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to the Jews (J. W. vii. 3, 3), who lived in On the following day, as early as the comprosperity, attempted to make proselytes, mencement of the morning sacrifice, the mul. were numerous in Damascus, and had in titude streamed towards the gate of Ephraim, Antioch a president or patriarch of their by which the victorious army was to enter. own (ii. 20, 2). By degrees, however, they The streets of the new city and the lower incurred the haired of the people, which city, as far as tive castle Baris, were strewed broke out under Nero, and grew more bitter and more baneful under Vespasian. By Titus, however, were the Jews received into favour. From Syria, Jews migrated into Asia Minor. Antiochus Deus granted citi. zenship to the Jews in Ionia (Antiq. xii. 3, 2). Antiochus the Great transported from Babylonia and Mesopotamia into Phrygia and Lydia, which he had conquered, 3000 Jewish families (Antig. xii. 3, 4). We find in Jo. sephus (Antiq. xiv. 10; xvi. 6) a series of decrees issued by Julius Cæsar and Augustus to the chief cities of Asia Minor, namely, Ephesus, Sardis, Laodicea, Halicarnassus, &c., in which are secured to the Jewish resi: with fragrant flowers ; tapestry of various codents the undisturbed practice of their reli- lours hung from the parapets of the roofs, gion, commonly also exemption from mili

and banners were displayed from the alijahs ; tary service, with permission to send first

while on the pinnacles of the temple were fruits and the temple-tax to Jerusalem. iv. hung the curtains which in former year's Froin Asia Minor, Jews passed over into had closed the entrance of the sanciuary. Europe, especially Greece (John vii. 35) and A chorus of virgins passed out at the gate Macedonia; in all the chief cities of which, of Ephraim, under a splendid triumphal arch, especially those on the coast, we find, in the

to meet the victorious army.-Messengers days of the apostles, resident Jews with their were hastening to and fro, the crowd insynagogues, or at least proseuchai, oratories creased, and every one was endeavouring to or houses of prayer (Acts xvi. seq.). Before find himself a commodious place. The mu. the time of Pompey, Rome and Italy had no

sic of the temple was heard between. Saliu Jews. But from captives set free, and im. had secured one of the highest places for his migrants from Palestine, Greece, and other inasters, from which the whole scene lay parts, there grew up in Rome a large Jewish before their eyes. In this way several hours population, who dwelt in a quarter of the had passed. The messengers, mounted on city beyond the Tiber by themselves. They horseback, went and returned more frequently. enjoyed full religious liberty, and were not

At length from thousands of voices was beard without success in making proselytes. They the exclamation, 'They come! The chorus must soon have acquired substance, since of virgins arose, with their psalteries and their payments to the temple at Jerusalem tabrets, and sung in bold strains the valour amounted to a considerable sum. They were of the conquerors, the fall of Samaria, and expelled the city under Tiberius, and again the mercy of Jehovah to his people. When under Claudius (Acts xviii. 2). The great they reached the advanced guard of the importance of this wide and extensive dis- army, way was made for them, till they persion of the Hebrew race, not only for re

reached the car on which the youthful Mac. Jigion, but civilisation, can here be only al

cabees were seated. Standing before it, they luded to; but the facts connected with it began an ode, the burthen of which recalled combine to offer a striking illustration of the immortal song of Miriam, the sister of the working of Divine Providence in pre. Moses, the first of the female singers of paring the way for Christ.

Israel: TRIUMPH (L.), the pompoas procession 'Sing unto Jehovah, for he has triumphed gloof a victorious Roman general on his return

riously; home, in which objects and persons that he

He hath filled Samaria with trenches of water!' had captured, and that were most fitted to * Then the hymn took up the praises of the add splendonr to the show and to the con- princes, and the warriors, and the whole queror's reputation, were openly displayed people, and the defeat of Samaria ; and at (see Page 223). Hence some striking the close of every strophe, all, with united allusions are borrowed in the New Testament voice and instruments, raised the chorus of (Coloss. ii. 15. Ephes. iv. 8; comp. Heb. Miriam. The victorious princes thanked the ji. 9).

virgins, who advanced before them to the A triumph, such as it may have been in triumphal arch at the gate of Ephraim. Here Jerusalem during the Maccabean period, is, stood the high-priest, with the whole of tho with its accompaniments, described in He. Sanhedrim, and a great multitude of the lon's ‘Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. (ii. 50, seq.): priests and levites. Priests, warriors, and citizens, listened to the psalm in silent vene- pent-house, and thus driven with great force ration. The aged man who wore the in- against the walls. The people, crowded be. siguia of the high-priest's office, looked at hind, closed the whole procession. Wher times with moistened eyes upon the car in they arrived at the castle of Baris, the youth. which his sons were seated, us if the remem. ful warriors entered their father's palace, brance of his own youthful heroism revived and the army dispersed itself through the in his mind, and as if he would have said, city.' •My Aristobulus, my Antigonus, sons of TROAS, a district in Mysia, in Asia Minor, Mattathias, noble Maccabees, perform deeds called also Alexandria, in honour of Alexin Israel like those of the brethren Judas ander the Great, now Eski-Stambul; also a and Jonathan! When the psalm was ended, Roman colony, on an elevation opposite the he approached his sons; they descended island Tenedos, on the coast of the Ægean from their chariot, and hastened to throw sea, six bours from the famous Troy (Acts themselves into the arms of their father, xvi. 8, 11; xx. 5, seq. 2 Cor. ii. 12. 2 Tim. who embraced and blessed them. The mu. iv. 13). sic began again; the triumphal procession TROGYLLIUM, a small town of Ionia, arranged itself and advanced through the on the promontory Mycale (Acts xx. 15). city, which resounded on every side with TROPHIMUS, of Ephesus, & convert and songs of congratulation. The maidens, with companion of Paul (Acts xx. 4; xxi. 29. their tabrets and psalteries, headed the pro- 2 Tim. iv. 20), who is said to have been cession; they were followed by a multitude ceheaded under Nero. of victims for the sacrifice, adorned with TRUMPETS were among the Israelites flowers, branches, and fillets, desigued to be used both in divine ervice and in war offered as a thank-offering on the morrow. (Numb. X. 2-10; xxix. 1. I Cbron. sr. Then came the prisoners in fetters, and the 28). See CÆSAR, Music. huge elephants which had been taken from From Matt. vi. 2, we learn that the Pharithe Syrians. Each of these animals bore a sees carried their love of display so far, that wooden tower upon his shoulders, in which when they performed acts of ontward good. were thirty-two warriors, besides the Ethio. ness, they sounded a trumpet in the synapian who guided him. After these came the gogues and in the streets. The words are high priest, with the Sanhedrim, the priests, illustrated by what Chardin says of the der. the levites, and the temple-music. The two vishes or begging monks in the Esst, who sons of Hyrcanus, on their car, formed the had long ram's horns, on which, when they centre of the procession, and after them came had received alıns, they blew in honour of the military music of flutes, horns, aduffs, the giver. Perbaps beggars among the auand trumpets. The army itself followed, cient Jews carried such horns, and received adorned with branches of laurel and palın. aid, in consideration of the honour they thus First came the heavy-armed infantry, with paid to their benefactors, who might.gire a shields and lances, in companies of bun preference to those who were most prompt dreds and thousands. They had no upper and loud in these tokens of praise. Moslems, garment, and their under garment, which at their festival in the month Moharram, are was girt up short, was of various form and said to invite the poor to receive alms by the colour, as the fancy of each individual dic. sound of a trumpet. In Rev. iv. I, reference tated; but all had a sword hanging at their is probably made to the custom of the Jewish girdle; their feet and arms were protected church, that when the doors of the temple by metal greaves and arm-pieces, the body were openerl, the priests blew their trumpets, was covered with a coat of mail, the head in order to call the people to the public with a helmet, and over the back hung the service. large shield. The light-armed infantry fol. TRUTH (T. treue, 'faithful'), from its lowed in the same manner, but with less derivation, seems to denote a faithful recumbrous defensive weapons, and slings, port; that is, a statement in which our bows and darts for offence. The cavalry words correspond to our ideas (Matt. xxi. were few in number and lightly armed. The 16). This is relative truth. When our ideas Jewish State had never maintained any large correspond with the realities which they are force of this description. The military en- intended to represent, we possess absolute gines followed, of which the Israelites bad truth (Joha xvi. 7. Rom. ix. 1. Mark ai. learnt the use from the Phænicians and 32). In its bighest condition, absolute truth Syrians; catapults, bows which were bent is possessed only by the Infinite Intelligence. by machinery, and threw beams of wood to a Men, however, by the diligent and loving great distance; balistæ, levers with one arm, cultivation of relative truth, may acquire all which hurled masses of stone of many huu. that is needful for life and godliness while dred weight into a fortress; battering-rams, they prepare for fuller disclosures of light in consisting of the truuks of trees, armed at the future world. Heuce truth has two the extremity with an iron head of a ram, sources, which, agreeing so far as they go swung ia chains, which were set in motion in disclosures and evidence, gradually pass by warriors, who stood beneath a moveable one into the other, and so fill, enlighten, and refine the human mind. These two sources they would have been more enlightened, are, (I.) the mind of man and (II.) the excite. and a knowledge of God's will would have inents to which it is subjecteil, independently made them truly free, while in their bodies of itself, inclusive of the universe and the they have been the slaves of slaves, in conDivine Mind. As the latter has operated on sequence of the enthralment of their minds. the buman soul chiefly by means of religion, TOBAL-CAIN, the son of Lainech by so truth is in a peculiar sense identified with Zilla, and instructor of every artificer in ile gospel (Ephes, i. 13. John v. 33), or brass and iron. The name has been found ile doctrines, characters, and sympathies of by Buttmann in Vulcan of the Italian races, which the gospel consists (i. 11); bence also who first taught men to work in metals. with Jesus himself (xiv. 6) and the Divine Here may belong the Greek Telchin, who Spirit as the source of his and all truth (xiv. discovered the art of working in copper and 17; xv. 26). "He who doeth truth' (John iron. Dwalinn also is in Northern mytho. iii. 21), is eqnivalent to a sincere, honest, logy the name of the two demous who were faithful person. Truth, as God's word, has skilled in making arms. This quadruple & sanctifying effect (John xvii. 17), being agreement—Tubal-Cain, Dwalinn, Telchin, the good seed in good ground (Mark iv. 8), Vulcan-can scarcely be a result of mere and the good tree bringeth forih good fruit accident. (Matt. vii. 17); so that all real followers of TURTLES and TURTLE - DOVES, the Jesus love and promote the truth, to bear rendering, in Lev. xv. 14, 29. Jer. viii. 7, witness to which the Saviour was born (John of the Hebrew tohr, whose cooing, in union xviii. 37, 38). When our Lord made the with the glad and thrilling notes of the lark, declaratiou to which we have just referred, is referred to in Cant. ii. 12. Ten other Pilale asked, “What is truth?' Wus the ques. species of the columbide, or pigeon tribe, tion put in the love of truth? More pro


besides the turtle dove (collared turtle, cobably was it dictated by a sceprical and lumba risoria), are said to be found in Palestaunting spirit, such as at the time was pre. tine. See Dove. valent among Romans in the liigher ranks. TUTORS (L. tueor, I watch' or 'proPilate may have known enough of what was tect') is (Gal. iv. 2) the translation of the called philosophy to doubt or deny the ex- Greek epitropus, which signifies and is renistence of any but relative truth, and hence dered (Matt. xx. 8. Luke viii. 3) -stewar 1.' to be wholly indifferent to the qnestion in

See the article. debate between Jesus and his Sanliedrim. TYCHICUS, a faithful coadjutor of Paul, If this was his feeling, he would regard who accompanied the apostle to Jerusalem Jesus with scornful pity as a poor innocent (Acts xx. 4;

comp. Ephes. vi. 21, 22. Coloss. fanatie, fit to be suved from the rage of the iv. 7, 8. 2 Tim. iv. 12. Tit. iii. 12). priests if it could be safely done. And in TYRE, one of the famous commercial this state of mind, Pilute's question would cities of Phænicia, on the coast of the Mediintimate that there was no such thing as terranean (Ezek. xxviii. 3), and on the bor. tuis much-lebated and greatly-listurbing ders of Galilee, assigned to Asher, but not thing called truth. With au upturned lip conquered (Josh. xix. 29). Tyre surpassed and an eye lighted with scorn would he say, Sidon, its mother city, and had kings of its * Truth! Uke bauble! What is truth? a own (Jerem. xxv. 22; xxvii. 3). David and counter for amusement in the schools ; a Solomon were in friendly relations with its fountain of bitterness in the world. Learn king, Hiram (1 Chron. xiv. 1. 2 Samuel v. wisdom by looking to yourself, and leave 11. 1 Kings v.; vii. 13, 14, 40). Tyre was truth to take care of itself.' Whatever Pilate so rich and powerful (Zac. ix. 3. Hosea ix. thought, thus act many who, in prospect or 13), that it had colonies in very distant lands, in reality, eat the fat of the land as professed whose rulers were sometimes kivgs. Hence guardians of the temple of Christian truth. Isaiah (xxiii. 8) characterises Tyre as

Truth, intimates the Great Teacher, makes • The dispenser of crowns, men free (John viii. 32, 33). This is exem

Whose merchants are princes, plified in the slavery in which the Jews

Whose traders are the honourable of the earth.' remained, through spiritual blindness, at the With these dependent centres of trade very time when they thougbt they saw. Tyre kept up an intimate union, based on Though from the time of the Assyrian in. reciprocity of interests. In her fleets and in vasion they had been more or less under her armies many nations had their reprea foreign yoke, yet they maintained that they sentatives (Ezekiel xxvi. 4–11). But this were free (33). A trace of this national splendour brought moral corruption, which pride is found in Lam. v. 8, 'Slaves rule ended in the ruin of the state, as foretold over us.' Hence no Jew, on pain of excom- by the unerring tongue of prophecy (Isaiah munication, was to call another a slave. To xxiii. Ezek. xxvi.—xxviii. Joel iii. 4. Amos the present day every Jew in his morning i. 9, 10. Zech. ix. 2, 4). Its overthrow was prayer says, “Praised be thou, O Lord our accomplished by Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel God, who hast not made me a slave.' Hnd xxvi. 7 ; xxix. 18); but its remaining inha. the nation been less self-willed and obstinate. bitants built, on an island near the coast,

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New Tyre, which soon rose to eminence, serving any other name than boats. I to while the old city gradually sank into insig- still enclosed by the remains of an ancient nificance (Is. xxiii. 15, seq.). Alexander the wall. The massive foundations of the pier Great vanquished the new city, having con- rise several feet above the shallow water. structed a mole uniting the island with the At different points along this sea-wall are main land. Yet did Tyre, under Greek and large numbers of ancient columns and frag. Roman governors, maintain itself in some ments of columns. In several places, large prosperity. Jesus bimself preached in the pillars are built into the wall. vicinity (Mark iii. 8; vii. 24). Paul found 'The Ladder of Tyre,' said to have been there several steadfast believers (Acts xxi. constructed by Alexander the Great, is some 3, 4). Soon was there founded in Tyre a distance to the south of the modern town. Christiau bishopric, and the place retained It is an artificial descent from the White a name till the time of the crusades; but by Promontory,' which takes some half-bour of degrees it sank into ruins.

ascent along the steep and winding path In spite of a bright sun and clear blue leading over the ridge nearest the sea. From sky, nothing can be inore desolate than the the top there is an extensive view on both whole aspect of the modern Tsur, represent. sides across the whole extent of what was ing the renowned, opulent, and mighty Tyre; anciently called the Phænician Plain. Close her 'walls destroyed, her towers broken to the left, the cliffs beetle over the sea, at down. The present miserable village stands six or seven hundred feet above it, and on upon a small part of the east side of the the highest pinnacle of a narrow ledge of peninsula, the former island. The site is natural rock th parts the road from the low, and the flat-roofed honses appear to precipice, stands a small square tower, aprise out of the sea. Here, on a sickly spot, parently of ancient construction, now used are assembled about 3000 persons, who live as a khan. The shrieking of the sea-birds by fishing and a paltry trade with Egypt in that wing their way in the mid air, between tobacco. On all sides are ruins which indi. the brow of the mountain and the deep sea cate the former splendour of Tyre. 'I it overhangs, whose waves are heard moencounted' (Olin, ii. 446) not less than 200 ing faintly in the depths below, adds vasuy columns, entire or mutilated, scattered over to the bewildering grandeur of the scene. the site of the ancient city. They were of The coast and plain of Tyre are thus deall sizes and of various materials, but, for scribed by Robinson (iii. 383):—Here was the most part, large and handsome. Their a most extensive and magnificent view of the number and sumptuousness are well calcu. hills and plains, the coast and sparkling walated to fill us with lofty ideas of the gran- lers of the Mediterranean, on which last we deur and wealth of the former mistress of could distinguish several vessels under sail, the sea. The massiveness of the stones em- like white specks in the distance. Directly ployed in building the sea - wall is pretty before us, and the only object to break the conclusive evidence that this noble bulwark, monotony of the flat course itself, was Sur made for security against the violence of the and its peuinsula; while its plain and the elements, belongs to the early and prosper- lower region of hills, teeming with villages and ous days of Tyrian commerce.' According variegated with cultivated fields and wooded to this authority, the plain of Phænice at heights, were spread out before us in great dis. Tyre is about two miles wide. It begins tinctness and beauty. The path led us down, about eight miles south of Tyre, at a point after a great descent, into the head of the called Promontorium Album. Hence it ex. deep and narrow wady, Ashur. Its sides are tends northwards a little beyond Sidon, at thickly wooded with prickly oak, maple, artaining a length of about thirty miles. Its butus, sumac, and other trees and bashes, breadth is variable, never exceeding four or reaching quite down to the bottom, so thas five miles, and it is several times reduced we often travelled among trees. It reminded to nothing by the encroachments of the low me strongly of some of the more romantic mountains upon the coast. From one to valleys among the green mountains in Vertwo miles is its avernge breadth. The soil mont. Beneath the fine shades of this seis of a very dark colvur, and is very produc- questered dell we stopped for breakfast. The live when lilled, but for the most part it now morning was serene and beautiful; and as jies waste.

the journey of the day was to be short, we The port of Tyre, which of old contained gave ourselves up for a time to the luxury a navy, is copiracted and shallow, so as now of repose' to accommodate a few vessels scarcely de

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UNCLE (L. avunculus, “a mother's bro. UNICORN (L. one-horned) is, in Numb. ther;' corp. avus), meaning in English, a xxiii. 22. Deuter. xxxiii. 17. Job xxxix. y. brother of a father or a mother, stands for 10, &c., the rendering of the Hebrew rehm, the Hebrew dokd, which, from a root denot- *10 roar,' which the margin of Is. xxxiv. 7, ing affection' (comp. 'love' in Cant. i. 2, and other authorities, hold to be the rhinoand belovedi,' i. 11), is generally rendered ceros, but which may mean the buffalo. uncle' (Lev. x. 4; xx. 20; comp. Numbers Xxxvi. ll. 2 Kings xxiv. 17). Thus in Lev. X. 4, Uzziel is termed the uncle of Aaron, for he was the brother of Amram, who was Aaron's father (Exodus vi. 10, seq.). The ineauing of dohd is defined by Numb. xxxvi. 11, where Malah and other daughters of Zelophehad are said to be married to their father's brother's sons;' in the original, to

the sons of their uncle;' in the Septuagint, to their cousins;' in the Vulgate, to the sons of their uncle' (compare xxxvi. 1; xxvii.). This relationship of cousin was that which was borue by Esther to Mordecai. "Esther, his (Mordecai's) uncle's daugbter' (Esth. ii. 7); the daughter of Abihail, the uncle of Mordecai' (15). Esther, then, stood to Mor. decai in the relation of an uncle's daughter, and they were consequently cousins. So the Septuagint terms Esther the daughter of Aminidal, brother of his father' (7), and the daughte; of Aminidab, brother of the father of Mordecai. Esther and Mordecai were, accordingly, brother's children, or first cousins Commonly, however, Mordecai is regardea as Esther's uucle. Thus in Kitto's Wellbeloved, lowerer, thinks it probable Cyclopædia' we find, 'Esther was brought that the rhinoceros was intended. The exup by her uncle, Mordecai' (under Esther); istence of the unicorn, that is, an animal "his niece, Hadessa, otherwise Esther' (under having one horn, long held to be a mere Mordecai). So in the Penny Cyclopædia' creature of fable, is now beyond a doubt. she is termed his orphan niece;' and in Pliny describes it, under the name of nono. the · Pictorial Dictionary of the Bible' (art. ceros, unicorn, as an exceeding fierce aniEsther), the great niece of Mordecai;' also, mal, resembling a horse as to the rest of his in Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible,' Mor- body, but having a lead like a stag, the feet decai is declared to be her uncle by her like an elephant, and the tail like a wild father's side ;' and in the French work, Si. boar; its roaring is loud; and it has a black mou's Grand Dictionnaire de la Bible, horn of about two cubits projecting from the Mordecai is called Esther's "paternal uncle middle of the forehead.' . According to NieCoquerel (* Biographie Sacrée ') also calls buhr, the figure of the unicorn is depicted him her uncle: 'The error, which, consi- on almost all the staircases in the ruins of dering the express language of the English Persepolis (Reiseb. ii. 127). Bible, is a striking instance of the ease with which misapprehensions are propagated, ap. pears to have arisen from the Vulgate trans. lation, in which we read that Esther was the daughter of his (Mordecai's) brother' (7), * the daughter of Abihail, brother of Morde. cai.' From the Vulgate the mistake passed into Calmet's Dictionary, whence it was transplanted on all sides. Luther, however, in his translation of the Bible, has given the correct reading-'a daughter of his uncle' (7), the daughter of Abibail, the uncle of Mor. decai: (15); and in Prideaux's Connexion (ii. 350), Esther is termed his uncle's daughter.' See EstuER.



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