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cannot have been caused by a gradual es- paration, accidents, and corruption, have trangement; an active, violent, extraordinary lost nearly all resemblance. Other instances force alonc sufficey to bring into harmony might be given. If now we may argue from these opposite phenomena, and to explain a part to the whole, we are led to ascribe at once the points of resemblance and ihose the breaking up of the original tongue into of diversity. It would, it seems to me, be so many portions, to changes and deterio. difficult to say what more could be deman,led rations in the social and individual life of by the most obstinate and unreasonable very early ages. If, as far as our view exscepticism, in order to reconcile the results tends, we go back into the remote history of of this science with the Scriptural narrative.' different languages, we find therein great (The Comparatire Study of Languages, &c.) changes, not seldom depravations, and the Of a not dissimilar bearing are the following transformation of languages into new idioms. remarks by Bunsen (Ægypten's S. Vorrede, But these alterations do not destroy the xi.) :-German philology must, to every one organic characteristics of tongues. Each that has followed its course since the time newly-forined idiom retains the features of of F. Schlegel, have proved the great truth the family out of which it sprang. Thus that a method has been found of ascertain. the Romance languages, no less than their ing the genealogical table of the human race mother, the Latin, exhibit a resemblance to by means of its speech ; not in virtue of the Indo-Germanic, their common progehardy and insulated etymologies, but through nitrix. The English language offers & the comprehension and exhibition of the somewhat similar phenomenon. In the Nororganic, indestructible constitution of indi- man-French it received into its Anglo Saxon visual languages according to their families. body a foreign element. A large number When, regarding the matter from this point of its words are also derived from the Latin. of view, I had, by comparing the Coptic with From other quarters has it received conalready known old Egyptian roots and forins, tribations. The result is a whole made up become satisfied of the Asiatic origin of the of very diverse elements—a compound which Egyptians and their connection with the is neither Saxon, German, French, nor Latin, Shemitic or Aramwan peoples, I also, by a but contains a portion of all. Yet enter into general investigation of speech, came to the the structure and essential elements of the conviction that the education of the human English, and in its anxiliary verbs, terminarace was especially the work of those two tions, articles, and conjunctions, you find great families, as unmistakeably related as evidences of its Teutonic origin and relathey were early sundered. What we call tionship. the history of the world is the history of Of the languages mentioned in the Bible. two races which under different names ap- the two most important are the Hebrew and peared on the great theatre where the human the Greek. The Hebrew is a branch of the mind has displayed its powers: the Indo- Shemitic (so called from Shem) family, Germanic is the element which conducts the widely diffused over the south-west of Asia. great stream of the world's his!ory; the With the peninsula of Arabia for its chief Aramaic intersects it, forming the episodes seat in ancient and modern times, the of that divine drama. The speech of the Shemitic spread towards the north over the two great families appears to me titted, and lands between the Mediterranean and the eastindeed in our age called, to become the ern parts of Asia Minor, Armenia, and Persia; foundation of all inquiry respecting the and southwardly it made its way to Ethiorigin of the human race and the laws of its opia. According to the position and the development.'
fate of these countries in which this family Both Wiseman and Bunsen bere raise of tongues prevailed, did it in ancient times the question as to the manner in which these develop itself in diverse formis. In the varieties of dialect came into existence. We north or in Aram (Syria, Mesopotamia, Basee at the present day a minute division of bylonia), where those who spoke Shemitie languages, especially in those countries bordered on very different nations and where the culture and the social relations of tongues, and often received foreign words the inhabitants are in the lowest condition. into their speech, the great branch was less This, for instance, is the case in America, pure and less highly cultivated. In the particularly anong the wild tribes on the south, among the never-subdued Arabs, it Oronoco, where W. von Humboldt found at retained its native qualities, unfolded its least from eight to ten chief tongues among powers freely and fully, and was richer alike 200 tribes containing 80.000 persons. The in words and grammatical forms. Some of Papuahs, or rude inhabitants of the woods these excellencies are said to be found in of the Sonthern Ocean and Australia, are its extreme southern offshoot, the Ethiopic. divided into very small communities only In the middle, between Aram and Arabia remotely connected together. Accordingly, in Palestine, where, besides the Phænicians, their speech is divided into a number of of whose speech we huve only few remains, dialects, which in the lapse of time, by se- which Gesenius has shown to resemble the
Hebrew, and other small nations, whose original, is the feminine of that denoting man. dialects have left no trace behind, dwelt the Tois may be made clear to the reader by children of Israel, the language, originally supposing that instead of woman (which, in at least, inclined more to the Arabic, in ac. truth, is a femine; comp. L. femina; Sanscrit, cordance with historical notices, which unite vamina : man is of the common gender), the progenitors of Israel with Arab chiefs. we used the form man-ess. And certainly in But since the Hebrew underwent its clief the simplicity of its construction, and the developments in the vicinity of powerful number of its words that are obvious imiAramæan countries, it bas much in com- tations of natural sounds, as well as in the mon with the Aramean ; while by its own pure Hebrew of names which go back to independent growth, it formed a character the very dawn of history, we have good which distinguishes it as well from the Ara- reason to believe that the Hebrew is a pri. mæan as the Arabic. Whatever may have mitive form of speech. In the earliest state, been the original tongue, the Hebrew is the however, in which we find it in the Bible, it oldest branch of the Shemitic in which we is already a fully-formed tongue, a literary possess literary treasures. Its northern language. From this, its first historical relative has two branches, the Eastern Ara
condition, it changes little in the lapse of a maic or Cbaldee, the Western Aramaic or
thousand years. From these facts we may Syriac. The Hebrew (in Josephus, 'tongue not unreasonably conclude, that it was in of the Hebrews') may be considered as the use long before it appears on the page of language of the descendants of Shem through history; and though ages may have been Eber, Abraham, and Isaac (Genesis x. 21; required to bring it to its historical condition, xi. 11-26; comp. xiv. 13). In Isa. xix. 18; yet probably the changes it underwent were the Hebrew is termed the language of less considerable than such as mere modern Canaan,' since that country is there spoken tongues have passed through in their tranof in contradistinction to Egypt. The de- sition from a low to a bigh state of develop. signation Jew's language' (Is. xxxvi. 11, ment. During its historical period, how. 13), denotes according to Ewald (Aus. ever, the Hebrew did not remain free from fürliches Lehrbuch der. Heb. Sprache, 5th modifications. Our kuowledge of the lanedis., 19), the modified form of Hebrew guage is supplied by the books of the OH current in the kingdom of Judah, which Testament, which comprise the whole of after the destruction of Samaria alone pre- its genuine productions. Rabbinical Hebrew vailed. In the first pages of the Bible, we is so insure as scarcely to deserve the name. find the Hebrew employed throughout a An attentive consideration of such remains wide extent of country. The patriarchs and of Hebrew literature as we have in the their dependents speak in their journeyings Bible, leads to some distinctions in the lanwith dwellers in Mesopotamia, Syria, Ca- guage. From the vernacular tongue the naan, and Arabia, without interpreters; also prose style during the flourishing period of Josepli's brethren with the Ishmaelite mer. the Hebrew literature was little different, chautmen; Moses with the daughters of only that the former here and there appears Jethro, a Midianite offspring of Abraham to have had imupure expressions, and to have throngb Keturah; the Israelites, after the borne more resemblance to the Aramaic. In conquest of Canaan, with the previous in- its essence, the Hebrew prose is throughout habitants that remained (Josh. ix. 6, sey.); simple and inartificial, but animated and persons of cultivation from Assyria with capable of rising to beauty, and easily, when those of Judah (2 Kings v. 6, seq.; viii. 7, the occasion requires, passes into the dignity seq.), without any intimation being given of of verse. Peculiar in its kind and in its a diversity of tongue. Yet when an inter- culture, however, is the true poetic diction. preter was needful, the fact is mentioned Its essence is an overflowing fuluess, with (Gen. xlii. 23), and foreign words can yet be inexhaustible variety of thought and figure. recognized -as in the Egyptian, for instance, We have little clear evidence of the existence Abrech, bow the knee' (Genesis xli. 43), of such varieties in the lauguage as are called Pharaoh (41), Zaphnath-paaneah (45). At dialects. Once, in Judg. xii. O, some trace a later period also it is expressly said that of the kind occurs; where we find the Ephrathe Israelites did not know the language of imites pronounce Shibboleth Sibboleth. the Chalieans and other northern peoples Among other instances, mention has been (Jer. v. 15), which was more allied to the made of the song of Deborah (Judg. v.), the Zend. Difference of speech is also alluderl Canticles, Hosea, and Isaiah xv.— all which to in cases where peculiarities of dialect were pieces,' says Ewald (Lehrb. 20), “fall in concerned, as the Hebrew and the Aramaic northern Palestine, and have much that (Gen. xxxi. 47. 2 Kings xviii. 20). The is peculiar, and in parts strongly incline to author of the book of Genesis seems to have the colour of the Aramaic. Also within the regarded the Hebrew as the earliest spoken narrow borders of the kingdom of Judah, a language. This appears from certain ety- writer from the ranks of the people, as Amos mologies. Eve's name, for instance, in the or Micah, exbibits departures froin the more formed and polished style of such authors masters in Palestine (Judg. iii. 8–10). From as Joel and Isaiah, who lived in the capital.' the days of David they were during a long At a later period, owing to foreign admix. period more or less inumately connected with tures, impure forms of the Hebrew tongue Israel (2 Sam. x. 19. 1 Kings v. 1. 2 Kings arose; after the exile, a dialect was formed xiv. 25). After the division of the kingrom, at Ashdod by mixture with Philistine words they brought the eastern tribes under their (Nehem. xiii. 23, 24); and in Galilee the yoke (2 Kings ix. 14; x. 32, 33), and threatspoken language was corrupted by inter- ened or vanquished the western (2 Kings course with foreigners (Matt. xxvi. 73). xii. 18; xiii. 3, seq.). More decided was While the Hebrew, in its earliest historical the intercourse after the Assyrian dominion condition,appears fully formed and gives clear bad extended itself over South - Western indications of having long been used, thus Asia. These relations could not fail to inshowing that writing must have been prac- troduce, even in early times, Aramaic words tised ages before the days of Moses; while and forms into the Hebrew, and such are during the earlier period of its classical ex- said to be found in the oldest of the Bibli. istence it underwent scarcely any change, cal writings. These of course increased, toin consequence partly of its own character, gether with the prevalence of foreign ascend. and parily of its being kept free from contact ancy, and received inuch augmentation when with foreign tongues; and while it is diffi- the nation was transplanted into Assyria, cult to trace any broad lines of distinction and those who spoke Aramean were placed in its several ages, especially since critics in the lands of Judah and Israel. That lanare not agreed as to the time when some of guage as being the language of the conits masterpieces saw the light or assumed queror, while it differed only as a dialect their present form; yet from the days of from the purer Hebrew, became the ordinary the Kings some have detected traces of a speech of the people, and in common life marked but gradual change. This change was used in writing. Some specimens of it came from two quarters—the influence of a obtained admission into the collection of general culture of the arts, to which Solomon sacred writings (Dan. ii. 4—7; vii. 28. Ezra gave an efficient patronage, and which could iv. 7-vi. 18; vii.- xii. 26). They are the not fail to refine the literary taste; and earliest documents which give us a knowthe growing influence of the popular ele- ledge of the Aramaic; others, as the books ment in the state, by which the national mind, of Judith, Tobit, and Baruch, have come in loosening the hold of the priesthood on down only in translations. Even in Palesit, and partaking of the general impulse tine, whither the Jews, after the permission given by peace, commerce, and luxury, ac- given by Cyrus, gradually returned, it re. quired an increase of activity, strength, and mained the language of common life, the vigour, which would lead to the production rather because they held communion with of works interesting to the many, such as Syrians and Samaritans (Ezra is. 10. Neh. the Canticles, Proverbs, and histories. As a vi. 17. seq.). The Hebrew, however, was consequence, the diction not only of poets not entirely driven out of use. The book of and prophets, but also of historical writers, Jesus, the son of Sirach, the first of the Macbecomes more conciso
cabees, the Asmonæan coins, whicle bear the mental. From the seventh, still more the old long Samaritan characters, shew that in sixth century before Christ, the Hebrew the three last centuries before Christ, as well language begins to sink, together with the as in the two preceding, it was employed in national character. At the time of the over- actual life. This, without doubt, is to be throw of the empire of the Chaldees, 550– ascribed to the operation of the schools, 530 A. C., it, in union with the spirit of the which, together with synagogues, were people, raises itself to purity and force; but formed wherever there was a considerable under the Persian and Grecian dominion, Jewish population. As in the latter the sinks again irrecoverably. And since, in Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagiothis period of decline, foreign despotism grapha, were read, so in the former were proceeded mostly from those who spoke they expounded in the original tongue. Aramaan, and since so early as the days The centre of this literary and religious acof Hezekiah courtiers learnt the Aramæan tivity was Jerusalem till the time of its over(Is. xxxvi. 11), so the Hebrew approached throw, when, under the eyes of the ecclesimore and more to that sister tongue. In astical and civil authorities, the Sanhedrim, the time of Daniel, the Aramæau was pre- distinguished teachers gave lectures which ferred, and the Hebrew hall become a kind were attended by the future heads of other of learned tongue.
schools. Thus the Hebrew maintained itself The influence of the Aramean may, in- in the mouths of the learned; but the Aradeed, be traced from an early date. Those mæan held its place among the people. Of who spoke it had commercial relations with this tongue there were, at a later period, three the Israelites (Amos iii. 12). In the time separate forms: the Aramæan, as spoken in of the Judges, they were for a short lime Edessa, Haran, and Mesopotamia; the Sy
riac, the language of Damascus, Lebanon, barous regions,' and 'the Macedonian speech and Syria, properly so called ; and the among the Indians and Persians.' Whal, Chaldee-Nabathæan, spoken in the Assyrian with all their conquests, Alexander and his high lands and in the villages of Arach. In successors failed to achieve, the Romans the Western - Aramean, or Syro-Chaldee, fully accomplished, and in founding a uniwere, from the first century before Christ, versal monarchy gave currency and permawritten all the acts of civil life; proverbs, nence to one language. Accordingly, wherof which many are found in the Talmud; ever, in most parts of the ancient world, the certain formularies of instruction for the un- learned antiquary casts his eye, he uds, learned, for women and children; popular amid ruins of once splendid cities, inscripbooks and official documents, as well as tions in the Greek tongue on coins and translations of the Scriptures, as the Targu- monuments—alike in Alexandria, the centres mim; so that, as indeed may be learnt from of trade and culture in Asia Minor, Jerusaseveral words found in the Greek of the New lem, Antioch, Baalbec. If, indeed, we may Testament (Matt. v. 22; xxiii. 7 ; xxvii. 46. take the words of Jerome in their full meanJolin i. 38, 49; xx. 16. Mark iii. 17 ; v. 41; ing, all the East spoke Greek' (Prol. in vii. 34. Acts i. 19), the Aramænn became Epist. ad Galat.). There can, however, be the language of common life. It continued no doubt that, conjointly with the vernacular, its existence after the destruction of Jeru- the Greek was very widely known and emsalem; for distinguished teachers founded ployed in eastern parts of the world. Among schools at Zippora, Lydda, Cæsarea, and the Jews of Egypt, its prevalence gave occa. especially Tibe as, where they cultivated this sion to the Greek translation of the Hebrew language and put forth writings, as the Scriptures, called the Septuagint. The books Mishna, which, with the Syriac translation which emanated from these Israelites were of the New Testament, have done much to written in Greek, and at the public worship transmit the essential qualities of the Ara- in their temple at Leontopolis, the lectures mean to the present day. Meanwhile, the and prayers in the synagogues, and the Hebrew had disappeared from ordinary life. instructions in the schools, the same lanOn the Euphrates and the Tigris the Israel. guage was employed. The same was the ites had lost its purity, so that when para- case in Antioch and in other cities of Syria graphs were read from the old Scripture, founded by the Macedonians. In conse. expositions were given in the vulgar or Ara- quence, so early as the Maccabees we find maic tongue (Neh. viii. 1-8); and in the the Greek, together with the Aramean, unordinary services on the sabbath and holy derstood by the Jews (2 Maccab, vii. 2, 8, days, an interpreter (methurgeman), at first 21, 27). During the age of the apostles, in from his own resources, afterwards from the Greek cities of south-western Asia, written Targums, 'gave the sense, and in Asia Minor, in the east of Europe, and cansed them to understand the reading.' in Italy, while the Aramean was used in
While these great changes in the She- common conversation among the Jews, Greck mitic dialects were proceeding, another lan- was the language of the synagogue. In the guage, one of a different family (the Indo- latter were read portions of the Septuagint Germanic), we mean the Greek, was ac- translation of the law and the prophets, at quiring predominance in the countries of the festival of Purim the book of Esther, Western Asia. The diffusion of this tongue and in part also the prayers ; in it, moreover, over the East, as it had already been long instructions were given to the young. Even prevalent in the West, was a wise arrange. in Palestine, at the time of our Lord, Greek ment of Providence, by which the civilisa- was understood by the people and spoken tion of these two great divisions of the world conjoiutly with the Aramæan (Acts xxi. 40; might be blended together, and a new state xxii. 2). We find the Roman Procurator of society, together with a new religion discoursing obviously in Greek, not only benign in its genius, and universal in its with learned Jews, but with Jesus himself tendency and scope-might be brought into and the populace of Jerusalem; listening existence. The conquests of Alexander pre- to the clamours of the latter against the pared the way for this diffusion of the Greek former, proposing to them Jesus or Barabbas, tongue. Being the language of the con- declaring himself innocent of the blood be queror, and the repository of the best know- was about to shed, and in all so well unde: ledge and highest culture of the day, it be- stood by the people, that they give him incame first the language of the courts in stant and appropriate answers, and convey Egsyt and Syria, then of the learned gene- to his ears intimations and threats that rally, and at last was spoken by great mum- compel him to yield to their unjust demands. bers in every part where the influence of the With the patriotic and national party who Diacedonian bero retained predominance. identified the Greek tongue with a foreign
In the times of the New Testament there yoke, that language was in leed unpopular; were, as we learn from Seneca (Consol. vi. but the necessities of actual life in the ), Greek cities even in the midst of bar. transactions of commerce, the intercourses of
society, and the hopes of advancement, were catching and vending fish, may have found found valid reasons why even bigots should some Greek indispensable to the successful not deny themselves the advantages that transaction of their business. And both accrued from familiarity with the language could not fail to improve their acquaintance patronised by power, opulence, culture, and with the language, and their command over fashion. Among at least large numbers of its resources as a means of intercourse by the Jews, the Hellenists, the Greek main- speech and writing, in their travels and tained its prevalence till the middle of the teachings among persons and in parts of second century of our era, when or their the world where Greek was constantly, if behalf Akilas (Aquila) of Pontus mane a new not exclusively, in use. At any rate, enough translation of tbe Bible into Greek, since has been said to show the reason why the the Septuagint was not found sufficiently New Testament, though the work of Jewish literal. "Misfortune in the course of time writers, was published to the world in the brought these Jews back to their national Greek tongue; and also to prove that its tongue, when a fast was appointed to be writers, even if they, or any of them, emheld on the eighth of December to deplore ployed translators, had a sufficient acquaintthe formation of the Alexandrine translation ance with the Greek to qualify them for of the sacred books.
exerting such a supervision as would make Of no little consequence is the much-de- the writings severally put forth on their bated question as to what the language was authority, accurate transcripts of their minis in which our Lord and his apostes gave and fit representatives of their wishes and their instructions. Between the two ex- aims. tremes, that Jesus taught only in Aramæan The Greek of the New Testament, how. and only in Greek, a third view sets him forth ever, is not the Greek of Xenophon or Thuus discoursing in Aramæan with his disci. cydides. Its inferiority, wbich by some bas ples and with the people in Galilee, Peræa, been made a reproach and by others as un. Judea, and Samaria, but in Greek on certain wisely denied, proves on due inquiry to be occasions, as before Pilate and with the in itself an attestation to the apostolic writ. Syro-Phænician woman. That while our ivgs. Had these compositions been written Lord employed the native Aramæan with in Attic purity, they would thereby bare the people, le possessed a knowledge of impeached, if not contradicted, their alleged Greek which he could use when needful, is a origin on the banks of the Jordan and in proposition which is not without foundation. the first century of the Roman empire. Had In Galilee, where he passed his early days, they been in the common Greek of literature, foreign influences abounded more than in they might have arisen in that age, but any other part of Palestine. The correct would in their style have no necessary conuse, in the body of a discourse held with his nection with Palestine. In their actual condisciples, of a Greek word, euergetai, ‘bene- dition, they by unmistakeable tokens declare factors, found on Syro-Macedonian coins that their birth-place is Judea, and their current in Palestine in his day (see LORD. age that of the earliest Cæsars. In the rear SHIP and Luke xxii. 25), shows that he not of the Macedonian conquests there gradually only knew, but employed the Greek. Paul formed itself a kind of Greek which, being having been educated in Tarsus, though he derived from that of the classic authors, and may not have received a thorough Greek retaining a portion of what was peculiar 10 training, was undoubtedly familiar with the Macedon, the inhabitants of which were not Greek language and some of its literature, of pure Hellenic blood, acquired peculiarities for he has quoted lines from its poets (Acts in each locality in which it became estaxvii. 28. 1 Cor. xv. 33. Tit. i. 12). Luke's blished, and being spokon variously in difskill in the Greek tongue, which, especially ferent parts, was by cultivated writers moin the last chapters of the Acts, approaches delled into a general form, which, from its to the style of Greek history, is not sur- being the universal language of good writing, prising, if he received at Antioch, the cradle was denominated common Greek. This, the of Gentile Christianity, a Greek education language of books, was ene ployed, only in a for the medical profession (Col. iv. 11, 14). deteriorated condition and under direrse Nor is it improbable that the Galilean apos. modifications, as a spoken language in all des may have possessed a knowledge of parts of the civilised world. Those modiGreek, for in that district, especially by fications, as to extent and impression, demeans of commerce, of settlers, of theatres, pended on the force and vigour of local and &c., Greek was spread among the people. national influences. In Palestine, where there Mattbew, if on one side fitted by his native smouldered in the bearts of the people an Hebrew for collecting taxes among the peo- intense Hebrew feeling, the native tongue ple, required on the other a knowlerige of strongly and deeply impressed itself on ile Greek in order to conmunicate with his Greek. The Jews had a literature of their heathen employers. Peter and Jobn, as sons own, venerated historical associations, and of tradesmen who supported their families by fondly cherished hopes, all of which, bearing