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and physiognomical characteristics. Forts sail. A figure is perched at the top of the are seen surrounded by their fosses, and short mast, perhaps to direct the movethese traversed by bridges. The ancientments of the men, or to pick off the officers Egyptian camp is drawn with interesting of the enemy with the sling. The Egyptian minuteness. Guards stand on either side galleys, known by the lion's head at the prow, the entrance. Within are seen in confusion advance in regular line; the bowmen dischariots, plaustra, sutlers, loose horses, oxen, charge their arrows, and the enemy are and the spoil taken from the enemy. Cam- thrown into confusion. Many are already paigns are represented by_successive pie- taken prisoners and handcuffed. The king, tures. The army leaves Egypt, meets and standing on several prostrate captives (Josh. routs the enemy, captures their forts, and at X. 24), shoots his arrows from the shore. length returns with triumphal pageantry to Within the palace, on the walls of the CaryaThebes, when the monarch presents his of- tic quadrangle, is represented a graxd pa. ferings to the gods, and receives their con- geant - a triumph, or, as has been supposed, gratulations.

à coronation. The king, seated on a canoSome of the most interesting of these pied chair of state, is borne along on the scenes are at the Memnonium, and comme- shoulders of twelve princes. A herald, readmorate the exploits of Rameses II. or Sesos. ing from an open roll, marches before, and tris. On one wing of the propylon, the proclaims perhaps his exploits, or his claims taking of several towns is represented, with 10 sovereignty. Priests, officers, and musidetails of barbarity. On the east wall of the cians, precede and follow; and some, at the second court, there is a grand battle-scene : side of the king, bear fans or flabella. In the enemy fly in disorder to a fortified city, advance, the god Khem, erect on a table or surrounded by a river. Some are seen platform, is borne in state by attendants. plunged in the water, contending with the The king re-appears in another part of the stream; others, almost exhausted, are drawn picture, now wearing the double crown, or out by their friends on the opposite bank. pshent; a long train of functionaries advance Another of these sanguinary scenes, within towards him with offerings and ensigns, and the hall of columns, represents the storming some carry statutes of his ancestors on their of a fort - a detached castle in two stories, shoulders; four birds are liberated as though on the summit of a conical rock, baitle- to carry important intelligence to the four mented, and surmounted by a standard. quartevs of the globe. The besiegers, under cover of their testudos Another picture in this court represents or large canopying shields, have advanced what may have been an ordinary scene after to the foot of the fortress; others, raised on a victory. The king is seated in his warthe top of the testudos, have planted a scal- car; his plumed and richly caparisoned ing-ladder against the wall, and gallantly steeds are held by attendants. The prisoners forced their way up the steep, in face of the are led up to him in files, their arms tied pikes of the enemy. The besiegers appear at together at the elbow over their heads, and the top behind the battlements, and make a in other attitudes of torture. An officer then determined defence. Some repel the fore- counts down in heaps before the king the most assailants with pike and spear; others hands of the slain ; and another enters their others hurl stones on those beneath.

numbers, amounting to some thousands, in At the grand palace of Medinet Haboo, a roll. The cut on the next page, taken we have more of these battles and triumphs; from a sculptured façade of an Egyptian records of the foreign conquests of Rameses temple, exhibits a monarch slaying his III. the contemporary of the Israelitish hero enemies in battle, erd is emblematical of Gideon. On the exterior, in a series of such regal power in confict with national foes. subjects, a naval fight is represented. The The original is a favourable specimen of combatants are in light boats with a single Egyptian art.


This engraving represents a stone, on mon, or a winged asp, and a goddess apwhich are cut the figures of Re, Agathodæ- parently with a frog's head; also, a Greek inscription on the reverse, which makes as exhibiting a specimen of Egyptian stone inention of Bait, Athor, and Akori - one of engraving. the Egyptian Triads. The stone is curious,

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CASEMENT (from the Latin capsa, Eng. A word of much later date, Kaveen, found lish case), a window; windows being in old in Dan. vi. 10, may, from a root signifying times a sort of case, such as what are called to hollow or open, mean 'windows,' especially oriel windows. The Hebrew word of which such as are like folding doors, which, when casement is a rendering (Prov. vii. 6), sig- drawn back, give a view out into the open nifies to knit or join together, and is best country. The last word rendered 'window'is represented by the word latlice, which stands Shekeph, whose root is found in our adopted in the English Bible for it, in the only other word, skeptic, being a term common to the place (Judg. v. 28) in which it is found; Indian and Shemitic languages. This word and where, from the usages of Hebrew poetry, properly means to look, to look narrowly, it is obviously synonymous with window. and, according to Jewish tradition, denotes

a The word rendered window' in this place, small window, through which one might look denotes a bow-window, from a root signify- without being seen. It is used of the wining to bulge out, - to be round. Another dows that Solomon made in the temple, and word for window, Arobah (Gen. vii. 11; for the house he made windows of narrow viii. 2. 2 Kings vii. 2. Eccl. xii. 3), seems lights' (1 Kings vi. 4; comp. Ezek. xl. 16; also to imply a kind of lattice, as it comes xli. 16), probably because he preferred the from a root which primarily means to 'dim religious light' which such would afford, weave. Windows,' in Isa. liv. 12, should to the blaze and glare which, in a Palesbe pinnacles or battlements. The window, tinian atmosphere, large windows would have Tzohar, which Noah was directed to make in caused. the ark (Gen. vi. 16), was clearly such, be- These verbal investigations have shown ing — from the meaning of the term, which, that the Hebrews had several kinds of casefrom a root signifying to shine, is generally ments

or windows, perhaps most of the kinds rendered 'noon, noonday' — intended, be which have been known in more recent days; yond a question, to give light

from the lattice or simple structure of crossed laths, through the oriel window of the orna- kinds of cassia, and that which bears the mental style of the middle ages, to the fold- name cinnamon, were very similar, and can ing or garden windows of more modern now be with difficulty distinguished. In luxury. That some of these were of glass, general they grew in India, especially in the is highly probable. Glass was known to the isle of Ceylon, consisted of the bark of Egyptians, and extensively used by them the corresponding trees, and were conveyed in early periods: the Hebrews could not to Palestine, up the Red Sea. • Cinnamon' have been ignorant of it, though its clear (Exod. xxx. 23. Prov. vii. 17. Cant. iv. 14), bright transparency would be against its ser. from a Hebrew word of the same form, may vice in giving light, both in Egypt and in have been the generic term. The three Palestine.

words would then represent three different CASLUCHIM (H.),— a people descended species of the same sweet smelling wood. from Mizraim, or Egypt, who are supposed Of these, the Kiddah appears to have been to have migrated hence, and settled on the the least valuable, and bore the name kitto coast of Syria, between Pbilistia and Egypt. among the Greeks, whose writers distinguish Bertheau considers the Casluchim and Caph- three kinds of cassia or cinnamon. At pretorim as two clans of the same tribe or peo- sent several sorts are known in commerce, ple. The Casluchim appear to have settled the best being imported from Ceylon: an inin Colchis before their migration into Syria. ferior kind comes from the Indian peninsula. Herodotus (ii. 104) makes the Colchians to Cassia bark is so much like that of cinnabe of Egyptian origin.

mon, as often, though inferior, to be sold CASSIA is the English rendering of two for it. Our cuts represent two species of Hebrew words (Ktzeegoth, Ps. xlv. 8; and cinnamon, of which the general resemblance Kiddah, Exod. xxx. 24. Ezek. xxvii. 19); will be obvious to the reader. which represent two aromatic substances The bark, which contains the fragrance, is mentioned in Scripture, with other odori- peeled cff when the plants are about six or ferous herbs, and employed among the seven years old, and exported in bundles of spices' for making the holy ointment;' quill-shaped pieces. also as scents for the person. These two

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KINNAMOMUM CASSIA. CASTAWAY (T.), - a term which Paul coin that endured the applied test was termed uses in relation to himself, ‘Lest I myself dokimos; one that failed in the trial was should become a castaway' (1 Cor. ix. 27). termed adokimos. Hence the several accep. The word here rendered • castaway,' is adoki- tations of the words. Dokimos, therefore, mos, which is made up of a, not, and dokiinos, signifies approved and accepted. In 1 Chron. approved. In order that the reader may cor- xxix. 4, the Hebrew word translated into rectly understand the meaning of the term English by "refined' ("refined silver'!, is

castaway,' he must be put into possession rendered by the Greek Septuagint, dokimos of the import, first of dokimos, and then of (sce also Gen. xxiii. 16. 2 Chron. ix. 17). its opposite, adokimos. Dokimos is a term Paul uses the word of a faithful servant of borrowed from the art of assaying or proving Christ — approved of men' (Rom. xiv. 18); metals; of trying, by certain tests or star. also in the sense of genuine, true (1 Cor. xi. dards, whether they are genuine, and whether 19. 2 Cor. x. 18; xiii. 7). He thus characthey are of the proper weight. A piece of terises Apelles as 'the approved in Christ;'


that is the proved and well-known disciple noting a sinall camp or fortification : hence. of Jesos. A dokimos is the reverse of doki- a fortified house or residence; a chateau. mos: hence it means, not approred, adul. In the present state of the English language, terale, bad (if money), and so rejected (2 castle' is applied only to a large pile of Cor. xiii. 5, 6, 7. 2 Tim. iii. 8), reprobate fortified and embattled buildings. It may concerning the faith,' that is, disapproved as be doubted if the word has exactly this innot genuine. In 1 Cor. ix. 27, however, a port in Scripture; for castles, in this sense of different allusion seems to have been in the the term, came in conjointly with the feudal apostle's mind. He is there speaking with ages; though fortresses, towers, strong holds, allusion to the contests at the Pythian games and fortified cities, are mentioned in the held on the Corinthian isthmus. If we sup- Bible. In some instances, the word 'castle' pose hiin, while so speaking, to have thought seems equivalent to the classic name acroof assaying metals in using the word adoki. polis, which signifies a fortified hill or emi. mos, we make him chargeable with a mixed nence, the original settlement and cradle of metaphor. Now, these games of which he a city (1 Chron. xi. 5, 7). The castle in the speaks, had their trials or examinations: Sacred Writings, with which it is important I. A trial to determine whether a person was that the student should be acquainted, is duly prepared, had gone through the required that into which Paul was carried by the self-discipline, so as to be fit to engage in the Romans, when rescued from the fury of his contest without disgrace to the occasion and excited countrymen (Acts xxi. 34, 37; xxii. to bimself: if it is in this sense the apostle 24; xxiii. 10). This was the Fort Antonia, uses the term adokimos, then 'cast away,' so named in honour of Mark Antony, by 0; ' rejected,' that is, 'refused permission King Herod, who constructed it out of an to coutend,' is the appropriate rendering. earlier stronghold, erected for the protection But, II. The contest itself was a trial, and of the temple by John Hyrcanus (135, A.C.). the great trial; and since Paul represents It stood at the north-western angle of the himself as having actually engaged in the race temple, and, from its position, must have (26, 27), he appears to have referred to this been intended to guard against internal comproof, and accordingly meant by adokimos, motion rather than external violence. Here, unworthy of the prize.' His words may be accordingly, was it that the Roman guard rendered, 'Lest when I have acted the part of had their head quarters, in the times of the kerald to others (in preparing them for, and New Testament. From the era of Hyrcanus, urging them to, the great Christian contest), here had the official vestments of the high I should lose the prize myself.'

priests, the Jewish regalia, been preserved, Two instances of rejection are spoken of as in a place of safety; which, however, the in the Bible. The rejection or reprobation Jews, under the Roman sway, found could of God's chosen people, the Jews; who, be converted into a place of detention. They being found adulterate or unfaithful, were therefore employed constant efforts until they cast away of God, so that now they- regained the custody of them in the days of "Outcasts of earth, and reprobate of heaven,

the President Vitellius. "The tower of AnThrough the wide earth in friendless exile stray,

tonia,' — says Josephus, — 'was situated at Remorse and shame sole comrades of their way; the corner of two cloisters of the court of the With dumb despair their country's wrongs belold, temple, of that on the west and that on And, dead to glory, only burn for gold.'

the north. It was erected upon a rock, Yet this rejection is not final. The Israel. fifty cubits in height, and was on a great ites were 'weighed in the balance, found precipice. Before you come to the tower wanting,' and cast away. But when at length itself, there was a wall three cubits high : they shall have been purified in the furnace within that wall, all the space of the tower of a fiction, they will be received of God, and Antonia itself was built upon, to the height so‘all Israel shall be saved' (Rom. xi. 26). of forty cubits. The inward parts had the The other instance of rejection appears from largeness and form of a palace; it being passages to which reference has just been parted into all kinds of rooms and other conmade, to be of individuals, and not of a na- veniences, such as courts and places for tion or a class. And analogy, as well as the bathing, and broad places for camps. As essential benignity of God, and the remedial the entire structure resembled a tower, it nature of his governnient, give reason to contained also four other distinct towers at think, that neither are these rejections final its four corners.

On the corner where it and irreversible; for, as the casting away of joined to the two cloisters of the temple, the Jews is the receiving of the Gentiles, it had passages down to them both, through and their fall the enriching of the world, how which the guard (for there always lay in this much more their fulness? (Rom. xi. 12, seq.) tower a Roman legion) went several ways when at length, under the benign providence

among the cloisters with their arms on Jew. of an Almighty Father, the last enemy shall ish festivals, in order to watch the people, be destroyed, and God be all in all (1 Cor. that they might not there attempt to make W. 26, 28)

any innovations; for the temple was a forCASTLE (L.), a diminutive of castra, de- tress that guarded the city, as was the tower

of Antonia a guard to the temple' (Jew. equal accordance is it, that when the ha. War, v. 3. 8.)

rangue was finished, the captain ordered Paul The last words are a striking comment on to be brought into the castle; the apostle being the record in which Paul's apprehension is already on or near the top of the stairs, Darrated. There we find the Roman guard where only could he have hoped to address making its appearance on a juncture of the the raging multitude in safety. Another invery kind spoken of by the Jewish historian. stance is found (xxii. 30), where Paul is Terms, too, are used in the Acts, which have brought down' to be set before the Jewish a peculiar propriety. The fort is spoken of Sanhedrim. And when a great dissension simply as the Castle,' — its ordinary name, arose in this grave council, the chief cap. the name by which it was generally kuown. tain, fearing Paul should have been pulled in A description of so well known a place was pieces of them, commanded the soldiers to not needful ; — but in what circumstances go down, and bring him into the castle.' To not needful? Josephus, in writing his his- say nothing of the faithful picture here given tory, judged a description needful, and gave the explosive turbulence of priest and one. Let the reader mark the difference people, we ask whether these verbal coincibetween the historian of the Book of Acts dences are not very remarkable? Whether and the historian of the Jewish War. The it is likely they would have existed, had not latter wrote for the Romans, and when Jeru- the author written from a knowledge of actual salem had been levelled to the ground. On facts? One, or even two such, might have these accounts a description was necessary. been ascribed to accident. Those which we Besides, Josephus was, so to speak, a profes- have indicated are too numerous and too sional historian, having such models as marked not to prove that Luke's narrative Thucydides and Livy before his eyes. Luke emanated from an eye-witness : not improwas a simple chrouicler, recording facts with bably, that eye-witness was the prisoner no other aim than to say the simple truth in himself, who had had good reason to be the fewest words. But had even so inartifi- minutely acquainted with the localities, and cial an author written when the Jewish whose language, in describing the events, temple and polity had come to an end, or would undesignedly take its shape from the written with a view to 'strangers and foreign- peculiar features of the several places. ers,' he would scarcely have failed to add, CASTOR AND POLLUX, the Latin names after the manner of Josephus, some expla- of the two brothers, sons probably of Leda natory details. A writer in these days, speak and Tyndareus, king of Lacedemon, where ing of London, and in the main to citizens the worship of these divinities seems to have of the metropolis, might with propriety talk had its origin. As children of Leda and of the Tower,' without risk of being mis. Tyndareus, Castor and Pollux were brothers understood; but if the city and the tower lay of the famous Helen, who is fabled to have in ruins, and if he had in view readers who caused the Trojan war. From their father were personally unacquainted with its locali. they received the patronymic of Tyndaridæ. ties and structures, he would then be drawn They also bore the name of Dioscouroi, th ac to enter into a description of the Tower,' is, sons of Zeus (Jupiter). Castor was disshould he have occasion to mention it. tinguished as a horseman, Pollux as a boxer.

This is a corroboration of the credibility Their character was essentially warlike, and of 'The Acts of the Apostles, on a minute, their appearance that of two young men unobvious, and therefore important point. on horseback, with spears in their hands, But the corroboration goes yet farther. The wearing helmets of the shape of an egg, and account in Josephus shows that the fort lay crowned with stars. on an eminence, and had a communication Omitting the general and somewhat conwith the courts of the temple by an ascent. tradictory accounts which we find respecting In the temple it was that the uproar against the Dioscouroi in classical mythology, we Paul began. His enemies dragged him from shall confine ourselves to a few leading par. the temple into its cloisters, or the immediate ticulars, which bear directly on the elucidevicinity. Hither came the Roman guard, and tion of Scripture. In a war between the bore Paul away. These particulars are con- Dioscouroi and the sons of Aphareus, which gruous with themselves, and with the record was carried on in Laconia, Castor was slain. in both historians. But the words, Tidings Pollux, after the heat of the battle was over, came unto the chief captain,' conceal another finding his brother on the point of death, point of agreement with fact. In the origi- was so overcome with brotherly regard, that nal, it is a report went up.' On receiving he entreated Zeus for permission to die with this report, the soldiers ran down unto his brother. The answer was — he might (literally, upon) them.' So also in xxi. 35, live in heaven as the immortal son of its we find, “When he (Paul) came upon the king; but if he chose to share his brother's stairs,' flight of steps, or ascent, leading up fate, then nothing more could be granted, into the castle. Paul's position, too (ver. 40), thau that they should alternatively live, cne con (or on the top of) the stairs,' while ad day in Olympus, and another in the inJressing the people, is thus explained. In fernal regions. The latter was Castor's

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