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of the land of Egypt), signifying a division, synagogue made in the verse referred to a province, means, I. dominion, or power above. (Rom. vii. 2; comp. 1 Corinthians vii. 39); The Roman law, as being that of the miII. precept, or principle (Gal. vi. 2); III. litary superiors of Judea, was more or less command, as giving a rule of life (Rom. iv. introduced into the usages and language of 15; vii. 8, 9); IV. generally an order or the people and the practice of the courts. manner of conduct (Phil. ii. 5. Acts xxii. In Matt. v. 25, the words refer to a legal 3); V. civil statutes or institutions (John usage among the Romans. Parties among vii. 51. Acts xxiii. 3); VI. the Mosaic po- them suing each other at law might, on lity, the law of works,' in contradistinction their way to the tribunal, come to a good to Christianity, the “law of faith' (Rom. iii. understanding If this was not effected, the 27; comp. ix. 31); VII, the law of Moses accuser required the accused to go with him considered in relation to certain require- before the Prætor. Should the latter refuse, ments (Luke ii. 22. John vii. 23); VIII. the former, calling in a witness, might enthe laws of Moses in general (Matt. xxiii. force compliance (comp. Matthew xviii. 28). 23. Acts vi. 13; xv. 21). "Those under the Still, should the accused, while on the way, law' are Jews (1 Cor. ix. 20; comp. Rom. effect an accommodation, the matter was terii. 12; iv. 14). The passage in Gal. ii. 19 minated. Comp. Luke xii. 58. seems to mean that Paul, in virtue of the LAZARUS, an abridged and Grecised divine ordination ('law') respecting the sal- form of the Hebrew Eleazar, is the name vation of the Gentiles, had bidden farewell under which Jesus spoke of the beggar to the law (of Moses). Compare Rom. vii. (hence lazaretto) whom, in his parable, he 6, where read with the margin, Griesbach set in contrast with the rich man that fared and Tischendorf, · being dead to that' (vi. sumptuously every day (Luke xvi. 19, seq.). 2). In the epistle to the Romans, as well as The latter denotes the Jews, the former the in that to the Galatians, care must be taken despised and hated Gentiles. There is no to discriminate the exact meaning of law, reason to suppose, with some, that a real which signifies the entire Mosaic economy person, by name Lazarus, formed the subject (Rom. iii. 28. Gal. ii. 16)-or some part of of our Lord's brief discourse. Probably, the that system, its promises, its threatenings- heathen form of tbe name Lazarus may have or God's natural laws considered as promnl- suggested it as the denomination of the repregated in the law of Moses (Rom. ii. 14, 15, sentative of the Gentile world, while there 25—27; iii. 31; xiii. 8, 10. Galatians v. 4); is much skill and delicate feeling manifested whence the law' means, the law viewed as in Christ's avoiding to mention his fellow. published by Moses, and in its moral rela- countrymen by name as those intended under tions (Rom. iii. 19; v. 13. Gal. iii. 2-21). the general description of the rich man,' * The law,' by the figure which puts the con- Of course, as this parable was intended to tained for the container, also signifies the operate immediately on the minds of Jews, book of the law, the Scriptures of the Old its imagery and forms of thought are such Testament, or the Pentateuch (Matt. xii. 5. as they were familiar with. It is characLuke x. 26. John viii. 17. I Cor. xiv. 21. teristic of the universal spirit of the gospel Gal. iii. 10). Reference is probably made of Luke, that he alone of the evangelists has to tradition in 1 Cor. xiv. 31.
recorded this parable. The law was in the days of the apostles LAZARUS was also the name of the friend read in the synagogues (Acts xiii. 15). The of Jesus (John xi. 3), the brother of Mary custom arose 150 years before the birth of and her sister Martha, of Bethany, in whose Christ. It was read in portions, or divisions, abode the Saviour appears to have found a ascribed to Ezra. The five books of Moses, home, whom he raised to life after he had termed the Law,were divided into 54 chapters; been dead four days, and whom, as being by so thaton each sabbath of the (lunar) year one his very existence à visible and resistiess portion might be read. When the year con- proof of the divine power of Jesus, the Jew. tained less than 54 weeks, two or more portions ish authorities, in their insane and inveterate were read together. When Antiochus Epi- hatred, contemplated putting to death. In planes burnt 'the law' and forbad its being the defectiveness of our narratives we are rend, the Jews chose portions from the pro- unable to say whether those enemies of the phets, which in sense corresponded with those gospel were deterred by a fear of thereby of the Pentateuch, and these they read in the giving a fresh impulse to the already too synagogues. When they were again allowed prosperous cause of Christ; and are equally to read the law, they continued to read deprived of the means for determining how also the prophetic portions. A portion or Lazarus acted in the woful tragedy through chapter of the kind was termed hapthare, which his friend and benefactor passed, partly or dismissal, because when the reading was as a consequence of the benefit conferred on terminated the congregation was dismissed, himself. According to an ancient tradition, unless any member of the synagogue arose Lazarus lived thirty years after his restoraand delivered an address. This exception tion, being then thirty years of age. With explains the question of the rulers of the this stands in opposition the Western legend,
that Lazarus, with Martha, proceeded into mistaken for death (comp. xii. 1), under the France, and preached the gospel at Mar- effects of aromatics employed at his burial, seilles.
and the repose and fresh air of the grotto in The tomb of Lazarus is shewn on the which he was laid To say nothing of the edge of the village of Bethany. It is not obvious unlikelihood that his loving sisters easy to determine whether this is a natural should, through mistake, have interred their cave, remodelled by human labour, or wholly brother alive; to say nothing of the cramp. an artificial excavation; most probably, the ing and benumbing effects on a sick person former. The entrance is about three and a of the swathing bands of death ; omitting to half feet high, and two feet wide, immedi- urge that the taled, or head-cloth, in which ately after which a descent is made, by it was customary to envelop the head and twenty-seven stone steps, into a dark room face (xi. 44; see also i. 215), could not have about nine feet square. In its sides are four failed to cause suffocation, if life were not niches for the reception of bodies, and there already extinct, -we find in the account is one fractured sarcophngus. Three more above given of the structure of the tomb, steps lead through an excavated passage into reason sufficient to deny that any reviving an arched chamber eight feet square by nine virtue could be found in that abode of death, in height. This might readily be taken for the narrowness of whose space and the an ancient Jewish tomb, which it sufficiently dumpness of whose air would combine with resembles in its form and construction. If the overpowering odour of the strong perthis is indeed the sepulchre of Lazarus, which fumes, rather to extinguish any remaining there seems good reason for doubting, his spark of life than give to its tenant the body probably rested in the particular apart- power requisite of himself to burst the bars ment just described; the first room, with of his prison, and come forth' up into the its niches, serving the double purpose of a eye of day. It is needless to add, that when family sepulchre and of an ante-chamber to he did appear, Lazarus was still enveloped the second, after the style which prevails in in his 'grave-clothes’ (41); because the hyseveral apartments of the tombs of the kings pothesis is constructed with an entire disre north of Jerusalem. The possession of such gard of the recorded facts. We think it both A sepulchre supposes the possession of con- more easy and more ingenuous to reject the siderable wealth by Lazarus and his family. whole narrative at once, than thus to attempt That they were rich we should naturally in- an explanation, on what are called purely fer from several facts mentioned by the evan. natural grounds, of what the narrator obvi: Gelists. They extended a liberal, and what, ously regarded, and intended to set forth, as upon the whole, must have been an expen- a wonderful instance of the exercise of God's sive, hospitality to Christ and his numerous power in and on behalf of juis Son. retinue of disciples, who seem often to have This prodigy was wrought by our Lord retired to the bosom of this friendly family with a view to create in its spectators a befor repose and social enjoyment. The box lief in him as the special Messenger of God of very precious ointment which was poured (42). With this view our Lord, by an ex. upon our Saviour's head in Simon's house, press act of prayer, connected the performand which called forth the rebuke of Judas, ance of the miracle with the exertion of his was an offering from Mary, the sister of La- heavenly Father's power (42). Take the
The large concourse of Jews who, appeal thus made in conjunction with the chaupon the death of Lazarus, resorted to Be- racter and mission of Christ, and the arguthany to sympathise with the bereaved, is a ment was unexceptionable and convincing. sufficient proof that it was a family of note Stated in general terms, the argument was and substance.
thiis-the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, We may mention as an illustration of the attests the divine mission of Jesus, who goes tomb of Lazarus, one still found on the base about doing good, by empowering him to of the mountain on the western side of the raise his friend from the dead. For those sea of Tiberias. It is approached through a to whom the appeal was made we can see cut in the rock leading to a semicircular no ground of objection. They held that God recess, in the rear of which a square entrance had of old wrought miracles for his own good opens into an arched chamber. Here are purposes; they held that he would enable three sarcophagi on the right, with as many the Messiah to work miracles; they had on the left, newn in the rock on a level with strong presumptions in his life and doctrine the floor, and entered by small square doors that Jesus was the Christ; and therefore,
We have entered into these particulars the when they saw him at a word restore Lazarather because, while illustrating the general rus to life, with the supplicated and avowed subject of Jewish sepulchres, they serve to aid of God, they had every reason for be. show how utterly improbable is the suppo- lieving that God had sent him. Many did sition which, in order to escape from the so believe. That others were only made fact of a miracle having been performed in active in their hostility to Jesus, is only one the raising of Lazarus, makes him to have among many painful evidences of the blindbeen revived from a swoon or a sickness, ing efficacy of a wicked heart. The fact that
many did believe rests not merely on the 'sharp'as a natural consequence of fermen. statement of the historian (45), but is trace- tation. That the Egyptians were acquainted able in minor incidents found in his narra- with the operation and effects of yeast, seems tive (xi. 53, seq. ; xii. 1–19). Indeed, the probable in itself, and from the high loares miracle is the point of transition to the great that are seen on the monuments. The Heevents recorded after it in John's Gospel, all brews were at an early period familiar with of which more or less immediately depend leaven, which they commonly prepared from on this cardinal transaction,
the dregs of wine or from must, or from The faith of the spectators of the miracle dough allowed to remain in water some becomes a source, and a valid source, of con- days. When in baste, they baked their bread viction to men of later times; for we are thus without yeast (Gen. xix. 3. Judg. vi. 19), supplied with a sufficient cause of the re- as is at present done among the Bedouins. corded events which, without this miracle In this fact lies the reason of the law which and others, would appear sometimes un- commanded the Passover to be celebrated likely and at others impossible. And while with unleavened bread; which thus became a we are thus of necessity carried back to the perpetual symbol of the haste with which the belief of the first disciples as the inspiring nation had quitted Egypt (comp. Exod. xii. cause of their indomitable and all-conquer. 9, 11, 14). According to the law, for seren ing zeal, we see also that their convictions days unleavened bread was to be eaten (15. were founded on grounds which, at least to Deut. xvi. 15 ; comp. I Cor. v. 7); and, in them, were perfectly valid and satisfactory. obedience to later authorities, in the night As to the evidence of miracle in the abstract, before the 14th Nisan, great care was taken then will it be time enough to discuss the in every house to remove from it every por: matter, when an abstract miracle shall have tion of leaven, which, when found, was com. been, we do not say performed, but intelli- monly burnt. No meal-offering was to be gibly defined. With such mere notions, made with leaven, which was not to be burnt however, the Scripture has nothing to do. in any offering (Lev. ii. 11). This disal
In a necropolis in the valley of Hinnom, lowal may have been derived from the idea Kraft investigated tombs which throw light that fermentation is a process involving deon the subject. In the rock is one which is struction. On the contrary, at Pentecost entered by an ornamented opening, the upper the loaves, which represented ordinary human half of which is still covered by a stone door. food, were to be made with leaven, as being This door is on the upper part fixed by probably conducive to digestion and health two hinges in corresponding holes in the (Lev. xxiii. 17). The bread which was two sides, and below is fastened on the offered with thank-offerings was also learened door-jambs. The grave was opened by (Lev. vii. 13). raising the stone from below. Another LEBANON (H. white), a much celebrater mode of securing the tomb, was by a bar of mountain in Syria, which, springing from wood which ran across a stone rolled up to the Taurus, runs southward, and having in the mouth of the cave, and was fised in the its more imposing masses formed the northside walls. This explains the form and the ern boundary of Palestine, sinks down into sealing of our Lord's tomb (Matt. xxvii. 66). the lower hills which, dividing, constitute The seal was applied at the point where the the valley of the Jordan and the ridges of beam fastened into the rock. The interior Judea, and then rise as they go until they of the half-closed tomb mentioned above is reach the elevation of the mountains at the richly adorned, and still presents a good spe- southern extremity of the peninsula of Sinai. cimen of the forination of a Jewish sepul. Lebanon, viewed in itself, consists of two chre hewn out in the rock' (60). Through parallel ranges, divided by a wide rale, the opening you enter a vaulted chamber called Cæle-Syria, or Bekan. of these twelve feet
square, with half-columns cut out two, the western was specially denominated of the side walls, the capitals of which are Lebanon by the Greeks, while its oppo. very simple. On the right and the left of site received the name of Anti - Lebanon. these columns are small chambers, or niches, This distinction was unknown to the Heholding each a sarcophagus cut out of the brews, with whom Lebanon stands for the living rock. Opposite the entrance is a se- mountain in general, or rather the southern cond door, which leads to inner chambers, extremity of Anti-Lebanon, which runs down in which are sarcophagi, or niches in the to Tyre, and with which, as forming a part sides, into which corpses were put. These of their country, the Hebrews were acquainted. details correspond with those given in the The mountain throws out also an eastern Talmud respecting Jewish rock-tombs. arm, which forms Hermon and gives rise to
LEAVEN (L. levo, 'I raise'), so called the Jordan, Lebanon consists chiefly of limefrom its raising' the dough and so making stone, to whose white summits, as much as the bread light,' the original of which is to the highest of them being covered with not incorrectly translated by Wickliff, . sour- perpetual snow, it owes its appellation, Ledow' (so in German, sauerteig), represents banon, or the white mountain. Hebrew terms which signify to be ‘sour' and Varying in elevation, it reaches to the
heighi of 10,200 feet. The entire district By the lower of Lebanon' (Cant. vii. 4) is is steep and full of cliffs and precipices: meant, either an elevation or some elegant
edifice on the mountain which commanded
LEBANON IN THE DISTANCE. the eastern border is unfruitful; the western admits of culture. On the contrary, in the Anti-Lebanon range, the eastern is fertile, the western barren. The ranges present their bare sides to each other, so that the valley which they form is bordered by desert uplands. The only considerable rivers are the Jordan and the Orontes. In general, Le. banon, compared with other high lands, is poor in water, for from eight to nine months in the year no rain falls. This fact may in part be ascribed to the general absence of trees. The ancient wealth which Lebanon possessed in cedar avd other trees has long LEECH, or HORSELEECH, mentioned disappeared. All that remain form a wood only once in the Bible (Prov. xxx. 15), is a of about a mile in circuit (see CEDAR). small water serpent, noted for its thirst for The chief products of the district now are blood (whence, probably, the name, from silk, tobacco, oil, cotton, and wine (Hos. a root denoting earnest desire; comp. lechxiv. 7). One species, namely, its so-calleil erous, lickerish, L. ligurius). Its Hebrew gold wine, is highly valued among the Chris. original, galovkah, whose root-form has the tians of Syria. The present population of two essential letters 1 and k, of the words the district amounts to 1,400,000.
above given, has passed through the Arabic In ancient times, Lebanon, being well into the word 'ghoule, a fabulous female moncovered with trees, of wbich some were oilo. ster delighting in destroying men, disinterring riferous, was famed for its grateful perfumes, dead bodies, and dealing in tragical rites ; as well as its vegetable riches, and the streams a blood-sucker, a vampire. Appropriately of water which it sent from its western sides is the leech, whose two daughters show how into the sea (Cant. iv. 11, 14, 15. Hos. xiv. insatiable they are by always crying 'Give, 7,8).
give ! set at the head of the four things that By the valley of Lebanon' (Josh. xi. are never satisfied (15). In the galovkah 17), Cæle-Syria is hardly meant, but some of Proverbs, Herder saw the Destiny of vale running from the mountain southwards oriental fable, which, like “hell and destrucinto Palestine, perhaps that in which Banias tion' (xxvii. 20), is 'never full.' (Dan) lay. The wood of Lebanon' (Cant. In Syrin, brooks and basins of fountains iii. 9) has been said to be cedar; but Leba. abound with leeches, which often canse men non produced trees of various kinds, and it and borses great annoyance by getting into is not easy now to determine to which of their mouths. When a horse is the sufferer, these this distinctive appellation was applied. the leech fixes itself in the soft parts of the
inner mouth, and remains there some days loan are strictly forbidden. In the sabbath before it becomes swelled to a size sufficient year, hence called the year of release,' debts for its detection and retraction. The acci. and mortgages were to be universally given dent is sometimes very injurious to human up (Lev. xxv. 25, seq. Deut. xv. 1, seq.), beings. Many of Bonaparte's soldiers in when an Israelite who had sold himself to a Egypt were bled into a consumption by brother was to be set at liberty (Exod. xxi. leeches taken into the mouth with their 2. Lev. xxv. 2, seq.). It was, however, exdrink. The Arabs, when they have a doubt, pressly forbidden to compel a creditor to strain the water.
serve as a bond-servant (Lev. xxv. 39). LEES (G. liegen, F. lie), that which lies Yet the law appears to have been broken or is at the bottom, sediment (L. sedeo, 'I (2 Kings iv. 1), and in later periods oppressit'), stands for the Hebrew shmareem, which, sion on the part of the creditor was not un. from a root having the idea of thickness, is common (Is. 1. 1. Neh. v. 8. Matt. xviii. 25); translated also dregs' (Ps. Ixxv. 8). “Wine and under the Romans, the rigour which on the lees,' in Is. xxv. 6, signifies clarified marked their own code, and which more wine, having the rich flavour and odour than once brought their state to the brink of (Jer. xlviii. 11) of the fruit extracted by a ruin, seems to have intruded itself into the slow process, in remaining in contact with usages of the Jews (Matt. v. 26; xviii. 30). the sediment deposited during fermentation. In relation both to this severity and to the In order to promote clarification, wine was Mosaic requirement that an Israelite should passed from vessel to vessel. The omission lend to a brother without interest, our Lord, of this process caused the liquor to be thick as a part of his general code of benevolence and heavy. Hence to be settled (thickened by which he completed the law, commanded or curdled) on the lees,' means to be stupid his disciples to lend to the indigent, whatand indocile (Jer. xlviii. 11. Zeph. i. 12). ever their country, 'hoping for nothing
LEGION (L.), a body of Roman soldiers again' (Luke vi. 34, 35). consisting of from three to six thousand The ordinances of Moses in regard to and more men (see CENTURION); hence a loans must be viewed in their connection large, indefinite number (Mark v. 9. Luke with his agrarian laws, which, making God viii. 30; comp. Matt. xxvi. 53). This is the sole owner of the land, imposed as of one of those Latin words which, agreeably right such burdens on its possessors as to the written history of the times, show that seemed good to him for the promotion of Judea was in the days of our Lord under the general welfare, the support of an apthe foreign yoke of the Romans. How deeply proach to equality of social condition, and imprinted on the popular mind that galling the particular benefit of the ordinarily neg. burden was, appears from the fact, that (and lected class, the poor and indigent. Loans in the text cited above) the Gadarene maniac might the more readily and safely be made employed this military Roman term. His where in general they were sure to come doing so also aids us to see that his notions back in a few years. The system was in on demoniacal possession were of an impure, accordance with the general tenor and aims earthly origin.
of the Mosaic polity. It manifested special LENDING (T., connected with loan, G. care towards those who were most in need darlehn) was enjoined on the Israelites as a
It tended to restrain the Hebrews duty which they owed to their needy brethren, from trade with foreigners and keep them from whom they were not allowed to take in- an agricultural people. It prevented gorgeterest, though they might take interest from ous wealth and abject poverty — the two foreigners (Deut. xv. 7, 8. Exod. xxii. 25. great evils of our present social conditionPs. xxxvii. 20). In degenerate times, usury evils which are full of danger. The parti. was taken (Ps. xv. 5) and severely con- cular requirements of the Mosaic law are demned (Prov. xxviii. 8. Ezek. xviii. 8. not binding on Christians, but they may Jer. xv. 10). In its condemnation we see learn from them a lesson of benevolence. reason to think that the laws of Moses on The present disposition of landed property, this point were not totally neglected, since founded solely on the right of conquest, their influence is traceable in the moral sense needs mitigation by virtue of the influence of the nation. Pledges might be taken, but of high moral considerations, which political were to be restored (Ezek. xviii. 7), and economy cammot, and popular systems of should not consist of the widow's ox (Job religion will not, furnish. Money is indeed xxiv. 3) or the hand-mill (Deut. xxiv. 6); property, and for its use those who own it and if the large cloak that enveloped the may legitimately claim a fair return. But body, and sometimes was the only article of the wealth, not the labour, of a country, dress, were taken, it was to be returned should be made to bear its burdens. Were before night, when it would be specially this the case, the indigence which leads to needed (Exod. xxii. 26, 27. Deut. xxiv. borrowing would, under a good system of 12, 13). In the latter passage, rudeness education, disappear. Meanwhile, most need. and force in obtaining the restoration of the ful is it that the iron rigidness of our present