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Dow ripening, and we had a beautiful illus- pods resembling a horn) denotes the fruit tration of Scripture. Our Arabs were an of a tree of the leguminous order, called by hungered,' and, going into the fields, they the Arabs kbarnoob, written also kharoob. plucked the ears of corn and did eat, rub. whence our carob tree. This tree grows in bing them with their hauds. On being the Levant and Southern Europe, where it questioned, they said this was an old cus- still supplies food for swine and cattle, tom, and no one would speak against it; though of an inferior kind, which is eaten they were supposed to be hungry, and it was by human beings only when in great need. allowed as a charity. We saw this after. The food is found in the pods, about a wards in repeated instances' (Luke vi. 1 sey). finger long, an inch broad, and curved some

At the present day the rights of property what like a sickle, not unlike beans, but are, in regard to the productions of the earth, with a harder and darker shell; which the by no means so rigidly guarded as with us. carob tree produces in great abundance, and There is an entire want of enclosures in agri- which contain hard seeds, bitter at first, but cultural districts. The only exception is after being kept, somewhat sweet. The seeds found in a few gardens and vineyards close are said to be commonly thrown away, while to the walls of some towns. The limits of the pods are eaten. Hasselquist found the a field are usually marked by a narrow strip tree abundant on the hills around Jerusaof unploughed ground, sometimes by a rough em. It is also called St. John's Bread, pillar or heap of stones. The crops are se- from a notion that John used its pods for cured against cattle only by the watchful care putriment. of the herdsman, who usually keeps them at HYMENÆUS, a disciple at Ephesus, who a distance upon the hills. Hence travellers deviated from the essential doctrines of the do not hesitate to enter fields of corn, or to Christian faith, ic maintaining that the re take of their crops.' Our muleteers,' says surrection was already past (1 Tim. i. 20 Olin (ii. 435), never hesitated to ride into 2 Tim. ii. 17). a field of wheat, and graze their animals HYPOCRISY is a Greek word in English upon the growing or ripening harvest.' letters, which, taken from the stage, signifies

HUNTING, the capture of wild animals the acting of an assumed part. The Hebrew with a view to food, or for the preservation term ghoh neph means to conceal, and so to of flocks and herds, must have occupied be false or hypocritical. It is character. men at a very early period, though we may istic of the simplicity and truthfulness of doubt if even human society passed through the primitive manners set forth in the earlier 'the hunting period' any more than other Biblical records, that it is in only the later sharply-defined conditions successively aris- books that hypocrisy and hypocrites make ing from the modes in which subsistence their appearance (Job viii. 13. Is. xxxiii. 14). was obtained. The wide, open plains and As might be expected, the realities of religion uplands of Western Asia afforded good hunt- long preceded its counterfeits and shows ing grounds, and there first we find Nimrod, It is in the degenerate times of the New Tes. the migbty hunter (Gen. x. 9). The prac- tament that hypocrisy chiefly comes before tice was pursued by the patriarchs, for it is the reader of the Bible; and from the lips mentioned as a matter of course that Ish- of him who was the truth' as well as the mael and Esau procured sustenance by hunt life,' this detestable vice received awful reing (xxi. 20; xxv. 27). Palestine was rich buke. Hypocrisy is of two kinds—simula. in wild beasts, affording temptations to the tion, or affecting to be better than you are ; chase (Exod. xxiii. 29). But hunting, as which involves dissimulation, or the conappears in the case of Ishmael and Esau, cealment of your bad qualities. These bad tended to produce a rude, wandering life, qualities are often accompanied by malice and finds, therefore, no sanction in the Mo- against others, as was exemplified in the saic law, which was founded on agriculture case of the Scribes and Pharisees on whom as a far better source of social and individual our Lord pronounced his woe (Mark xii. 15. improvement. As weapons of the chase are Matt. xxiii. 28, seq.) Sometimes the term mentioned the bow, arrow, and spears (Gen. hypocrite seems to imply a less heinous of. xxvii. 3. Ps. lvii. 4,6). Nets were also set even fence, and may mean little more than what for large beasts (Ezek. xix. 8), and pits were we term inconsistency (Matt. vii. 5). dug (Ps. cxix 85. Proverbs xxvi. 27), which HYSSOP (H. esob), according to Dr were covered over (2 Sam. xxiii. 20). Ac- Royle (“Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soci. cording to Shaw, pits were used especially ety, xv. Nov. 1844), the caper plant (capfor taking lions. As the dog was an unclean paris spinosa of Linnæus), which has in animal, hounds were not kept for hunting Arabic a name, asuf, similar to its Hebrew Instances that strong men, without arms, appellation, is found in Lower Egypt (as recould take and destroy wild animals, are quired by Exod. xii. 22), in the deserts of found in Judg. xiv. 6. i Sam. xvii. 35. Sinai, and in Palestine Compare Lev. xiv.

HUSKS is, in Luke xv. 16, the English 4. Numb. xix. 6, 18. Heb. ix. 19. Ps. li. translation of a Greek word, keration (L. 2,7. Its habit is to grow on the most bar. siliqua), which (from keras, 'a bcru' the ren soil, rocky precipice, or the side of a wall. Comp. 1 Kings iv. 33. It has always if we suppose, as is natural, that the higira been held to possess cleansing properties. tive language employed by Solomon is care Hence, probably, its selection in the cere- ried on throughout the sentence, it appears monies of puritication. It is also capable to me appropriate. For the caper plant, of yielding a stick fit for the purpose men- like most of its tribe, is conspicuous for its tioned in John xix. 29; comp. Matt. xxvii. long flower-stalks, which are erect when the 48. Mark xv. 36.

plant is in flower and the fruit young, but The caper plant has by some been sup- which bend and hang down as the fruit posed to be the abigonah, translated in Ec- ripens. As the flowering of the almond-tree cles. xii. 5, desire, but in tbe Septuagint has been thought to refer to the whitening and Vulgate, capparis. On this point Dr. of the hair, so the drooping of the ripe fruit Ruyle remarks, .This plant may have had of a plant which is conspicuous on the walls two names in the Hebrew language, as in- of buildings and on tombs, may be held to deed it has in the Arabic, and we may sup- typify the hanging down the head before pose it to be particularly adduced as growing man goeth to his long home.' especially on old walls and tombs. Further,


ICHABOD (H. the glory is departed), son sentative. Such a transference, when com. of Phinehas, and grandson of the high-priest pleted, was idolatry. The essence of idoEli (see the article), who was prematurely latry, then, is the transference to a creature born in consequence of the grief felt by his of that worship which belongs to the Cremother on hearing the tidings that the ark ator (Rom. i. 25). But transference is a of God was taken, and that her father-in-law secondary act. Hence the worship of God, and her husband were dead.

in point of time, preceded the worship of ICONIUM, the modern Konia, was the idols. Such is certainly the view given in capital of Lycaonia, in the south-east of the Scriptures, wbich imply that the worship Asia Minor, lying at the foot of Mount and service of God, who made heaven and Taurus, in a fruitful plain (Acts xiv. 1, seq., earth, was prior to idolatry. The scanti xvi. 2. 2 Tim. iji. 11).

ness, however, of the Scripture narrative IDDO (H. his hand), the name of the prevents us from exhibiting the steps by grandfather (Zech. i. 1), who in other pas. which men declined from the one to the sages (Ezra v. 1. Neh. xii. 10), as is not other. In the absence of historical facts, uncommon among the Hebrews, appears as we may reasonably suppose that the idea of the father of Zechariah. He is found among God, the invisible Creator and Governor of the priests who, after the exile, laboured for the universe, was too purely spiritual to be the restoration of the temple-worship, and retained in its primitive simplicity by rude may therefore be presumed to have been dis. and sinful races of men (28), who, not suctinguished for his zeal in divine things; on ceeding to obliterate all sense of the divine which account, probably, he received the from their souls, aided their faint concep name of seer. He wrote a long lost book, or tions by material images, and could worship history, on the act of Rehoboam (2 Chron. only when some object of sight was before xii. 15; xiii. 22).

them. Thus sin debased men's souls, and IDOLATRY (G. eidolon, 'an image,' and gave rise to spiritual blindness and idolatry. latreia,'worship') is the worship and service As its causes were general, so idolatry spread of images as divine, or as representatives of itself over the whole earth; and it is as e divinity (for the mere stock or stone (Jer. iii. revival of an old truth that monotheism ap9) could not originally have been held wor- pears in the practice of Abraham, who was thy of divine worship), as the expression of called to this great trust from the midst of a thought and emotion recognises the divi. idolatrous nations. The universal prevanity of the object worshipped; which object, lence of idolatry implied in the Book of remaining impalpable to sense, may be con. Genesis and the Old Scriptures at large, is ceived of in the mind, or be set forth by exhibited as a fact in profane history, and some visible representation. By degrees, has come down to the present hour in evi. however, the feelings which at first regarded dence afforded by sculpture and painting; she Divinity were transferred to the repre- for though we are not without historical intimations that the recognition of one God that the world could be made and governed prevailed in the first ages, yet so early as by one Being, united in the work several, the epoch of the most ancient monarchies whose existence and operation were set forth idolatry appears universally prevalent. by sculptures set up in temples, or, as in

The earliest shape which idolatry seems India, hewn in colossal dimensions in the to have taken, was the deification of the human form; for God was conceived of under that form as being the noblest known to man. This deification of self which is found in primitive ages constitutes the essence of idolatry, for sin is nothing else than selfworship, and may be traced through different manifestations down to the modern pantheism, in which man's ideal is the highest power, and human genius the sole divinity.

In some other object than man himself, however, was the human form adored. What that object was, depended on circumstances. If, with the aid of the imagination, the form was found in natural objects, those objects received men's homage Thus the original image of Diana of the Ephesians was a log of wood, fabled to have fallen from heaven. If trees and stocks did not present the lookedfor resemblance, ‘men's hands' gave them the required shape (Isaiah xl. 20). Our engraving represents in Thor of the Finlanders an image of the kind (comp. Jer. x. 3).

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living rock. In many parts of the heathen world these ideas ran into a triple form, exemplified in this cut of Diana Triformis, as worshipped among the Latins, and in the various Indian Trimurtis, of which the fol. lowing figure gives a specimen.

With the progress of human skill, the resources of art were set in action for the formation of humanly-shaped objects of worship, which proceeded step by step with men's advancement in the arts, till it reached its height in the sublimity, loveliness, and What is here set forth under a union of grace of the gods of Greece,' in whose forms, is in other instances expressed by a figures the sense of beauty finds full expres- combination in one form of several memsion and the highest homage.

bers of the human body, as in the ensuing In countries where the meditative facul. picture of Vislinoo, in which many hands ties predominated, polytheistic theories of denote efficiency of operation. The god is creation and Providence obtained preva- inscribed on a square so as to occupy four

uce, which, presuming the impossibility triangles, a device which, in allusion to geo

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metrical mysteries, illustrates the perfection generation, birth, and death, had a powerfu of the deity. Speculations connected with effect in modifying idolatıy, especially tha:

of the remoter East. Hence father, mother, of worship in countries very distant from each and child, are frequently exhibited as objects other both in place and culture. Thus among of worship under various forms and names. the Greeks we find Cybele sitting in state With a touch of that human nature which even nursing the infant Jupiter, and Hindou idolatry could not obliterate, special regard mythology presents us Crishna, the eighth and attention were paid to the young, and avatar or incarnation of Vishnoo, suckled the mother and child' are found as objects by his mother, Devaki.

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This worship of imaginary beings under overpowering strength, to the suppression human forms was carried to a great extent, of the mental and the debasement of the and may be found at some era in most, if moral, readily gained and easily kept sway not all, countries. Sometimes it appeared over the human heart. Accordingly, the in the shape of hero worship, as in the case world itself, as well as each of its elements, of Hercules among the Greeks, and Bel was deified. From some, fire, as the quick(Nimrod) of the Babylonians. At others, ening power, received divine homage ; others the divinity incorporates himself in royal ascended to the great visible source of heat, personages, as did Mylitta in the Assyrian light, and life, and gave their hearts to Semiramis. The qualities, however, which the sun and its obvious dependent, the conciliated worship for men are found also moon; others, again, adored the stars, which in animals; in some instances, in a more they conceived exerted a great and imme. marked degree than in human beings. Hence diate influence on human affairs (Deut. iv. brutes came to be worshipped, not for them- 19. Job xxxi. 26. Ezek. viii. 16). This speselves, but the attributes which they pos- cies of idolatry, called by the general name sessed or symbolised. Egypt,

of Sabaism, seems to have passed from In! Where cows and monkeys squat in rich brocade,

dia, through Persia and Mesopotamia, to And well-dressed crocodiles in painted cases ;

Canaan and Egypt. Comp. 2 Kings xxiii. Rats, bats, and owls, and cats, in masquerade,

5, in which passage (7) allusion is made to With scarlet flounces and with varnished faces; the wicked abominations which were pracMen, birds, brutes, reptiles, fish, all crammed together,

tised under the shelter of most forms of idoWith ladies that might pass for well-tanned leather," latry. This fact in part explains the tone

of severe rebuke with which the religion of was the fruitful mother of this species of the Bible ever speaks of idols and their woridolatry; on which account it is that her ship. Independently of the vices which it gods so often appear with heads of animals, either tolerated or fostered, idolatry is justly as denoting the quality for which they were denounced in the Scriptures, whose main in each case held in honour.

and noble purpose is the proclamation of A less degraded but more seductive ido- "God that made the world' as the sole mo. latry was the worship of the powers of narch and object of worship in the universe nature, which, in conntries where the phy- (Acts xvii. 24, seq.). Hence, in the Bibli. sical forces of the world exist in full and cal view, the religious service of any thing

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