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a deep tinge of Hebrew, could not fail to military possession of Palestine, the Romans, impart a strong colouring to any new lan- however, could not fail to set in circulation guage they might be led to employ. The words and modes of expression, while even chief type of the Palestinian Greek was the their Greek wore a somewhat Latinised form. Septuagint, which, as e translation of the A few instances of Latin terms and idioms Hebrew Scriptures, retained and communi present themselves in the New Testament, cated no little of the impress of the Hebraic but they bear a very small proportion to the style of thought and utterance. Conjointly Hebraisms of word, thought, expression, and with this infiuential work, various apocry construction, which there abound. phal writings in a kind of Jewish or Alex. These qualities, characterising the language andrine Greek, combined to form the general of the later Scriptures, afford a strong, if not characters of the Greek of the New Testa decisive, evidence that these writings first apment. Greatest, however, and most durable, peared within the first century of the Chris. was the impress received in the mould tian era. An earlier age no one las ventured formed by the writers of the New Testament to claim for them; a later age can hardly be themselves, who as having from their youth assigned; for in the second century the Roup been trained in and imbued with Hebrew mans liad no longer personal intercourse ideas, associations, and phraseology, could with the inhabitants of Palestine and the aunot fail to impart to the expression of their thorities of the Jewish metropolis; and the thoughts a decided and lasting tinge of ever-augmenting corruption of the WesternHebraism, whatever modifications their edu- Aramæan would have carried the style of the cational opinions might have undergone, New Testament farther from that of the Sepand whatever was the outward dress in tuagint and the Greek Apocrypha, and nearer which they clothed their thoughts and feel- to rabbinical Hebrew. In the first century ings. Hence the New Testament in ge- and then only, and in that century during neral has a Hebrew or Aramaic colouring the time when the Jewish temple and polity in parts of a deeper, in parts of a fainter were still erect, but under the yoke of Rome, shade.
were the influences in active and combined It is thus seen that the Greek of the New operation that gave birth to the altogether Testament differs from the pure model in peculiar style of language in which are found two essential characters;—first, it is taken the earliest written records and memorials from a foreign and corrupt dialect of Greek, of the Christian religion. and chiefly from that dialect as used in con- LANTERNS (L. laterna) is the renderversation; secondly, it is pervaded by a broad ing, in John xviii. 3, of the Greek phanos, and deep Hebrew element derived from se- which Lücke interprets as meaning torches,' veral quarters. This last is in some in. taking the next word, lampades, 'torches,' for stances so predominant, that we have He- lanterns. Instruments of the kind appear to brew, or Aramaic, thoughts and forms of have formed a part of the equipments of sol. expression in Greek characters. Mary's diers in marches and attacks by night. The hymn of triumph, for instance, in Luke i. Egyptian ruins fail here to supply certain 46—79, is so thoronghly Hebraic, that it illustration, though this cut seeins to pre might almost, term for term, be turned into sent a lantern which is held by one of a Hebrew words. Not only in general effect military guard. does the style of the New Testament, espe. cially Matthew's Gospel, betray marks of its Aramaic origin, but in words also, constructions, and modes of expression, for the right and fall comprehension of which, familiarity with the elder Scriptures in the original is indispensable. The union of the several peculiarities of style to which we have now referred, forms what critics, with no great precision, have denominated Hellenistic Greek, on the ground that the Jews who spoke Greek bore the name of Hellenistai.
It might have been expected that, as the Romans were, in the age of Jesus and his apostles, masters of Palestine, the Latin tongue would have left a general impression on the language of the New Testament. But the Greek was the recognised language of literature and social intercourse, and prevalent in all parts of the civilised world, while as yet Latin was merely the language of civil and 'The view has special interest when consimilitary despotism. Hoiding for many years dered in relation to John xviii. 3. The ne19, seq.
cessity for the employment of lights by the various readings in the manuscripts. Hence, soldiers who apprehended Jesus arose, first, possibly, Larissa may bave been the word from its being night-time (Mark xiv. 27. written by the historian. If so, the difficulty John xiii. 30); and secondly, though the full arising from the fact that Lasea is not men moon then (at the Passover) shone, yet its tioned in any other ancient writing, dislight, specially in the deep shadows in the appears. ravine on the western side of Olivet, would LAST DAY. See JUDGMENT. be insufficient to enable the guard to distin- LATIN. See LANGUAGE. guish features and be sure they had seized LATTICE. See CASEMENT. the right person. Besides, for aught they LAVER (L. lavo, ‘I wash'), a round, knew, Jesus might have hidden himself in large brass bowl, standing on a leg and base some house, or behind the trees of the garden. also brazen, made of the women's brazen
LANGUISH (L. languesco, 'I grow weak) mirrors (Exod. xxxviii. 8), which was placed is the appropriute rendering, in Is. xxiv. 4, on the left of the altar of burnt-offering, in of a word which signifies, and is elsewhere the fore-court of the sanctuary, in order to (Ezek. xvi. 30) rendered by, weak,' or 'fee- afford the priests means for washing their ble' (1 Samuel ii. 5). It is applied also to hands and feet before they proceeded to things to denote their fading and wasting perform their sacred office (Exod. xxx. 18, away (Is. xvi. 8. Joel i. 10, 12. Nah. i. 4). seq.; xl. 7, 11).
LASCIVIOUSNESS (L. lascivia — laius, * looseness,' liceutiousness') is, in Ephes. iv. 9, used of a person who gives the reins to his passious; hence the word is sometimes equivalent to Just;' so in Rom. xiii. 13, where the common version gives 'wan. tonness. The view taken by the gospel of this disgraceful vice may be found in Gal. v.
LAODICEA (G.) is a name borne by several ancient cities, of which that mentioned in the New Testament lay near the borders of Phrygia and Lydia, on the river Lycus, about sixty miles east of Ephesus, eighteen west of Colossæ, and nearly the same dis. tance south of Hierapolis. The place, named at an earler period Diospolis, then Rhoas, was called Laodicea, in honour of Laodice, wife of the Syrian king, Antiochus II., who impiously bore the name of deus, *god.' Laodicea was for a long time a place of small importance; but at the commencement of the Christian era, it held a high position both in commerce and riches. In The year 66 A. D., it, together with Colossæ and Hierapolis, suffered from an earthquake. It was rebuilt under Marcus Aurelius, but never regained its lost greatness.
In Solomon's temple, instead of this laver, Connected with the name of this city an was a sea of molten brass, with ten bases epistle is mentioned, in Coloss. iv. 16, as of brass, adorned with figures of lions, oxen, the (letter) from Laodicea;' that is, 'sent and cherubim (1 Kings vii. 23, seq.; comp. from Laodicea ;'—by Paul ? But was Paul 2 Chron. iv. 6). Ahaz removed the laver ever in the place ? (ii. 1). Compare itself from the supporting oxen, and placed i. 387. It may be held that the letter in it on a pavement of stones (2 Kings xvi. question was one which Paul had sent to 17). It is possible that a restoration was the Laodicean church, and which the Colos- effected by Hezekiahı ; for among the sacred sians were to receive from Laodicea; it being, utensils carried to Babylon, oue sea and it may be supposed, a circular letter designed the bases which Solomou had made,' are to pass from church to church in Asia Minor, mentioned (2 Kings xxv. 16). The second where were several Christian communities. temple had one laver of brass, to which
LASEA, a place on the eastern side of the a certain person, named Ben Katin, caused island of Crete, to which, on his voyage to to be applied not only twelve, instead of Rome, Paul came after having passed the pro- two cocks, which there had been before, but moutory of Salmone and the Fair Havens, also a special contrivance for supplying and and which, therefore, could not have lain far letting off the water. In his description of from Gortyna, the ancient name for which, the Herodian temple, Josephus (Jew. War, namoly Larissa, may be made out from the v. 5) does not mention this reservoir. The figures of the molten sea given by archæolo- absence of minute information, aid has been gists vary one from the other, since, in the drawn from the imagination.
LAW (T. lagen,ʻI lay'), according to the the agencies concerned and the aims puretymological meaning of the term, denotes sued, are, in view of final as well as immethat which is laid down or appointed, that diate consequences, the fittest and most is by a competent authority, and so is the effectua) in the judgment of the lawgiver. expression of the will of a superior, who as The laws of God are therefore his ordibeing a superior must be presumed to be nances for the furtherance of his wise and distinguished either by power, or by that benevolent purposes. Consequently, obedi. wisdom and goodness which are the only ence on the part of man is enforced no less by sources of true and lasting power. Law is, an enlightened self-interest than by the most therefore, the ordinances of supreme intel. solemn and impressive obligations. And ligence. As being such, it is a system not the laws of God, as the emanations of his of arbitrary appointments, but of those re- own infallible intelligence, are the ministers gulations and behests which, in regard to of his good pleasure, not bonds imposed by
Bume unknown power of destiny. They of that will was denominated law,' or 'the also comprehend what is sometimes called law,' thorah. The term, signifying“ instruc.
the laws of nature,' for nature is nothing tion,' serves of itself to show the nature of else than that wbich is ever being born the communication, as being addressed to (nascor — natus naturus I
into human intelligence. The remark is the being') or produced of the great Producer more necessary, because with our higher or Creator, that is, God. Hence appears the conception of law in general, and the nobler radical absurdity of the phrase, laws of principle of Christianity, whose tendency it nature,' when employed as a producing or is to make every man obedient by love, we creating power. Law produces nothing, but are, in looking back on the law of Moses, too is produced ; and laws of nature' is a form much inclined to see in it only a mass of arof speech which has no meaning, unless it bitrary and unmeaning requirements imposed signify the modes of the Divine agency, the by sovereign power. In truth, the legismeasures of Creative power, the ordinances lation of Moses was for its time the expresof Providence; or, in regard to created sion of the highest social and political beings, the course of conduct which it is wisdom, and we speak not unadvisedly when God's will that they should observe.
we add, that it contains features in the Law is an abstraction, to which it is clear application of the spirit of which advantage men could not rise in the earlier periods of might even yet be found. the world. Society must have existed some The terms • law,' law of Moses,' 'law of time before the elements came into being Jehovah,' depote in the Old Testament the out of which the idea was formed. Hence Mosaic economy in general, as well as par. we gain a measure of the degree of civili- ticular portio:s or enactments of it; without, zation possessed by ancient peoples. And however, involving any systematic division bence we are justified in inferring that the into parts, according to the nature of the Bible, in its earliest pages, was a conse- requirements and observances; for the whole quence of divine revelation, and not a pro- Mosaic legislation was, according to the duct of a relatively high degree of cultura; manner of a primitive age, of too simple a for the essence of what constitutes law is character, da:] was given too much as cir. found in its opening rarratives. Superficial cumstances arose-too much, so to say, by thinkers have, indeed, stumbled at particulars piecemeal and unpremeditatedly—10 admii there recorded, as if to abstaiu from eating of any exact arrangemeut. It is only, thereforbidden fruit might not be a test of obe. fore, as a matter of convenieuce that we dience equally as well as the refusai of a can give enure acquiescence to divisions In the account,
we find a made in later days. Such a division is that divine cominand given to man, accompanied which finds in the general system bearing with a penalty to be inflicted on its being the name of law, I. the moral law; II. the broken. The prohibition is disregarded, ceremonial law; III. the civil law. Of these and punishment ensues; yet not without a collectively the foundation is the great promise of better things to come. In these spiritual doctrine which sets forth in Jebosimple facts is an epitome of the Bible, vah the absolute, self-existent, almighty which is in truth a sacred book, for this, if and eternul Being, Creator of heaven and for no other reason, that its great aim from earth, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, first to last is to make God's laws univer- as the God of Israel (Exod. vi. 2; xiii. 5; sally obeyed, and so to bring peace on earth xix. 3, seq.; xx. 2, seq.). Here the universal and prepare the way for pure and eternal Lord enters into a peculiarly close relation spiritual good.
with the Hebrew race, involving special comIn the proinotion of his own wise and munications of light from himself, and pecubenevolent designs, the Creator of the uni- liar duties on the part of that people. Hence verse has furnisbed his intelligent creatures also it appears that Mosaism was not a new with sufficient light in all ages and in all religion, but a development of the patriarchal. nations (Acts xiv. 17; xvii. 23, seq. Rom. i. Its founder built his church on pre-existent 20, seq.; ii. 12-15), while to the lineal and materials-such as established and recog. spiritual descendants of faithful Abraham nised truths, prescriptive usages, and venehe communicated special instructions, in rable recollections, making this great truth order that the light thus given might be the corner-stone of the edifice, namely, ‘Hear, spread throughout the world (Genesis xii. ( Isruel, Jehovah is our God, Jehovah is 3). This publication of law was at the one' (Deut. vi. 4). Doctrine leads to morais. first made to individuals--for instance, the If Jehovah is the God of Israel, Israel be. patriarchs—yet with a view to its communi- longs to Jehovah. Hence, in the fullest cation to others; but in due time, when a seuse of the term, every Hebrew was God's. people had been made fit to be its depo. Obedience was an obvious duty. Jehovah, sitary, God's will was through Moses made mcreover, was the sole Lawgiver and King. known to the children of Israel, that they His will was emphatically expressed in the might embody it in their national insti. Ten Commandments, which formed the tutions and national life. The declara:ion germ of the whole poliiy. As Jehovah was
the sole possessor and master of the nation, ritual import of the law, which they caused so did its members all belong to him—their to degenerate into an unmeaniug and probodies as well as their minds. If, there. fitless system of outward observances, loaded fore, he thought fit to allow those bodies to with learned errors, grave, trilling, and hu. be redeemed, still were the Israelites liable man traditions. This degeneracy prepared to pay such services as he might require. the way for its own dissolution. Yet, like Thus the civil and the ceremonial law ensued the fabled phenix, even in its death it gave from the great fundamental doctrine so birth to Christianity. In comparison with pointedly set forth in the words just cited the religion of Jesus, the Mosaic law must Deut. v.). Hence also arose the general in the nature of things suffer greatly (Heb. equality of all Israelites; and as, under God, ix. 10). But while such a comparison was, they stood on a level, minor distinctions with Paul and other writers of the New Tes. disappearing before the great relation borne tament, indispensable, it is no less proper, to the one Sovereign, Ruler, and Judge,- if we would form a just estimate of the older and as this great Being saw fit to give the revelation, to contemplate it in relation to Israelites a land of their own, in which the day when, and the immediate purposes wealth and power were to be gained by for which, it was given; and in doing this, agriculture, so did a division of the land of competent judges must be struck with adminecessity ensue, tribal and family distinctions ration, and will be ready to admit that, as a were sanctioned and perpetuated, while his- code of laws, the Mosaic system far surpasses tory was encouraged in the rudiments of any ancient legislation. genealogical registers, and still more in the Among the purposes which the law was records required in the transmission, if not designed to answer, was so to educate the given in the enactment of ceremonial obser- conscience as eventually to call forth in each
These outward acts were more or one's mind the knowledge of sin (Rom. iii. less of a symbolical nature. They thus 20; vii. 7), without which there can be no true acquired a moral import and value, and turning to God, and no vital change of the rose into inportance. It is an
heart; in other words, the law is a pre-requilimit the morality of Mosaisin to the Teu site to the great work effected in the soul by Commandments, though that digest of law the gospel. will not suffer in comparison with the laws From this as well as from other conside. of the Twelve Tables and similar compila- rations, we learn the intimate connection in tions; but to the well-instructed eye of a which the law stands with the gospel. This pious Israelite, every part, every act, every connection, dimly revealed by Moses (Deut. dress, if not every ornament, appears to xvii. 15), is explicitly declared in the New have conveyed a moral signification, while Testament (Jolin i. 45; v. 14 Acts iii. 22 ; the whole combined to carry his mind to vii. 37. Gal. iii. 21). The connection, of God, and make him, as a Hebrew, feel him. necessity, involved both what was durable self one of a great spiritual corporation which and what was transitory in the earlier reli. embodied high spiritual truth, had a high gion; what was durable, because, as coming spiritual mission, and was working a great from God to man, it was founded on everreligious and providential work. Viewed lasting relations and conveyed undecaying in this light, the complexity and minute- truth ; what was transitory, because, as deness of the ceremonial law acquire import- signed for an early age, it in part lost its ance, and the polity, seen as a whole having fitness when that age was gone ; and, as great moral aims and tendencies, appears in being preparatory, it ceased to be valid when a favourable light, and reflects high and last. it had produced its result in something ing honour on him from whom it emanated. higher than itself. Thus the religion of We are thus led to find a reason and a jus- Moses and that of Jesus are seen to be parts uification of the veneration in which the of God's universal providence, which, by law of Jehovah was held by pious Israelites, that process of transition that is an essential and can understand how with propriety they condition of human progress, incessantly could ascribe to it qualities such as those causes old things to pass away, and all things mentioned in Ps. xix. 7, seq.
to become new (2 Cor. v. 17). And, as conWe have spoken of the law as it was in stituting an essential link in the chain of its ideal stat, The actual observance of Eternal Providence, as having a realised aim the people fell far below the aim of the le. in the promotion of God's will on earth, gislator. For inany centuries the Hebrew as executing a great work in the process of nation manifested idolatrous propensities, man's education, as one grand step in the and so struck a blow at its vital part. Kings, onward progress of our race, the law remains. priests, and people, forgot God, and would for ever, and can co more pass away than for ever have disowned his sovereignty but any other divine ordinance till all be fulfilled, for the faithful rebukes of prophets. And when it wiil still survive in its benign effects 'at a later period, when they were at length (Matt. v. 18). weaned from polytheism, they, in their car- In the New Testament, the word law, from nal minds, too easily lost from sight the spi- a Greek ternu, nomos (hence nome, a portion