next in well as in ordinary life. They also cultivated antiquity and importance is the colony in the Greek philosophy, which fourished in Egypt whither, from the commencement of that famous seat of learning The Alexanthe regal period, the Israelites look refuge, drine rabbis held a high position among and where from time to time numbers of the most learned men of their nation, and them settled, under the generally favouring formed a species of religious philosophy auspices of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy Phila- based on the allegorical interpretation of delphus (284 A.C.) procured at great cost their sacred books. Of this system Philo's u Greek translation of the Pentateuch, which writings present a specimen. III. The Sy. became the germ of the Septuagint version rian dispersion mainly consisted of Jews who, of the Old - Testament Scriptures. Under from the time of Seleucus Nicator (cir. 300 Ptolemy Philometor (180-115 A. C.) and A. C.), bad migrated into Syria. Under that Cleopatra, the Egyptian Jews enjoyed prog- monarch, they enjoyed equal liberties with perity, being influential at court and bolding the Macedonians in Antioch and other cities high places in the army. They were also al. (Antiq. xii. 3, 1). Succeeding princes, eslowed to build for themselves ai Leontopolis, cept Antioohus Epipbaues, stowed favour

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