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in 2 Tim. ii. 16, “All Scripture is inspired with which they wrote. This by no means by God," or breathed into the writers by God, follows. We cannot explain how God and It is, therefore, of the writing that the inspir. man co-operated in working out this result, ation is asserted. The Greek compound word, the agency of each being free and plenary. corresponding to our phrase, inspired by God, The thing is a mystery, but not an impossivas applied among the heathens to such bility. í We can no more explain how the dreams as were supposed to be breathed into Divine and human agencies co-operated; each men by any of the gods. This inspiration, acting freely within its own sphere, and each which, without any exception, gradation, or discharging the part of the work proper to itself, variation, is claimed by the writers of the in the matter of the revelation of truth-God Scripture, and wbich entitles the whole of it presenting and man receiving the truth. Never. to be entitled “the Word of God," is of the theless, we admit a revelation. But if we highest kind, by which they were “led into admit the miracle of revelation, why reject the all truth.” It consists in that communication, miracle of inspiration? If ideas or doctrines made to their minds by the Spirit of God, of may be presented by God, and conceived by the ideas and words which they have recorded man without constraint or violence to his in that sacred book. Paul expressly calls the faculties, why may not words be suggested by Old Testament Scriptures the “Oracles of God and freely used by man ? The proof God” (Rom. iii. 2).
that they were so is seen in the Bible itself, Verbal inspiration is clearly implied in the in that free-play of style, conception, and feel. words already quoted, ' All Scripture is given ing, which so beautifully diversifies its pages, by inspiration of God.' Paul does not say, giving it a true human-like look, and making All revelation,' meaning the đoctrines or it so effectual in addressing human hearts. ideas, but 'all Scripture,' meaning the writing, J. A. W. is given by inspiration of God. If the writing INSURRECTION (L. in, against, and be inspired, then the words are inspired ; for surgo, 'I risc'), a rising, that is, against what is the writing but the words ? To the established rule or authority (Ezra iv. 19). same purposes the Apostle Peter affirms, INSTRUCTION (L. in, intens., and • The prophecy came not of old time by the struo, 'I form,' 'build,' or 'furnish'), the will of man, but holy men of God spake as communication of knowledge or information they were moved by the Holy Ghost' (2 Pet. (Ps. 1. 17. Prov. i. 2), represents a Hebrew i. 21).
Spake as they were moved' is a word which, from a root meaning 'to bind,' phrase which implies that the words were or restrain,' is also rendered chastisement' suggested to them. So, on the day of Pente- (Deut. xi. 2) and correction' (Prov. vii. cost, the disciples 'were filled with the Holy 22); the idea being, that the commuuication Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues of knowledge (of God) restrains the natural as the Spirit gave them utterance.'
tendencies to excess and wrong, keeps the The claim of verbal inspiration is made in conduct within proper bounds, and so guards the Scriptures in a great variety of forms, and against the transgression of God's laws. in passages too numerous to quote. See, for INTEGRITY (L. integer, whole,''entire:' example, Heb. i. 1. Acts i. 16; üï. 21; xi, in and tango, “untouched,'' uninjured'?), 11; xvii, 10, 11; xxvi. 22; xxviii. 25, John entireness; as applied to conduct, uprightv. 39, 46; x. 35; xii. 47, 48; xvii. 17. 2
ness, freedom from fault (Genesis xx. 5, 6). Sam. xxii. 2. Psalm cxix. iii. Luke x. The original is rendered 'plain' (xxv. 27), 10-16; xii. 47, 43; xvi. 29--32. 1 Peter perfect’ (Job i. 1), “upright' (Prov. xxix. i. 10-12. Prov. xxx. 5, 6. 1 Cor. ii. 10), “undefiled' (@ant. vi. 9), .simplicity' 10-16. Phil. iii. 16. 1 John iv. 1-6. Isa. (2 Sam. xv. 11). viii. 20. Gal. i. 10-12. Rev. xxii. 18, INTERCESSION (L. inter, between,' 19. In this last passage excision from the and cedo, ‘I go'), going between two parties book of life is threatened against the man with a view to effect a reconciliation, as who shall add to or take away from the Abraham interceded with God to save So. words of the prophecy of this book.'
dom (Gen, xviii. 23, seq.). The correspondOur space does not allow us to enter on the ing Hebrew term signifies to come' (Josh. objections which have been urged against the xvi. 7), 'meet' (Is. Ixiv. 5), 'fall' (Judges theory of verbal inspiration. These are of vii'. 21), Jay' (Is. liii. 6), 'come betwixt' small weight compared with the force of the (Job xxx i. 32), and 'entreat' (Gen. xxiii. arguments and proofs by which that theory is 8; comp. Jer. xxxvi. 25. Is. liii. 12; lix. 16). supported. They mostly resolve themselves The Greek of the New Testament, in words into our ignorance of the way in which a of similar import, conveys the idea that Jesus supernatural agency acts through a human intercedes with God for the saints (Romans instrumentality. It has been affirmed that viii. 27, 34; xi. 2) and all who this theory reduces man to a mere machine; him (Heb. vii. 25 ; comp. Acts xxv. 24. Rom. and that the sacred writers had no more will, viii. 26, and I Tim. ii. 1; iv. 5). choice, or rational freedom, in recording the INTERMEDDLE (L. inter, ' among,' and truths they communicated, than the peus medium, 'middle;' F. mesler, 'mêler'), 'to
take part in, as in the affairs of others; what he believed he did say, what he meant hence to interfere, is used in Prov. xviii. to say. But before this can be done, the in1 in a good sense, for ‘have to do with,' but terpreter must satisfy himself that he has in a bad sense in xx. 3; comp. xvii. 14, being before him the very words of his author, for equivalent to thrusting into that with which it is from his words only that he can now we have no concern. A word signifying to elicit his sense. Accordingly, the interpreter *mix,' or ómingle,'is in the original used in first inquires into the history of the scripProv. xiv. 10; comp. Ps. cvi. 25.
ture that is under his eye, in order to ascerINTERMISSION (L. inter, “between,' tain when, where, by whom, and under what and mitto, 'I send'), cessation, stopping, circumstances, it was produced ? how it has ceasing for a while (Lam. iii. 49).
been preserved ? are there more copies of it INTERPRETATION, derived from the than one ? do they agree or differ? if they Latin interpres, denoting one who is be- differ, what are the diversities ?—so that he tween twoothers-a means, orintermediary, may be enabled to juugo whether the writing for conveying the thoughts of the one to the is authentic or unauthentic (written by the other, signifies the process, the art, or the person to whom it is ascribed), genuine or science, which conveys from a book or writ- spurious (that is, the writing which he wrote, ing its import to the reader. "This commu- and not another, or the actual production of nication may be made by transferring the the alleged time and circumstances); wheidea from one language into another, and is ther it is pure as the author left it, or corthen called translation,' by the substitution rupted through mistake, or interpolated by of which term for interpretation the force of fraud; whether it is entire as it was when some passages becomes clearer (1 Cor. xii. it proceeded from its writer, or mutilated or 10; xiv. 26. John i. 38; ix. 7. Heb. vii. 2); augmented ? These inquiries, embracing a or the communication may be by expressing vast variety of important topics, in the study the thought of the writer in another word of of which learning, skill, and diligence are the same language (a gloss), or by several of great moment, have been diligently proexplanatory terms of the same language secuted by professed theological scholars, (paraphrase), both which means come un- and led to the general conclusion that the der the general head of explanation, or, to sacred scriptures of the Old and New Tesuse the school term, exegesis ; that is, lead- tament are of such a character as to deserve ing out or unfolding (the sense). The word the most careful and exact attention on the used in the New Testament, hermeneia(from part of the interpreter. Before, however, the Hermes, the Greek name for Mercury, the latter can enter on his task, he must know Pagan mediator, or messenger, between the in what language is the document which lies gods and men), like interpretation, has for before him. Is it an original or a translaits base the idea of some middle party who tion? If the latter, is it trustworthy ? And acts as a medium of communication. Hence here, although in general the authorised interpretation is the process by which the English version may be trusted, yet is it by thoughts of one mind are communicated to no means faultless; and a familiarity with the mind of another, and the interpretation the original languages and their cognate of the Scriptures is that process by which the dialects is a most desirable qualification in meaning of the sacred writings is made one who undertakes to interpret the Scripknown. The existence of such a process or art tures. Such an one, however, if he wishes denotes its necessity; in other words, that to perform his office properly, must, as an there is in the bible something dark needing interpreter, exclude from his sphere that illustration, something hidden to be revealed, which properly does not belong to it. For something difficult to be explained. Nor instance, he has nothing to do with the crewill the existence of obscurities surprise any dibility or with the practical application of one who duly considers that the Bible, write the subject-matter. Whether true or false, ten partly in Hebrew, partly in Greek, was momentous or trivial, divine or human, his produced at different times, by different sole business is to elicit the meaning, to writers, under very different circumstances, bring out and communicate the import of in a state of society most dissimilar to our his text, to discover and set forth the sense own, and completed at the earliest, some of his author. In that sense there may be a eighteen centuries since. Nor, whatever its reproach to Astarte, or a rebuke to David, actual obscurity, is it greater or more difficult or a reproof to Peter, or a solace to the reto remove than that which hangs over ancient pentant sinner; it may relate to the tributebooks in general, whose very antiquity is money, or justification by faith :' no matter, attested by this (as in coins) rust of age. the expositor's sole duty is to conceive and
As Scriptural interpretation is the transfer express the mind of his original in such a of the thoughts of one mind to another mind, way as may best put the reader into possesits first business is to ascertain what the sion of what the sacred penman intended to thoughts to be so transferred are, and hence say. But as the interpreter should aim to to scck out the mind the sense of the writer, get his author's exact meaning, the very form and pressure' of his thought- all quences; to descend to his first principles, that he intended, but not any thing else and follow them out in their applications; so is there nothing beyond this after which and, in individual passages, to discover and he should make inquiry. For if the mind enter into the assemblage of mental images, of the original author is not all that we have the group of associations, the flow of emoto look for, then is our record incomplete, tion, under whicb he wrote; for thus will and men in setting about to supply its defi- you be able to make your author's mind his ciencies, will each bring his own notion, own expositor, and be saved from the grave and so ‘hay, wood, and stubble' of all kinds but common error of importing your opin. will be aggregated to the pure grain of the ions iuto his matter. And if in any case these word. If, therefore, the mind or intention means should fail to remove all difficuity, of the Holy Spirit has to be ascertained, you should first search the writings of your that can be known, and should be inquired author in order, if possible, to discover ancinto, only as conveyed in the mind of the ther passage (or more) in penning which his writer and expressed in the ordinary vehicle mind was in the same or a similar state; so of human language. Dissever the mind of that, by comparing his words together, you the Spirit from the mind of the writer, and, may expound the obscure by the clear, supmaking the latter into a machine, you de. ply defects, correct errors, and exhibit the stroy his value as an attesting party and a exact and full train of thought to which he witness, while you give full scope to all the intended to give utterance. Aid sometimes vagaries of unbridled fancy, and all the arbi- may be found in other writers, whether Bibtrary falsities of opinions spun from self- lical or not; but in using that aid, you must reliance; so that in straining after a sha- take special care to ascertain that the writers dow, you lose the substance, ard make the meant to speak on the same subject and conBible as variable as the changeful aspects vey the same ideas, otherwise you will emof the human mind, thereby bringing it ploy their language in a seno, which was down to a level with the heatben oracles, foreign to their minds. which admitted of numerous applications. Most carefully, too, must you guard your.
The first thing to be done by the inter- self against all assumptions—those plentipreter is, to ascertain the meaning of parti- ful, and alas! perennial, sources of theolocular words; then, connecting these words gical and religious error. In general, you into sentences, to deduce their import, so are to assume nothing, but prove every thing. that by combining the sentences into the Accordingly, you are not to assume that all text, he may view the subject-matter as a the Scriptural writers agree on the same whole, and form a full and exact conception subject, or that they disagree; you are not of its drift and import. Having thus tran- to assume that there is a certain fixed form scribed the mind of his author on his own of opinion and doctrine running from Gene. miud, he is now prepared to fulfil the pre- sis io Revelation ; you are not to take any cise office of an interpreter, and be by trans- general form of belief, and seek to bring all lation a medium of communication between things into accordance with it. You are to himself and the reader.
inquire into these writings; you are to search The functions which the interpreter has after facts; you are to learn what each writer to perform are thus set forth in a few words, says; and when you have ascertained the but their due execution requires many qua
burden of each, you are to lay the whole lifications, aids, and resources. Of these we together and judge whether the parts are have space here to speak only in brief. An harmonious or not, whether there is a comessential assistance is an acquaintance with mon doctrine discoverable or not; if there the history of the times in which a book was is, what does it comprise, and how far may composed; the days wbich preceded and fol. it be used in expounding parts which may lowed; the manners, usages, and institu. yet be dark. This general comparison of tions, civil and religious, of the people; the results of your inquiries is necessary to their literature; their position relatively to make you an interpreter of the Bible, for the world around them; the exact condition, without it you can be no more than an ex. internal and external, of the author, bis pounder of a gospel, an epistle, a history. aims and qualifications, his position in the When, however, you have done your best to general world of thought and in the mental discover and declare the meaning of each sphere of his own country.
and every writer in the collection, you have In employing for the elucidation of an discharged your duty as an interpreter, and author the aids of grammar and history, may hand the results of your studies over to you will do well to form to yourself a dis- the religious teacher, whose office it is to tinct conception of the general manner of ascertain the application of the modes of thought and expression peculiar to him ; to thought and clusters of facts supplied by familiarise yourself with his trains of ideas you to actual states of mind; and, should and phraseology; to trace his feelings back the general credibility of the books be esta to their sources and onward to their conse- blished, severing the accidental from the essential, the temporary from the everlast- Hebrews must have obtained their gold by ing, to deduce and expound the great prin commerce. According to some ancient writ. ciples, eternal truths, and undying sympa- ers, it was obtained in the sand of certain thies which those materials may contain, in rivers of Southern Arabia. But the real such a manner as to gain for them accept. • gold-waters of Southern Arabia' was the Inance in the mind and observance in the life dian Ocean, on which enterprise conducted of his contemporaries. Suça are the rules great commercial operations, bringing wes.which are to be followed by the professional wurd, among other merchandise,gold. Southinterpreter. It is to be borne in mind, how- em Arabia was a depôt whence gold was ever, that the great Interpreter of the Bible is brought to Palestine (1 Kings ix. 28; 1. I, the Holy Spirit, who dictated it. One may seq. 2 Chron. viii. 18. Ezekiel xxvii. 22). be learned in its letter, and yet lack a spiritual In 1 Maccab. viii. 3, mention is made of insight into it. The latter only can purify
wines of silver and gold in Spain, the prothe heart and save the soul. With tbe read. ducts of which were carried to the Asiatic ing of the Scriptures, therefore, the Christian markets by the Tyrians, who thus enriched ought to join earnest prayer to the Spirit, themselves. Comp. Jer. x. 9. who has been promised to unfold tbeir meaning Could we think that Job in xxviii. speaks to bim.
of Palestine, we might infer that the Hebrews INTREAT (L. in, intens., and traeto, F carried on mining to a considerable extent; sraiter, I handle '), signifies to manage, for here are mentioned mines of silver, gold, conduct business, as with a superior; hence iron, and brass, while allusion is made to proto make an arrangement or treaty, and so to cesses of metallurgy (i. 2, 5, 6). In Deut. implore, as being a chief means employed viii. 9, the fact is made probable by the de(Gen. xxv. 21; comp. Job xxxiii. 26). scription there given of it as a land whose
INVASION (L. in, into,' aud vado, 'I stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou go'), a hostile going or incursion into the mayest dig brass.' Dan also is mentioned, country of other people (1 Sam. xxx. 14). in Ezekiel xxvii. 19, among those who sup
INVENTION (L. in, on,' and venio, I plied the market of Tyre with wrought or come'), finding out by devising or con- polished iron; but whether or not they obstructing, that is, making something new; iained the ore from their own country, the while • discovery' is uncovering, bringing to passage does not make clear. A coal mine light what exists, but is hidden. See Eccles. bus in recent times been wrought in Lebavii. 29, and comp. 2 Chron. xxvi. 15; also non, and Edrisi mentions a very productive Prov. viii. 12, comp. with xii. 2. Jer. xxiii. mine near Beiroot. From Tarshish, pro20; xxx. 2.
bably Spain, caine to Tyre silver, iron, tin, IRON (T., eisen in German), as the most lead. From the north and west came ressels valuable of metals, may be maile the occa- of brass (Ezekiel xxvii. 12, 13). Yet this sion of some remarks on metals in general; does not prove that mines were not wrought since, with that avoidance of abstract terms in Palestine itself. That metallurgy was well for which in its simplicity the Hebrew lan- known, if not practised, may be inferred from guage is remarkable, the Bible, while it men- mauy figures of speech taken from the art tions gold, silver, &c., does not contain the (Ps. Ixvi. 10. Is. i. 22; xlviii. 10. Zech. xiii. general term metal. We have termed iron the 9. Ezekiel xxii. 18. Mal. iii. 3). For gold most valuable of metals. Gold is of use chietiy and the other metals Tyre was the great from its being, on account of its rarity, a mart which, directly or indirectly, supplied suitable medium of exchange. The same at least a large portion of what Palestine may be said of silver. But iron, from the required. abundance of its ore and its applicability to That the Hebrews in their earliest condi. the practical arts of life, is not only of very tion were well acquainted with metals, and high value, but so essential to social pro possessed skill in working them, so as to gress, that without it individuals and tribes be able to construct the articles required in could hardly bave risen into nations. Iron is their worship and in ordinary life, may with at the present day found in Syria. There als) safety be inferred from the existence of the may it bave been found of old (Deut. viii. 9). metals and the practice of metallurgy in It was used at an early period (Numb. xxxv. Egypt. The metals required for the service 16). The llebrews appear also to have been of the sanctuary were gold, silver, and brass, acquainted with steel, since mention is made which were well known to the ancient Egyp. in the Bible of instruments that could harily tians. Objects made of them are found have been made of any other metal; and among the ruins of temples.
The repreaccording to some, the word itself occurs in sentations of such objects are common in Nahum ii. 3, where they der, chariots of paintings and reliefs, and the hieroglyphic sparkling steel.' Coinp. Jer, sv. 12. Iron groups which express their names are ascer. in part came from the neighbourhood of the tained. To execute the work enjoined for Black Sea.
the tabernacle, it was necessary that the sePalestine has no gold mines. Hence the veral processes of overlaying (Exodus xxv.
Immediately above the head of each figure the reader sees the hieroglyph for gold. The box on the ground contains the gold-dust as brought from the mines or washings. The two men agitate the ore in a cloth, in order to separate the pure from the impure grains. The block, the mat, and the wooden mallet, are for pounding them.
the metal is melted, and the crucible is The next operation, smelting the ore, is being removed (Isaiah xl. 19). here exhibited. The ore is subjected to the A third design represents the rough exte
rior of a mould of baked clay, with a row of
beat of a furnace in order, as the hiero. glyphs in the original import, to purify the gold from the dross (Exod. xxv. 11. Is. i. 25. Ezek. xxii, 18, 20).
There is in the British Museum a small many earthen funnels at the top, into all of figure of the god Amoun, or Amun, in silver, which the fused metal is poured in succeshaving the head-dress and the attire of the sion. Another man supplies fuel to kindle lower part of the body represented by thin a fire round the mould, in order to keep it plates of gold laid over the silver. A few at a high temperature, for some time after it years ago, a mummy was found in the ne. has received the metal. cropolis of Thebes entirely wrapped in plates In the same manner we could present of gold.
pictures of other operations (Is. xli. 7; xlis. This interesting group is blowing the fur- 12. 1 Kings vii. 45), but prefer setting be