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given eternal life' (John X. 28. Rom. vi. ased weighed in its dry state twelve pounds. 23) in his own blissful presence, where, con. None of the ingredients were the produce of sequently, there will be no more death' Egypt; but they are all obtained, at this day, (Rev. xxi. 4). The view set forth specially from trees and shrubs indigenous to those by John seems to be, that Christians never districts of Arabia and Canaan which lie to properly die (John vi. 50; viii. 51. Comp. iv. the east of the desert of Sinai and the river 14; vi. 35 ; xiii. 8), but pass from this imper- Jordan. So large a demand for these articles fect and shadowy to that perfect, true, and in ancient Egypt created an extensive traffic endless existence, so that they may even in across the desert. The Ishmaelites to whom this state lay hold on eternal life' (1 Tim. Joseph was sold by his brethren were envi, 12, 19).

gaged in it (Gen. xxxvii. 25; comp. xliii. IMPART (L. in, ‘into,' and pars, “a part'), 11). The art of compounding spices, thereto give a part, or communicate, is in Luke fore, if unknown to the patriarchs, must iii. 11. Rom. i. 11, the meaning assigned to have been practised in Egypt, where the a Greek word which signifies to share with Hebrews would, if needful, acquire the skill another. Comp. 'giveth' in Rom. xii. 8. requisite for preparing incense. Indeed, the

IMPERIOUS (L. impero, 'I command, recipe for the holy anointing oil (Exod. xxx. comp. Eng. 'empire'), in Ezekiel xvi. 30, 22–25) is cariously illustrated by the in denotes a commanding temper, the product scriptions on the beautiful obelisks at Karof indulgence and self-will. The original nac, where are seen figures of the members signifies 'to bear rule' (Neh. v. 15). of the family of Thotmosis III. (whose reign, IMPOSE (L. in, upon, and pono, ‘I

Osburn says, began 1736 A.C.) offering vaplace') is to put upon' another as a tax or rious ingredients to Amoun. The uppertoll; so in Ezra vii. 24. Comp. 'cast' in most figure offers a vase of 'oil;' the next, Dan. iii. 20.

'myrrh; the third, 'incense' compounded IMPOTENT (L. in, 'not,' and potens,

of three parts of one unknown spice and powerfal') signifies powerless, being a

five of another. The offering of the fourth literal translation of the Greek adunatos in is also a compound, containing frankincense Acts xiv. 8, but is rendered impossible' in mingled with five parts of another unknown Matt. xix. 20, 'could not do’ in Rom. viii. drug. 3, and 'weak’in xv. l. 'Impotent' is also

Incense was offered to all the gods and the translation of a word, asthenes, properly introduced on every grand occasion, whensignifying without strength' (Acts iv. 9. ever a complete offering was made. The Rom. v. 6), which is Englished by sick’ (Matt. xxv. 39), 'weak' (xxvi. 41), and 'feeble' (1 Cor. xii. 22).

IMPOVERISH (L. in, ‘into,' and pauper, 'poor ') is 'to make poor' (Is. x]. 20).

IMPUTE (L. in, into,' and puto, 'I reckon'), according to its derivation and ordinary use, means, to place to the account (or credit) of a person;' hence to ascribe any thing for quality, whether good or bad. Spencer has these lines: Nathlesse he shortly shall again be tryde,

And fairely quite him of th' imputed blame; Else be ye sure, he dearly shall abide,

Or make you good amendment for the same.' The Hebrew original, ghahshav, is rendered thought' (Gen. 1. 20), "devise' (2 Samuel xiv. 14), 'count' (Genesis xv. 6), 'impute' (2 Sam. xix. 19), reckon' (Lev. xxv. 50). With a similar mercantile reference, corresponding words are used in the New Testament (Rom. v. 13; comp. Philem. 18; and James ii. 23; comp. Heb. xi. 19. Rom. ii. 3).

INCENSE (L. in, intensive, and candeo, I am in a glow'), a burnt-offering composed of odoriferous herbs (Exodus xxv. 6; xxx. 1). See FRANKINCENSE. The spicery of a mummy opened some years ago at Leeds, having been minutely examined, was found to consist of a mixture of cassia, myrrh, ladanon (an Oriental gum), and some other unknown aromatic herbs. The quantity


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incense burnt in the temples before the which were thrown by the hand into the alter was made into small balls, or pastiles, censer, as seen in this cut.

In modern Egypt perfumes, though less appear that the Hebrews were acquainted frequently than formerly, are still offered to with that country, at least any more than departing guests; for which purpose burn- vaguely. Probably, India to them repreing charcoal is used in the perfuming vessel, sented the fartbest east, towards which trade or mibkharah, which is of metal; the recep- was carried on, and from which merchandise tacle for the charcoal is lined or half-filled was brought westward by the Arabian Gulf. with gypsum plaster, and its cover is pierced The country whence these goods came may with apertures for the emission of the smoke. have been called Ophir, but Ophir to the The odoriferous substance most commonly Hebrews may have been in south-east Araused is aloes wood, or benzoin, or cascarilla bia, or, comprising these parts, it may have bark. The wood is moistened before it is indefinitely extended eastward so as to reach placed on the burning coals.

Ceylon and India. The existence of the word in the Book of Esther seems to show that when it was written a knowledge of India, properly so called, had spread itself in Western Asia; for the Hebrew Hodu, with the Syrians Hendu, the ancient Persians Heando (English Hindoo), the Arabs Hind (comp. Sciude), or Hend, is only a form of the native name of India.

India is by some regarded as the cradle of the human race and the first nursery of civilisation, whence knowledge and the arts flowed towards the West, finding beds in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy. Certainly, many points of resemblance may be traced between opinions prevalent in India and in Egypti There is found in both a style of architectural sculptare, consisting of temples and

figures of gods huge in size, hewn in the INCONTINENCY (L. in, 'not,' and con- living rock. And so remarkable an affitineo, 'I hold in'), not holding or keeping nity is there between the ancient sacred within due bounds, want of self-control; tougue of India and the Teutonic of Geraccording to the Greek original, ‘powerless- many and England, that hence has been ness' (1 Cor. vii. 5; comp. 'excess,' Matt. formed a class of languages termed the xxiii. 25, and 2 Tim. iii. 3).

Indo-Germanic. INCREDIBLE (L. in,' not,' and credo, INFALLIBLE (L. in, ‘not,' and fallo, 'I "I believe), not to be believed' (Acts xxvi. deceive'), that which cannot deceive or be 8); also rendered 'faithless' (Matt. xvii, 17), deceived or mistaken. The word is found in * unbeliever' (1 Cor. vi. 6), 'infidel' (2 Cor. the English version of Acts i. 3, without any vi. 15).

corresponding term in the original; yet is INDIA, a country in Eastern Asia, bounded it retained in the revised translation of Bart by the sea on the south, the Taurus range lett (People's Edition) and 'A Layman. It of mountains on the north, the Ganges on is, however, omitted by Sharpe, who, ren der. the east, and the Indus on the west. The ing the original exactly, gives 'many proufs;' name does not occur in the Hebrew litera- so Wicklif, .bi many argumentes;' Tyndale, tare till the times of the Book of Esther (i. by many tokens;' and Cranmer, ‘by many 1; viii. 9), where it is given as one extreme

tokens.' of the Persian empire, Ethiopia being the INFAMY (L. in, 'not,' and fama, 'fame,' other. But that India in the proper sense repute'), disgrace, stands in Prov. xxv. 10 is meant cannot be affirmed. Nor does it for a Hebrew term rendered in Gen. xxxvii.




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2, evil report;' Numbers xiv. 36, “slander;' porary alleviations of evils too pressing to and Jer. xx. 10, defaming.'

be endured, cannot reasonably be expected. INFINITE (L. in, 'not, and finis, 'end'), The Turks and Syrians are about at the that which is unlimited or boundless. The maximum of the civilisation possible to MoHebrew language expresses the infinite, as hammedans of the present time. The mer.

numberless,' literally, no number' (Psalms cantile class is said to be little respected, cxlvii. 5). A similar form, without num- and generally to lack integrity. Veracity is ber,' is used to denote a great but undeter- held very lightly by all. The pe ple pracmined number (Ps. xl. 12; cy. 31). Ano. tise temperance and frugality, which may be ther way of expressing the infinite in He- denominated Oriental virtues. Their situabrew is to term it endless,' or without tion with regard to the plysical means of end’ (Job xxii. 5).

comfort and subsistence, are in many reINFIRMITY (L. in, 'not,' and firmus, spects favourable, and under a tolerable strong'), want of strength, weakness (Ps. government would be almost unequalled. As ixxvii. 10; comp. Gen. xlviii. 1. Judg. xvi. it is, the Syrian peasant and his family fare 7).

much better than large portions of the laINFLAMMATION (L. in, intens., and bouring classes of Europe. The mildness flamma, 'a flame'), a burning; so the body of the climate, the abuvdance of land and is said to be infamed when affected with its fertility, with the free and luxuriant pasheat, swelling, redness, and pain. In He- turage that covers the mountains and the brew, the word rendered 'inflammation’ sig- plains, render it nearly impossible that the nifies 'to burn' (Deut. xxviii. 22; comp. peasant should not be well supplied with Gen. xxxi. 36. Prov. xxvi. 23).

bread, fruit, meat, and milk. They almost INFLUENCES (L. in, .into,' and fiuo, always appear well clothed. Their houses, 'I flow'), literally that which, by flowing too, though often of a slight construction and into, impels, is a term used in Job xxxviii. 31 mean appearance, must be pronounced comof the Pleiades. 'Sweet influences' is the modious when compared with the dark, rendering of a Hebrew word which some crowded apartments usually occupied by the derive from a root signifying delight,' as corresponding classes in Europe. Agriculin Prov. xxix. 17, explaining it in Job to refer tural wages vary a good deal in different to the season of spring, when the Pleiades, parts of the country, but the average is not or the Seven Stars, make their appearance ;

less than three or four piasters a day. With others, from a root which conveys the notion all these advantages, population is said to of binding, construe the term, the bands of be on the decline-so active and destructive the Pleiades. Bartlett's revised Bible ren- are the vicious tendencies of the reigning ders,

system of religion and government. Poly. • Canst thou bind the chain of Pleiades, gamy, military conscription, unequal and Or loose the bands of Orion ?

oppressive taxation, forced labour for the The word “bands' is not infrequently ap- rulers, geueral insecurity of property, and plied in Persian poetry to the Pleiades, the consequent discouragement of industry, which, to use the allusion of Herder, seem are probably the principal causes of this to be bound to one another in sisterly union, deplorable result. There are other causes and thus joyously to usher in the spring. of depopulation, which are inseparable from

INHABITANTS, the, of Judea were dif- general ignorance and barbarism. One of ferent at different periods. See CANAANITES. the most destructive, and at the same time At the present day they are Arabs, that is most latent, is, probably, the want of medithey speak the Arabic, though, with slight cal knowledge and skill. There are no wellexceptions, they are probably all descend- taught physicians; and in the hands of the ants of the old inhabitants of Syria. They ignorant pretenders, who always thrive unare a fine, spirited race of men, and have der such circumstances, diseases come armed given Mohammed Ali much trouble in sub- with a fatal malignity unknown in civilised duing them, and still more in retaining countries. The plague often sweeps un. them in subjection. They are said to be checked over the country as well as the town, industrious for Orientals, and to have the carrying off a tenth, a fifth, or a third of the right elements for becoming, under better inhabitants. The more common and milder auspices, a civilised, intellectual nation. It diseases, which readily submit to proper will, however, be found scarcely practicable treatment, often acquire the greatest viruto raise a people to a respectable social and lence, through neglect and mismanagement, moral state under a Turkish, Egyptian, or till they yield only to the great destroyer in any other Mohammedan government. The the extent of their ravages. The appear. inherent vices of the religious system euter, ance of the people is striking and, to a Euand, from their unavoidable connections, ropean, strange. They wear neither hats, must enter, so deeply into the political ad bonnets, nor stockings; both sexes appear ministration, that any reform in government in loose flowing dresses, and red or yellow or improvement in the people, beyond tem. slippers. The men have red caps, with or without turbans; the women are concealed find acceptance and eternal life-matters on by white veils, with the exception of the eyes. which no certainty less than absolute will

INHERITANCE (L. in,' into,' and heres suffice; but if the Bible be only an approxi. 'an heir'). See Heritage.

mation to the truth, & Divine revelation INIQUITY (L. in,‘not,' and equus,'equal,' largely blended with buman weakness, preju. just'), that which is not equal (Ezek. xviii. dice, and error, what reliance can we place 25), unjust or improper conduct, is repre- upon it? How shall we be able to distinguish sented by several Hebrew words couveying between the substance which is of God, and the idea of what is bad, worthless, &c. (Numb. the adjuncts and additions wbich are of man? xxiii. 21; comp. Job xi. 11, and Ps. x. 7). How shall we know by what portions of INK. See Books, i. 189.

Scripture to guide our conduct ? S. Will we not INNOCENCY (L. in, 'not,' and noceo, 'I be in danger of following the human injunction hurt,' injure'), harmlessness (Deut. xix. instead of the divine rule, and of building upon 10; comp. Numb. xxxji. 22).

the error of the writer, instead of the truth of INQUISITION (L. in, ‘into,' and quæro, God? Can we hazard our eternal salvation I seek '), searching into; so the Hebrew on a ground so doubtful ? Would we be will. original in Esther ii. 23, from a root mean ing to accept the writings of any of the ing to seek' (Numb. xvi. 10), and in Deut. Fathers as our supreme guide in time, and xix. 18, from another root of similar import ground of trust for eternity ? Their books (Lev. X. 16).

contain the substance of the truth; and on the INSPIRATION (L. inspiro, 'I breathe theory we are opposing we cannot assign a into') is the translation (Job xxxii. 8) of a higher rank to the Bible; and so we must dis. Hebrew word signifying and rendered 'breath' card this theory. A revelation so communi(Genesis ii. 7; vii. 22. 1 Kings xvii. 17), cated would be as good as no revelation at all. .blast' (2 Sam. xxii. 16. Ps. xviii. 15), and Another theory of inspiration has been put • soul' (Is. lvii. 16). The term is thus used forward, and is to this effect, that the sacred of God's influence in communicating and writers were exempt from error in their state. destroying life (Job iv. 9), of that life itself ments of religious truth, but liable to mistake and of the breath which is its index; also in matters of fact, that is, in matters of his. of the understanding, or rational powers, tory, science, and other subjects, forming no by which the human race is distinguished. part of supernatural religion. This carries us

The theory which we decidedly prefer is a little way beyond the former thcory; but it that of plenary or verbal inspiration. By this stops short of giving us an infallible rule, or a we mean that not only has God given a reve- certain ground of faith. Practically it lation, but that He dictated or inspired the amounts to no more than the other theory of words in which this revelation bas been com- inspiration. We must call in the exercise of municated to us. We have the Bible not in our own judgment to distinguish between the words which man's wisdom selected, but in religious and non-religious portions of the those wbich were chosen by the Holy Ghost. Bible, and can we be sure that we have We prefer this theory of inspiration on three accurately drawu the line? How shall we accounts. I. It is the only theory which is know when the sacred writers speak infallibly, of the least value. II. It is the theory, and when merely fallibly; and may we not in which, viewed on all sides, is attended with some instances be building on a merely human the fewest difficulties. III The Scripture foundation, when we think that we are resting itself lays claim to verbal inspiration.

on a Divine. Our reason must be the judge Various theories have been formed with of what is or is not God's revelation, and so reference to this subject. Some have taught reason, not revelation, becomes our supreme that the sacred writers have given in the authority. This theory, too, we discard as Bible a revelation which is true in substance, insufficient, in fact, as worthless. but in their own words, and that in composing The theory which we adopt is that of their record, they were liable to misconcep- plenary or verbal inspiration. We maintain tions, mistakes, and errors, equally with other that not only did God make a revelation of writers, honest but fallible. In short, they truth-of supernatural truth-to the sacred admit revelation, but deny inspiration, in the penmen, but He so influenced their minds sense of a supernatural influence exercised by ihat they used the very words in which He the Spirit on the mind of the man to whom wished that revelation to be communicated to the revelation was made in regard to the When they speak to us from the page terms in which that revelation was to be com. of the Bible, it is as if God spake. Not the municated, as well as in receiving the revela- truths only, but the original words in which tion itself. If the Bible is constructed in this these truths are expressed, are a communicafashion, it is not trustworthy. It does not tion from God. We can accept no lower answer its end. It was written to convey to place for the Bible. It stands apart and us the will of God regarding matters of infinite above all other writings as a Book written by importance, namely, the terms on which our the finger of God. We claim this place for it sins may be pardoned, and on which we may on the following grounds:


I. A priori we should conclude that the energy in handling themes, the very greatness Bible would possess verbal inspiration. If of which was fitted to subdue the mind ? God was to make a revelation of his will to They are equally at home in all themes, man, and to disclose the way of salvation to whether simple or profoundly abstruse, familiar him, we should have inferred beforehand that or inexpressibly grand. Who taught them the words as well as the truths of that revela. those words which go so deep into the heart, tion would be inspired. The Most High and wield such power over the conscience, always employs such instrumentalities as are and have power to transform the character ? fitted to gain their end. What end was the No one but God. Bible meant to serve? It was meant to be an IV. Without inspired words the sense of infallible rule or guide to man, in attaining to revelation could not have been purely and a knowledge of God's will, and the enjoyment accurately couveyed. Even in ordinary of eternal life. But a Bible, none of the subjects a change of a word will often produce words of which, or only some of the words of an entire change of sense. But here the which, were inspired, would not have been subject-matter is supernatural, and if left to such a rule or guide. To have put such a their own judgment, the sacred writers must book into the hands of man would have been inevitably, in places innnmerable, bave chosen but to deceive him, by leading him to think the wrong word, and fatally changed the that he had a sufficient rule for his guidance, sense. A slight verbal alteration will somewhile in reality he bad no such thing—no times import into a passage an entirely different rule which he could implicitly trust, no guide meaning. Prophecy, not less, necessitates which he could follow at all times. A guide the inspiration of the words. Whole epochs, who favours us with his instructions occasion- with tbe events and characters which are to ally only, and who, at all times, leaves us constitute them, are often depicted by a single doubtful whether it is he or some other who is word. The right word could no more be speaking, is as good as no guide. Such a known than the event could be known. guide would the Bible have been lacking ver. Besides, the sacred writers make numerous bal inspiration, or possessing it only in parts. scientific allusions, but in language so skilTherefore we are shut up to the alternative of fully selected, that while it was in accordance no Bible, or a Bible plenarily and verbally with the then popular notions, it is found, not inspired.

in a single instance, to contradict any scientific II. It may be doubted whether a revelation fact which has since been established. How be possible, unless clotbed in words. dreve- could this have happened without infallible lation of events may be effected by presenting superintendence? It is far harder to believe to the mind of him to whom it is made the that this happened by chance than that it was outward forms or images of the events; but the result of inspiration. abstract ideas or truths cannot be conceived V. The wonderful preservation of the of unless presented in words, wbich are just original text accords with and confirms the their forms. If we watch our own mental doctrine of verbal inspiration. We have processes, we will find that we use language already said that some fifteen hundred manuas the instrument of thought, and that when script copies of the New Testament have been we cease to employ this machinery we cease compared, and it is found that the verbal to think. Ideas may be suggested to us from differences are astonishingly few, and that without by their types or objects, but when scarcely in a single instance do they make we would summon up ideas in our own any difference in the sense. This miraculous minds, when we would conceive, or reason care over the Bible is just what we would about qualities, relations, conditions, and expect on the supposition that its words are states, we must embody them mentally in inspired. But not so if its words are man's. words. And, accordingly, God's revelation This watchfulness would, in that case, have to man progressed in proportion as a language been uncalled for. Any change in the words was framed, in which that revelation might would have been merely the substitution of be received in the first place, and communi- one human term for another human term. cated in the next. The idea and the word The alteration might have been harmless, or that expressed it were suggested together. even, in some instances, an improvement.

III. The language of the Bible bears the But not so in the case of an inspired writing, impress of divinity. Many of its penmen and hence the care which was exercised about were illiterate, and came to the execution of the words as well as the substance of revelatheir task from the sheepfold or the field, and tion, and which has transmitted the original yet their writings are unrivalled in purity and text to us, speaking generally, in a state of power, in majesty and sublimity. How came perfect purity. it that without the discipline of the schools, VI. The Bible itself advances for its words without even an hour's practice, they reached the claim of inspiration. We cannot do better a pitch of excellence which places them far bere than quote the words of Mr Robert Hal. above the mightiest genius of Greece and dane:-'The word inspire signifies to breathe Rome? Whence their freedom and glowing into, and literally corresponds to the original

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