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save the one only God is idolatry, which, in 25, seq.). Notwithstanding the strict prohi. accordance with the fundamental idea ofbition issued by Moses to worship none save Mosaism, namely, that Jehovah was the sole Jehovah, and to worship him apart from any king in Israel, was regarded and treated as visible likeness or image (Exodus xx. 3, 4. a capital offence, involving rebellion, trea- Deut. iv. 16; v. 8; xxvii. 15), yet degenerate son, and apostacy (Deut. xiii. 6—11; xvii. Hebrews set up a golden calf to receive their 2-5; xxvii. 15). The whole system was homage ; and on the division of the kingjustly regarded as a compound of falsehood, dom, the northern state, in imitation of deception, and vice, and was forcibly charac Egypt, created as symbols of the God of terised as a vanity and a lie (Ps. cxv. 4- their fathers images of two calves, the one 8. Is. xl. 18—20; xliv. 9, seq.; xlvi. 6, 7. probably Apis, a representative of Osiris in Jer. x. 3–5, 1, 15); while, in opposition to Memphis; the other may have been Mnevis, its nothingness, the Maker of heaven and representative of the sun-god of Heliopolis. earth is strikingly described as the living This bovine idolatry, thus forced on MosaGod” (Deut. v. 26).

ism, being set up in Bethel and Dan, the In relation to merely intellectual and ma- two extremities of the new kingdom, and terial civilisation, the Hebrews were sustained by a numerous class of priests, passed by other nations of antiquity. Yet continued even under such princes as were are they alone found in possession of the hostile to other forms of idolatry (2 Kings grand truth that the Maker of the universe x. 25, seq. Amos viii. 14). Hence the severe is the only God and the only proper object of rebukes uttered by the prophets against worship. This truth they possessed in the Bethel, the rather, probably, as it lay near earliest periods of their history. It was held Judah, and was the place where the Israel. by Abraham in a purer form and with a more itish kings offered their adoration (Amos operative faith than by Solomon. Having iii. 14; v. 5; vii. 10, 13. Hos. x. 15; xii. 4. been honoured with the charge of preserving Jer. xlviii. 13). Other false divinities were monotheism and conveying it to the world served by the Hebrews, either instead of at large, the Hebrews never proved wholly or conjointly with Jehovah, and the mere unfaithful to the sacred trust; and after un images of them were substituted for or condergoing the discipline of sorrow, they at founded with the gods themselves (Deut. iv. length became worthy of their high office, 28. Ps. cxv. 4, seq. ; cxxxv. 15, seq.). learned to serve God with purity and inte- In each of the earlier periods of the He. grity of heart, and have now for more than brew bistory, we find tokens of the existtwo thousand years held aloft this divine euce of idolatrous worship; and though Satorch, as a light to enlighten the Gentiles muel and David, as well as Solomon in the and the glory of Israel. How these things early part of his reign, were zealous for could have been, had not the Hebrews at Jehovah, yet the last-named monarch aug. the first possessed special means of illumi- mented the already existing proneness to nation, we are unable to imagine. We see idolatry (1 Kings xi.), so that we need not here tokens of the special presence and ope. wonder if under his successors it struck its ration of God. Inspiration only could have roots more deeply. Asa, indeed, attempted to made Abraham and his race fit to receive, extirpate it; but Jehoram, by marrying into and able to retain, the grand idea of one the family of Alab, encouraged the CanaanGod, the Maker and Governor of all worlds. itish idolatry (2 Kings viii. 18, 27), to which The tenor of the article points to a primi. was added that of the Ammonites (xvi. 3), tive revelation as the original source of the and of the Phænicians and Syrians (xxi. 3, great religious truths whose existence and seq.); so that the reformatory measures of operation may be traced in the earliest ages, Josiah had only a transient effect, es may and which Abraham brought forth under be learnt from the denunciations of prophets new light and with fresh force, Moses sanc- who lived towards the close of the kingdoin tioned and perpetuated, the prophets pro- of Judah (Zeph. i. 4. Jer. ii. 20, seq.; iii. 6, claimed and developed, and the Lord Jesus seq. Ezek. xvi. 15, seq.). In Israel there speChrist carried out to the fullest length, and cially flourished the service of Baal, intro. the widest and most engaging applications. duced by Jezebel, which continued in vigour

The work which had to be accomplished for many generations. Even during the exile in making the Hebrew nation purely mono- Jeremiah reproves some for their idolatrous theistic was of no small difficulty. Though propensities (xliv. 8); but after that event Abraham worshipped the true God, traces of idolatry disappeared, and only under Antioidolatry are found in his family (Genesischus Epiphanes, in the time of the Macca. xxxi. 19, 30; xxxv. 2, seq. Josh. xxiv. 2, 14). bees, does there appear a trace of the aboIn Egypt, the Israelites were surrounded by mination (Macc. i. 12, 45).

The service objects of idolatrous worship; and that they which was rendered to strange gods conwere thereby detrimentally affected is evident sisted in vows accompanied with criminal from what happened in the desert (Exod. pleasures (Hos. ix. io), burning incense xxxij. Lev. xvii. 7. Numb. xxv. Amos v.

(1 Kings xi. 8), in bloody and bloodless offerings, and even in human sacrifices, as the chief divinity of the Phænician race, well as tokens of reverence, such as bowing according to some, the sun, as the great the knee to and kissing the images (1 Kings fructifying power; others hold that Baal. xix. 18. Hos, xiii. 2).

the Bel of the Babylonians, was the planet Oblations and incense were chiefly offered Jupiter, whose worship was connected with on eminences, whence the frequent mention that of the sun. Even in the era of the Judges in Scripture of high places' and their de- was Baal honoured among the Israelites, still struction. On these heights were either more under the Kings (1 Kings xviii.). This altars or chapels with altars. The worship falsity appears in several modifications, as on elevated spots became so prevalent, that BAAL BERITA (treaty-god, Judges viii. 33; ix. the term 'high places' came to signify ido 4,46), a Phænician idol; Baal-ZEBUB (prolatry, wherever the service was performed bably fly-god, 2 Kings i. 2, 3, 16), changed (Jer. vii. 31; xxxii. 35. 2 Kings xvii. 9. derisively into BAAL-ZEBUL (dung-god); Ezek. xvi. 24). That the Syrians speak of BAAL-PEOR, or merely PEOR, a Moabite di.

their (the Hebrews') gods as gods of the vinity whose worship was connected with huhills,' whose power was specially displayed man dishonour (Numb. xxv. 1, seq.; xxxi. 16. there, finds an explanation in this custo- Joshua xxii. 17). Another abomination, mary worship on high places;' and the ori. CHEMOSH, identified by some with Baalgin of that form of idolatry may be found in Peor, was served by the Moabites and Amothe conception that the hills and mountains, rites (Numb. xxi. 29. Judg. xi. 24. 2 Kings uninhabited by men, were the special abode xxiii. 13; comp. Jer. xlviii. 7), and by So. of the divinities who ruled the earth. Simi- lomon introduced among the Hebrews (1 lar notions are found in Indian and Grecian Kings xi. 7). Meni (Is. lxv. 11, 'nummythology. Idolatrous worship was also of. ber') may liave been Venus, which the Arafered by the Hebrews under trees, in groves,

bians call the star of good fortune,' and and in gardens, where sometimes images which was honoured by the Persians under were set up, altars erected, and offerings the name of Nane, or Nanaia (2 Macc. made (Isaiah lxv. 3; i. 29. 1 Kings xiv. 23. j. 13, seq.). NEBO (Is. xv. 2), a Chaldean Hosea iv. 13. Jer. ii. 20; iii. 13). Often, divinity, the planet Mercury, who, according however, the word rendered 'grove' denotes to the astrological view of the Easterns, as an image of Astarte While the prophets scribe of heaven, chronicles the events of rebuked the Israelites, they also reproved earth. Probably the Moabite town Nebo, the heathen for yielding to idolatry, the folly and Mount Nebo, where this idol was speand wickedness of which they expose in num- cially served, took their name from the god. berless passages (Is. ii. 8, 20; xliv. 9, seq.; CHIUN (Amos v. 26 ; in Heb. Kijon) is by xlviii. 5. Jer. x. scq. Hos. ii. 2. Ps. cxv. some held to be Saturn, which in Eastern 4). The images were partly hewn, partly astrology is accounted a planet that brings molten; they were made fast with chains, evil fortune. REMPHAN (Acts vii. 43) has lest they should fall or be carried off (Is. been identified with Chiun. MOLECH, or xli. 7. Jer. x. 4); they were overlaid with MELCOM (1 Kings xi. 7 ; comp. Jer. xlix. 1, gold or silver, and adorned with costly at- 3, their king,' see margin), signifying ruler, tire (Is. ii. 20; xxx. 22; xxxi. 7. Jer. x. was a god of the Ammonites, who was ho14. Hosea viii. 4). Images were carried to noured by human victims, especially chil. battle to protect the warriors. Victors car- dren (Lev. xviii. 21; xx. 2–5). ried away with them the divinities of those vice, brought into Judah by Solomon, was whom they had subdued, in order to ensure long afterwards shamefu i tolerated in the the fidelity of the latter. In the temples, valley of Hinnom (Jer. xa cii. 35) till Josiah the arms of conquered nations were sus- put an end to the abomination (2 Kings pended as trophies (1 Sam. xxxi. 10). The xxiii. 10, 13). According to Jewish authofalse divinities and idols mentioned in Scrip. rity, the image, made of brass, had the head ture may be here briefly enumerated. BEL of an ox, with outstretched human arms, in (Is. xlvi. 1. Jer. 1. 2), or Belus, a divinity which the children were laid, and then slowly worshipped at Babylon, whose image stood consumed by the fire kindled in the inside in the famous tower of Belus, represented of the statue. Among the Phænicians and probably the planet Jupiter, which was also Carthaginians this worship was very ancient. honoured as a star of good omen by the Some find in Moloch the planet Saturn, Persians and Arabians. Others consider Bel others the Sun; comp. Acts vii, 43. ADas denoting the sun. GAD ('troop'in Is. RAMMELECH, a god of the colonists brought Ixv. 11), a god of good fortune, honoured to Samaria from Sepharvaim (2 Kings xvii. by idolatrous Israelites; according to the 31), may have been the same as Moloch Rabbins, the planet Jupiter was also wor- and one with Saturn, the Greek Chronos. shiped in Syria as Baal-Gad. BaaL seems, ANANMELECH, a divinity of the same colowith the Phænicians and Carthaginians, tó nists, to whom, as to Moloch, children were have been a general denomination for a sacrificed. Many understand by this idol god; with the article (habaal), it denoted the constellation Cepheus, which the East

His ser


erns call the herdsman and cattle. NIBAAZ Sun among the Phænicians. In December, (2 Kings xvii. 31), an idol of the Avites, females bewailed the lost god in the moss whose name, from a root meaning to bark, extravagant manner ; they tore their hair suggests that the image bore the shape of a and offered their virginity, and ended by indog. TARTAK, a divinity of the same people, terring with all due observances an image was, according to the Rabbins, represented of the departed divinity. Immediately enby a statue shaped like an ass, and may have sued days of rejoicing and revelry, in celebeen symbolical of an evil star, either Saturn bration of the god restored to life. The orior Mars. (2 Kings xvii. 31). Succoth-Br- ginal significance of these rites is to be found NOTA, an idol introduced by Babylonians into in a symbolical representation of the course Samaria (2 Kings xvii. 30), may have been of the sun and its influence on the earth. the Pleiades. As the term, if it is not a proper Adonis, therefore, is essentially the same name, may be rendered daughters of the with Osiris. Ashima was god of the people tents,' others have thought of the tabernacles of Hamath (2 Kings xvii. 30). ASTARTE in which, among the Babylonians, virgins (Ashtoreth), a female divinity of the Sidosurrendered their honour to the goddess nians, was worshipped also by the Tyrians, Milytta, Venus. NERGAL (2 Kings xvii. 30), Philistines, and idolatrous Israelites (1 Kings an idol of the Cuthites, is thought to be the xi. 5, 33. 2 Kings xxiii. 4. Micah v. 13); planet Mars. Tae Sux was at the earliest comp. Jer. vii. 18; xliv. 17, seq., and see the period worshipped among the heavenly bo. article. ATERGATIS (Derceto), a Philistine dies, either with or without a symbol. Among fish-goddess, who liad a temple in Ashtoreth the Egyptians, On, or Heliopolis, in Lower Karnaim (2 Macc. xii. 26; comp. 1 Macc. v. Egypt, an ancient sacred city, was the chief 43). The form of a fish in which this diseat of the worship of the Sun. Here was a vinity appears carries the mind to the sea. splendid temple to the Sun, with a numerous coast, where the worship of Atergatis may and learned caste of priests, to which Jo- have been mingled with the worship of Veseph's father-in-law belonged (Gen. xli. 45. nus coming from the East. Dagon was the Ezek. xxx. 17, ' Aven'). To this place Jere. national god of the Philistines at Ashdort miah (xliii. 13) refers under the name of and Gaza (Judges xvi. 23, seq. 1 Sam. v. 2, Bethshemesh (Sun's house'). Osiris was seq. ; comp. 1 Macc. x. 81). NISBOCH was an the symbol of the Sun and of the solar year. idol of Nineveh (2 Kings xix. 37. Is. xxxvii. The ancient Persians also adored the Sun. 38), of which nothing inore is known. TEAmong the Israelites, traces of sun-worship RAPUIM (“images,' Genesis xxxi. 19, 30, 31) were found in the horses and chariots men- resembled the Penates, or household gods of tioned in 2 Kings xxiii. 11. Among the an. the Romans, and appear to have been concient Persians were found four white horses sulted as a kind of private oracle, which drawing a white chariot, in honour of the pious men have regarded as a species of god of day. In Jer. xix. 13. Zeph. i. 5. idolatry (2 Kings xxiii. 24. Zech. x. 2. llos. 2 Kings xxiii. 5, allusion is made to the

iii. 4). practice of worshipping the Sun and other With Pagan idolatry were connected vaheavenly bodies with incense on the flat rious idolatrous practices, of which a sumroofs of houses; and Ezek. viii, i6 may be mary is bere given. Astrology, or divination explained by the custom of greeting with by the stars, was intimately connected with songs the morning sun, when the worship- the worship of the heavenly bodies. The per3 held in their hands branches of pome. ancient Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and espegranate, tamarisk, and palm trees. Refer- cially the magi among the latter, practised encc also bas been found to the worship of this pretended art (Is. xlvii. 13. Matt. ii. 2. the Sun in Lev. xxvi. 31 and Isaiah xvii. 8. Daniel ii. 27; v. 11). Similar in character No, or AMUN No, as in the Hebrew (Jer. was the observation of times, that is, the xlvi. 25), was an Egyptian divinity whose determination of lucky and unlucky days name signifies production of light, on which and seasons. It is mentioned and forbidden account he was by the Greeks compared with in Deut. xviii. 10, 14. Is. ii. 6. Jer. xxvii. I. their Zeus. No was the symbol of the sun Notions associated with it lie at the bottom in spring, in the sign of the Ram, whence of Job iii. 3, seq. Gal. iv. 10. Rom. xiv. 4,5. the ram's horns seen on the head of Jupiter Soothsaying and foretelling, arising from Ammon. The chief place of his worship man's great desire to know what is hidden, was Thebes, in the temple at which was a fa- were much in use in very ancient days. As mous oracle of the god which was consulted the Hebrews were favoured with instructions by Alexander the Great. THAMMUZ (Ezek. from the bigh-priest's Urim and Thummim, viii. 14) was probably the Phænician Ado- and the voice of the prophets, they were nis, the head-quarters of whose worship was strictly forbidden to employ means in 1750 Byblos, a very old Phænician city near the among idolaters for unveiling the future Mediterranean. The festival of Thammuz (Lev. xix. 20, 31; xx. 5, 0. Dent. xviii. 10, was of two characters, partly sorrowful, partly l). Yet were pretenders to skill therein joyful, having reference to the worship of the found among them, though to a less extent



than with the heathen (1 Sam. xxviii. 3, 9. bad repute, or disgrace, stands in Prov. 2 Kings xxi. 6. Is. viii. 19. Micah iii. 11: xviii. 3 for a Hebrew term in other places Jer. xxix. 8. Zech. x. 2). See DivinATION. rendered .shame' (Prov. iii. 35), 'dishoThe interpretation of dreams was among nour' (vi. 33), “reproach'(xxii. 10). the ancients, and specially the Jews, highly ILLUMINATE (L. in, into,' and lumen, thought of, since dreams were accounted 'light'), represents (Heb. x. 32) a Greek a kind of divine revelation. Consult the word signifying to enlighten (light, Ephes. history of Joseph, and Judges vii. 13. i. 18; comp. Luke ii. 36. John i. 9. Rev. Job xxxiii. 15. Numb. xii. 6. False prophets xxii. 5). pretended to receive instructions in dreams IMAGE (L. imago, G. eikon,' a likeness") (Jer. xxiii. 25, seq.; comp. Deut. xiii. 1, 3, is used in Matt. xxii. 17, seq. in the question 5). The Chaldean interpreters of dreams by which the hypocritical Pharisees tried to were very celebrated (Dan. ii. 2, sey. ; iv. 3, involve our Lord in difficulty either with the seq.; v. 12). Magic, or the pretended art Roman or the patriotic Jewish party, by leadof exerting influence by means of secret and ivg him to declare whether or not he judged superhuman powers, was strongly prohibited it lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar, then masby the law (Exod. xxii. 18. Leviticus xx. 6. ter, by right of conquest, of the Hebrew peo. Deut. xviii. 10, seq. 1 Sam. xv. 23). Of a ple. Most adroitly did the great Teacher similar nature was the skill of charming ask 'whose image' was on the current coin; serpents (Jer. viii. 17. Eccl. x. 11); also evocation of the dead, or the deception practised in appearing to bring the manes, or ghost, from the shades (1 Sam. xxviii.), for which purpose ventriloquism seems to have given aid (Is. viii. 19).

Nothing cau more fully and painfully show the shockingly degrading tendency of false and idolatrous religion than the fact that the worship of the male organ of generation, for if they, by circulating Roman money, under the personification of PRIAPUs, pre- acknowledged Cæsar's rule, they had them. vailed among the most cultivated nations of

selves practically answered their ensnaring antiquity, the offensive foulness of which is

question. The coin above described exhistill attested by remains of art and literature. bits the head of Tiberius, the then reigning There is reason to believe that this dis

emperor. The reply to the question, Casar's, gust form of idolatry was not unknown is presented on th small brass coin, circu. among the Israelites. Traces of it are pro- lating in Judea at the period in question. bably found in the events recorded in Numb. xxv. 1, seq., and in 1 Kings xv. 13. Comp. 2 Chron. xv. 16, where the term 'idol' (in the margin of the latter passage, “horror,' from horreo, 'I am stiff') represents a Hebrew word which not unaptly describes Priapus.

Connected also with idolatry was the practice-a species of tattooing-of marking in colours on the back, forehead, arms, The obverse has the type of a palm-tree with or neck, the name of the divinity under fruit, and the date 39, that is, from the batwhose protection a persou was (Isaiah xliv.

tle of Actium. The ear of corn on the re5. Revelations xiii. 16 ; compare xiv. 1), verse may be taken as a specimen of the fine whence the Hebrews were forbidden to make products of Palestine. any incisions in their flesh, even in token of IMAGERY. See CHAMBERS OF. grief (Lev. xix. 28. Deut. xiv. 1). Further IMAGES, as objects of worship, the Is. iuformation on several of these subjects will raelites were forbidden to make (Exod. IX. be found under the appropriate heads. 4,5); a prohibition which formed an essential

IDUMÆA, the southerumost part of Ju. part of that system of wise precaution by dea, which borders on Arabia Petrea, and which Moses endeavoured to keep his peothe southern point of the Deail Sea. It was ple free from the contaminations of a unioriginally the same with Edom, of which it versally prevalent idolatry. The necessity formed the western district. Its inhabitants of the strictest measures of prevention is being subdued by the Maccabees, and hav. illustrated by the fact, that image-worship ing received the religion of their conquerors, prevailed in those countries with wbich the Idumea was reckoned a part of Judea (Mark Hebrews were more or less closely allied. iii. 8). Of this country was Herod the Great, How rank was its growth in Egypt is made who was therefore termed . a half Jew.' manifest in several parts of this work. Ba

IGNOMINY (L. ignominia, in, 'not,' and bylon was thought to have been less corrupi, nomen, 'name,' resembling our “ill-name'), in consequence of its addiction to the wor


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thus both explaining and vindicating Holy Writ. (See Is, xxi. 9; xlvi. 1. Jer li. 47, 52).

The images also (teraphim) which Rachel

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Ezek. xxi. 21), and which were probably small figures in human shape, a species of household gods, long remained a source of iniquity and harm to Israel (Judg. xvi. 5, seq. 1 Samuel xv. 23; xix. 13, 16. 2 Kings xxiii. 24.) See IDOLATRY.

IMAGINATION (L. imago, 'a likeness,' or “representation') stands in Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21, for a Hebrew word signifying 'to form,' and so denotes the creations or thoughts of the mind; but in Deut. xxix. 19. Jer. iii. 17, another term, sherrooth (" to bind,' 'harden,' be hard '), is better rendered in the margin by stubbornness ;' while in other instances (Prov. vi. 18. Lam. iii. 60) a third word (meaning 'to unite'), rendered 'imaginations,' seems to have reference to the power of association, setting forth thoughts and purposes as connected with and arising from each other.

IMMORTALITY (L. in, 'not,' and mors, death '), deathlessness, which is an exact rendering of the Greek original in 1 Cor. xv 53, 54; but in Romans ii. 7, ‘immortality' stands for a Greek term that properly means ' incorruption' (1 Cor. xv. 50, 53, 54); that is, the state which is free from the liability to corruption, under which our 'mortal bodies' change and die. Both Simmortality' (1 Tim. vi. 16) and “incorruption' (Rom. i. 23) can be asserted absolutely of no one brit God; who, however, through his Sun, las

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