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MAD, adj., v. a. & v. n.) Sax. maad, gemaad;

She, mixing with a throng. MAD'BRAIN, adj.

Modern Goth. mod; Of madding matrons, bears the bride along. I. MAD'BRAINED,

(Goth. meida, to di- He waved a torch aloft, and madly vain, Mad'cap, n. s.

vide?) Distracted or Sought godlike worship from a servile train. Id. Mad'den, v. n., &c. disordered in mind; He raved with all the madness of despair, MAD'HOUSE, n. s. deranged; lunatic; He roared, he beat his breast, and tore his hair. MAD’LY, adv. hence, enraged; fu

Id. MAD’MAN, n. s.

rious; violently af- A bear, enraged at the stinging of a bee, ran like MAD'NESS.

fected with desire, mad into the bee-garden, and overturned all the taking on, after, of, or for, before the object :


L'Estrange. to mad is to make or be furious; make or be

A fellow in a madhouse being asked how he came mad: mad-brain and mad-brained, disordered

there? Why, says he, the mad folks abroad are too or distracted ; hot-headed : madcap (taking the many for us, and so they have mastered all the sober

people, and cooped them up here.

Id. cap for the head) a madman: to madden, to be

He that eagerly pursues any thing, is no better come or behave as deranged. The other deri- than a madman.

Id. vatives seem obvious in their meaning.

There are degrees of madness as of folly, the disAnd manye of hem seiden, he hath a deuel, and orderly jumbling ideas together, in some more, some maddith. Wiclif. Jon. 10. less.

Locke. It is the land of graven images, and they are mad The people are not so very mad of acorns, but upon their idols.

Jer. i. 38. that they could be content to eat the bread of civil They shall be like madmen, sparing none, but still persons.

Rymer. sporting.

2 Esdr. xvi. 71.

Delusive ideas are the motives of the greatest part Richesse a robe of purple on had,

of mankind, and a heated imagination the power by Ne trowe not that I lie or mad,

which their actions are incited : the world, in the For in this world is none it liche,

eye of a philosopher, may be said to be a large madNe by a thousand dele so riche.


Mackenzie. Chaucer. Cant. Tales.

He who ties a madman's hands, or takes away his O villain! cried out Zelmane, madded with finding sword, loves his person while he disarms his frenzy. an unlooked-for rival. Sidney.

South. Alack, sir, he is mad.

But some strange graces and odd flights she had, —'Tis the time's plague when madmen lead the blind. Was just not ugly, and was just not mad. Pope.

Shaksj.eare. The dog-star rages, nay, 'tis past a doubt, This will witness outwardly,

All Bedlam or Parnassus is let out; As strongly as the conscience does within, Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand, To the mudding of her lord. Id. Cymbeline. They rave, recite, and madden round the land. I give my hand opposed against my heart,

Id. Unto a madbrain rudesby, full of spleen.

Such madd’ning draughts of beauty,

As for a while o'erwhelmed his raptured thought.
He let fall his book,

Thomson. And, as he stooped again to take it

As a man inebriated only by vapours, soon re

up, This madbrained bridegroom took him such a cuff,

covers in the open air, a nation discontented to madThat down fell priest and book.

Id. ness, without any adequate cause, will return to its The nimble-footed madcap prince of Wales,

wits and allegiance, when a little pause has cooled it And his comrades, that daft the world aside,

to reflection.

Johnson. And bid it pass.

Id. Henry IV.

A crowd gather round a dog suspected of madThe power of God sets bounds to the raging of the ness, and they begin by teazing the devoted animal sea, and restrains the madness of the people.

on every side; if he attempts to stand upon the de

King Charles. fensive, and bite; then he is unanimously found guilty, Holy writ represents St. Paul as making havock for a mad-dog, always snaps at every thing ; if, on of the church, and persecuting that way unto the the contrary, he strives to escape by running away, death, and being exceedingly mad against them.

then he can expect no compassion, for mad dogs

Decay of Piety. always run straight forward before them. We must bind our passions in chains, lest, like

Goldsmith. mad folks, they break their locks and bolts, and do

Goading the wise to madness ; from the dull all the mischief they can.

Shaping out oracles to rule the world
Taylor's Worthy Communicant.

Afreshı, for they were waxing out of date,
Cupid, of thee the poets sung,

And mortals dared to ponder for themselves, Thy mother from the sea was sprung;

To weigh kings in the balance, and to speak But they were mad to make thee young. Denham.

Of freedom, the forbidden fruit. Byron. His gestures fierce

Mad, n. s. Sax. maðu. An earth worm. He marked, and mad demeanour when alone.

MADAGASCAR (or MADEGASSE, a native Milton.

name). Madagascar seems first to have been The madding wheels

made vaguely known to Europeans by Marco Of brazen chariots raged : dire was the noise Of conflicts!

Id. Paradise Lost.

Paulo, who received some information respecting Madmen ought not to be mad;

it by its present name, from the Arabs. The anBut who can help his frenzy ?

cients were probably wholly unacquainted with Dryden's Spanish Friar. it. It also escaped the notice of De Gama, who The world is running mad after farce, the ex

coasted along Africa; and was first seen by Lotremity of bad poetry, or rather the judgment that renzo Almeida in 1506, from whom it received is fallen upon dramatic writing.

Dryden. the name of St. Lawrence, which it retained until This mads me, that perhaps ignoble hands the reign of Henry IV., when some French navi. Have overlaid him, for they could not conquer. Id. gators gave it that of Isle Dauphin. Vol. XII.-PART 2.

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This is one of the largest islands of the world, line noses, and thin lips : there is also some difbeing 240 leagues long, from north to south, and ference in their dialect. This caste is by far the from forty to seventy leagues broad. It is sepa- most advanced in the arts, being acquainted with rated from the coast of Africa by the channel of the manner of forging iron, and are correct imiMosambique, from eighty leagues to 120 broad. tators of the nicest European works in metal : A ridge of mountains (said to have an elevation their chains of gold and silver are particularly of 10,000 to 12,000 feet) runs through the island fine. They inhabit the most healthy province of the from north to south, containing various valuable island, being from its elevation so cold in winter minerals and fossils; and also gives rise to a vast that fires are necessary; but, the province pronumber of rivers and rivulets, which reach the ducing neither tree nor shrub, they use the straw sea, and abound in fish. In no region of the of a gramineous plant as fuel. 3. The Antamaglobe is vegetation more luxuriant than in this houris form another peculiar caste, whose lanisland, where nature abandoned to its own fer- guage differs from that of the other tribes, being tility produces the most various productions. a dialect of the Malay, and their features also The hills are covered to their summits with im- denote their being descended from the Malay mense timber trees, and the plains or vast savan- In the centre of the island is said to exist nahs, are clothed with a rich herbage, affording a race of dwarfs, named Kimos, who do not expasture to innumerable cattle and sheep. Rice ceed three feet and a half in height, whose arms is cultivated to a great extent, and all the other are extremely long, with paws like those of the vegetables and fruits of the tropics grow spon- ape, and the females totally without breasts, taneously. Unfortunately, however, this smiling nourishing their infants with cows' milk, of which scene is generally more than counterbalanced animals they breed great herds. A Kimos woby the extreme unhealthiness of the climate, man was sold to the French at Fort Dauphin in which renders it the almost certain grave of Eu- 1768, and is the only individual of the species ropeans.

ever seen by Europeans. A detail of the subdiThe wild animals of the island are of few spe- visions of all these races would lead us far becies, there being neither lions, tigers, nor ele- yond the limits we have prescribed to ourselves, phants, nor does it possess the horse.

and we must therefore confine our notice to a few At present Madagascar affords few objects of of the prominent and general traits in the Madacommerce, and its exports are almost totally con- gasse character. fined to rice and cattle to the Mauritius. The The inhabitants taken generally are lazy, Arabs export some of the species of fruit called spending three-fourths of their time in their huts, sea cocoa-nut, or cocoa-nut of the Maldivas, stretched on a mat, and playing on the marou(nux medica of botanists). The tree which vané, or tritri. Their only serious employments atfords this fruit is a species of palm, and is are the chase, fishing, and occasionally looking found on the Isle of Palms, on the coast of Ma- after their cattle. Careless of the future, the dagascar only; at least, it has not hitherto been Madagasse little fears the frowns of fortune, and, discovered in any other part of the world. The as he is unacquainted either with love or friendnuts picked up on the shores of the Maldiva islands slip, he has little to disturb the tranquillity of are probably conveyed there in the south-west his mind. His religion extends to the acknowmonsoon, when the currents between Mada- ledgement of a preserving deity, to whom he gascar and these islands set to the north-east. pays no devotion, but, on the contrary, loads him

The nuts of the Ravensera have also been ex- with invectives, when any misfortune happens to ported: they are of an acrid aromatic nature, him. He also believes in an evil spirit, whose and used by the natives to season their food. habitual residence is in burying places, and The other objects of commerce are eagle or hence he will not approach a grave during the aloe wood (agallochum), which may be pro- night. In general his youth is spent in decured in any quantity, but of which little or bauchery, and it is not until the middle of his none is taken off. The island affords cotion, career that he takes a wife to accompany him and many useful gums and resins, amongst which the rest of the way. The marriage ceremony is the elastic gum, or India rubber (iatropha elas- consists in killing a bullock, and feasting the two tica).

families. All ages are addicted to excess of The island of Madagascar is inhabited by va- spirituous liquors, and to their own intoxicating rious tribes or castes, whose physical and moral mixtures. A Madagasse accused of sorcery is characteristics denote their being descended confined in a solitary hut without victuals for two from very different races. 1. The Betsimicaracs, or three days, when he is obliged to undergo an or negro race, who inhabit the north-east coast, ordeal by swallowing a poisonous infusion, which are in general stout and well made, and the if he keeps down is sure to destroy, at the same women handsome; but the men are drunkards, time that it convicts him, but if he has the good cowards, and thieves. The Antibanivouls, fortune to throw it up, by the natural exertion of neighbours of the last named caste, are more la- the stomach alone, he lives and is acquilted. borious and less debauched, but also more stupid The same trial is ordered to persons of both and ignorant. The Betalimenes employ them- sexes, accused of incestuous intercourse, as well selves chiefly in raising cattle. 2. The Hovas, 2s in cases of doubtful robbery; for, where the who inhabit the province of Ancove, near the fact is proved, the criminal is condemned to middle of the island, differ entirely from the slavery. above tribes. They are tall and well made, The professions of priest and physician are though rather slender, and much resemble the here, as amongst rost savage nations, united in natives of India, having long black hair, aqui- the sa:ne person, and are practised only by in

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dividuals of the Arab tribes. The dress of the Manigara River is said to be six miles broad wonen consists in a girdle, or kind of petticoat, at the entrance, with six and seven fathoms three and a long piece of cloth, one end of which is leagues up. folded round the hips, while the other covers the The bight or bay of Astada is a large indentashoulders, and head in wet weather : a corset tion at the north-west end of the island, with closed both before and behind like a banyan, several islands before it. Here is Morigambo and which leaves the bosom bare, completes the harbour, described as capacious and safe. dress. The ornaments of the women are neck- Passandava, at the north-west extremity of laces and bracelets of glass beads, or gold and the island, is a large bay running seven leagues silver chains. Both sexes wear amulets of bits to the south. It abounds in provisions, wood, of certain woods, &c., enveloped in cloth on and water. their necks and wrists, to defend them from the Fort Dauphin, once the principal establisheffects of sorcery. The leaves of the ravensera ment of the French, is near the south-east extreserve the purposes plates, dishes, and spoons. mity of the island, on a cove capable of receiving The various estimations of the population of five or six vessels, land-locked. It is situated on Madagascar make it from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 high ground commanding the road, and is a long souls.

square surrounded by a wall of lime and gravel The western side of Madagascar has many coated with cement. Two leagues south of the bays and rivers, but very few of them are ever fort is a large river, which at a short distance visited by European ships, and consequently are from its mouth expanıls into a lake, fifteen miles very little known. The most frequented is St. in circuit; the mouth of the river is however, as Augustine's Bay, at the south-west extremity of well as most others on the east coast, barred the island, which is a safe road where may be against the entrance of ships. This part of the had any quantity of refreshments, particularly island is populous, and under a great many bullocks, goats, fowls, Guinea fowls, oranges, chiefs: their villages are on eminences, fortified limes, plantains, pumpkins, yams, and sweet with parapets of turf, pallisades, and ditches. potatoes. They are procured from the natives Bullocks, poultry, and provisions are abundant, in exchange for gunpowder, looking-glasses, but good water is only found at some distance muskets, pistols, brass and iron pots, knives and from the shore, where are excellent springs. scissars, nails, flints, &c. Water is filled in the The bay of St. Luce is within several islands and boats four or five miles up a river, named Dart- reefs: on its south point the French formed a mouth, which falls into the bay, and which pallisaded establishment in 1787. abounds (as well as the bay) in fish, but is also Manooro River, in latitude 20°, is much freinfested by the alligator. The chief of this part quented by the French of the Mauritius for rice of the island resides in a mud-built town twelve and cattle. The natives manufacture fine mats miles from the bay; most of the natives who go and cloth from the fibres of a plant, as well as on board ship to barter speak a little English, cloth from the cotton of the island. There is a and have taken English titles, such as the prince village at the mouth of the river, and before it of Wales, duke of York, &c.

good anchorage within a reef. Morundava Bay, in latitude 20° 16', is some- Hy Vondron is a considerable village, and times visited for refreshments ; it is exposed great rice market, three leagues south of Tamafrom north-west to south-west and has several tave. This latter is on a lagoon, named Nossebe; shallow barred rivers falling into it. A village landing is difficult, from a high surf. The French of huts is on the north side of the bay.

had a post here to procure cattle and rice for Bembatook Bay 15° 43' is large and safe, their islands, but which was taken by the English and represented as one of the most eligible in 1811; it was on a high point of land and conplaces in the island for a European settlement. sidered healthy. The Isle of Prunes is three Bullocks and rice are very abundant, as well as leagues from Tamatave, small but covered with other objects of commerce. The French pur- wood, and has fresh water. Between Tamatave chased slaves and cattle here for the use of the and Foul Point are several villages on the shore. Isle of France ; which were driven across the Foul Point (Voulu-Voulu of the natives), anoisland to Foul Point, where the slaves were em- ther establishment of the French, is on a cove barked and the cattle slaughtered and salted. within a reef, which shelters the anchorage. The The natives are friendly to strangers; and the settlement consists of a piece of ground, surArabs of the continent visit this port for pur- rounded by pallisades, with a house for the resiposes of trade. The town, from which the bay dent, sheds, &c. A large native viliage is close has its name, is three leagues within the entrance to it, where is the king's residence, consisting of of the bay, and on cove entirely land-locked a story, raised from the ground, ascended to by and accessible to ships.

a ladder, and surrounded by the huts of his atNew Masseliege is a large town on a barred tendants and women. Slaves and cattle are proriver accessible only to small craft. It is pro- cured here in exchange for musquets, powder tected by a mud fort with many cannon; and the and shot, flints, knives, &c. king's residence is built in the European manner St. Mary's Island (Nossi Ibrahim of the nawith two stories, with an armoury and many ar- tives) is two leagues from the main ; the east ticles of European furniture, as tables, chairs, side is lined with breakers, but the west side looking-glasses, &c. Many Arabs reside here, forms a good port, with depth and capacity for and trade to Arabia and Persia. Opposite the the largest fleets. The co try abounds in proriver's mouth is an island, about four miles long, visions, and spars for masts may be had here. on which the French had once an establishment. The French formed an establishment here in

1740, but the persons in it were all massacred by driven out. The most celebrated of their estab the natives. In 1743 they renewed it, but it was lishments for a time was that attempted by count abandoned in 1760, on account of its unhealthi- Benyowsky, at the north-west extremity ; but ness. This island was the rendezvous of the this daring adventurer soon involved himself in European pirates that infested the Indian seas a war with the natives, in which he was killed, in the beginning of the last century:

and the establishment altogether failed. The Antongil Bay (Manghabees of the natives) is most permanent footing they gained was at Fort eight or nine leagues wide, and fifteen deep; its Dauphin, on the south-east coast, where their shores are elevated, and towards its head are influence was maintained until the loss of Boursome islands, within which is an excellent har- bon and Mauritius in the late was. bour, called by the French Port Choiseul. The entire population of Madagascar is diffi. Several rivers fall into the bay, but they are all cult to estimate, from the great number of small barred against the entrance of any thing but states into which it is divided. Flacourt does boats, though deep within. This is one of the not suppose it to exceed 1,600,000 ; Rochon most fertile parts of the island, but also the most heard it estimated at 4,000,000, though he conunbealthy : the tide rises three or four feet. siders this amount to be exaggerated. Here the French attempted to form an establish- MAD'AM, n. s. Fr. ma dane, my dame; Ital. ment conducted by the celebrated adventurer madama. A term of compliment used in address Beniwowsky.

to ladies of every degree: anciently pronounced as Port Louquez, at the north-east extremity of in French, with the accent upon the last syllable. the island, is a capacious and secure harbour for Certes, madam, ye have great cause of plaint. the largest fleets ; it is also said to be healthy

Spenser. and abundant in provisions.

Madam, once more you look and move a queen! The chief capes of Madagascar are, Cape St.

Philips. Mary, the south point; Cape St. Andrew, the MADAN (Martin), an English divine of a north-west; Cape Ambre, the north; and Cape respectable family, born about 1726, and bred East, the east.

for the bar, which he relinquished for the church, Tananarive is at present considered as the though he obtained no preferment. The chapel capital of the island, and is the place where the of the Lock Hospital was built chiefly through king Radama resides, and the late treaty for the his exertions, and he officiated as chaplain many abolition of the slave trade was concluded. Mr. years gratis. He was long a very popular Jones, who was present on this occasion, says preacher, but incurred much obloquy by pub

their houses are built exceedingly neat and con- lishing a work entitled, Thelyphthora, or a Treatise venient—are high and very airy, and supported on Female Ruin; in 3 vols. 8vo. 1781; wherein by strong timbers, resembling the masts of a he defended the lawfulness of polygamy, in cases ship. The apartments of the royal palace are of seduction. He also published a translation ornamented with silver mirrors; and are in neat- of Juvenal and Persius, in 2 vols, 8vo. He died ness equal to any rooms that I have seen in the in 1790. He was a man of great abilities, and goverument-house at Port Louis.'

unimpeachable morals. Governor Farquhar, writing to the directors of MAD-APPLE. See SOLANUM. the London Missionary Society, represents the MADDEN (Samuel), D.D., an Irish divine natives as “a people without any national reli- of French extraction, educated at Dublin. He gion, or superstitions of consequence to combat, had some church preferments in Ireland. In consisting of above 4,000,000 of souls, ready, 1729 he ablished Themistocles, or the Lover of as well as capable, of receiving instruction under his Country, for which he received a library from the will of a monarch, who is as eager to obtain his bookseller. In 1731 he pro ected a scheme it for them, as you can be to grant it.' See our for promoting learning in Dublin College by article LONDON MissionARY SOCIETY. From premiums. In 1732-3 he published Memoirs the manner in which he acted in reference to the of the Twentieth Century; obeing original letters late treaty, the royal authority appears to be of State under George VI. in 6 vols 8vo., London. absolute, and the present sovereign deserves to This work was called in and suppressed. In be considered the father of his people; for after 1740 he set apart £100 a-year, to be divided into having fully discussed the slave trade in several three premiums for encouraging arts and manuconferences with Mr. Hastie, the British commis- factures in Ireland. In 1743 or 1744 he pubsioner, he consulted his ministers on the subject, lished Boulter's Monument, a Poem. He died who were all greatly averse to its abolition. December 30th, 1765.

When the Portuguese first visited India, they MAD'DER, n. s. Sax. madere; Teut. maddar. kept too close to the continent to discover Mada- A plant. See below. gascar. In 1506 it was visited by Triestan The flower of the madder consists of one single d'Acunha, but as they could not find it produced leaf, which is cut into four or five segments, and exeither gold or silver, which were the chief objects panded at the top; the flower-cup afterwards becomes of their research, they paid little attention to the

à fruit, composed of two juicy berries closely joined discovery. When the French had formed the together, containing seed for the most part hollowed settlements of Bourbon and Mauritius, they like a navel; the leaves are rough, and surround the

stalks in whorles.

Miller. turned their attention to Madagascar, as a place whence the wants of their new colonies on the what the Dutch send over for medicinal use is the

Madder is cultivated in vast quantities in Holland : smaller islands might be supplied. With this root, which is only dried ; but the greatest quantity is view they sent several expeditions to various used by the dyers, who have it sent in coarse powder. parts of the island, but they were repeatedly


MADDER. See Rubia. It is yellow at first, liquor is to be left to settle, when it is to be debut grows red and dark with age. It should be canted, and the silk carefully soaked in it, and chosen of a fine saffron color, in very hard left for twelve hours; and after this preparation lumps, and of a strong though not disagreeable it is to be immersed in a bath containing half a smell. The best roots are about the thickness of pound of madder softened by boiling with an ina goose quill, or at most of the little finger : they fusion of galls in white wine: this bath is to be are semitransparent, and of a reddish color; kept moderately hot for an hour, after which it they have a strong smell, and the bark is smooth. is to be made to boil for two minutes. When Madder is also cultivated in Smyrna, and some taken from the bath, the silk is to be washed in a other countries of Turkey in Asia. It is more stream of water, and dried in the sun. Mr. esteemed than the best Zealand madder; and Guhliche compares the color thus obtained, which experiments have shown that it is superior to any is very permanent, to the Turkey red. If the other kind as a dyeing ingredient. The fine galls be left out, the color is clearer. A great color of these madders, however, has been at- degree of brightness may be communicated to tributed to their being dried in the air, and not the first of these, by afterwards passing it through in stoves. The root of madder impregnates a bath of brasil wood, to which one ounce of sowater with a dull red color, and alcohol with a lution of tin has been added : the color thus obdeep bright red. This root, when eaten by ani- tained, he says, is very beautiful and durable. mals with their food, tinges their urine, and The madder red of cotton is distinguished into their bones, of a deep red. Wool, previously two kinds : one is called simple madder red; boiled in a solution of alum and tartar, receives the other, which is much brighter, is called from a hot decoction of madder and tartar a very Turkey or Adrianople red, because it comes from durable but not a very beautiful red color. Wool the Levant, and has seldonı been equalled in would receive from madder only a perishable brightness or durability by our artists. Galls or dye, if the coloring particles were not fixed by a sumach dispose thread and cotton to receive the base, which occasions them to combine with the madder color, and the proper mordant is acetate stuff more intimately, and which in some mea- of alumina. The nitrate and muriate of iron as sure defends them from the destructive influence a mordant produces a better effect than the sulof the alr. For this purpose, the woollen stufis phate and acetate of the same metal ; they afford are first boiled for two or three hours with alum a beautiful, well saturated violet color. The and tartar, after which they are left to drain; Adrianople red possesses a degree of brightness, they are then slightly wrung and put into a linen which it is difficult for us to approach by any of bag, and carried into a cool place, where they the processes hitherto mentioned. are suffered to remain for some days.

Some years ago, Mr. Papillon set up a dyeThe quantities of alum and tartar, as well as house for this red at Glasgow; and in 1790 the their proportions, vary much in different manu- commissioners for manufactures in Scotland paid factories. Hellot recommends five ounces of him a premium, for communicating his process alum and one ounce of tartar to each pound of to the late professor Black, on condition of its wool; if the proportion of tartar be increased to not being divulged for a certain term of years. a certain degree, instead of a red, a deep and The time being expired, it has been made public, durable cinnamon color is produced, because, as and is as follows:we have seen, acids have a tendency to give a Step. 1.-For 100 lbs. of cotton, you must yellow tinge to the coloring particles of madder. have 100 lbs. of Alicant barilla, 20 lbs. of pearl Berthollet found, that, by employing one-half ashes, 100 lbs. of quicklime. tartar, the color sensibly bordered more on the The barilla is to be mixed with soft water in a cinnamon than when the proportion was only deep tub, which has a small hole near the bottom one-fourth of the alum. In dyeing with madder, of it

, stopped at first with a peg. This hole is the bath must not be permitted to boil, because to be covered in the inside with a cloth supported that degree of heat would dissolve the fawn- by two bricks, that the ashes


be prevented colored particles, which are less soluble than the from running out at it, or stopping it up, while red, and the color would be different from that the lie filters through it. Under this tub must which we wish to obtain. If wool be boiled be another, to receive the lie, and pure water is for two hours with one-fourth of sulphate of to be passed repeatedly through the first tub, to iron, then washed, and afterwards put into cold form lies of different strength, which are kept water with one-fourth of madder, and then separate until their strength is examined. The boiled for an hour, a coffee color is produced. strongest required for use must float an egg, and Bergmann adds, that if the wool have not been is called the lie of six degrees of the French soaked, and if it be dyed with one part of sul- hydrometer. The weaker are afterwards brought phate of iron, and two of madder, the brown to this strength by passing them through fresh obtained borders upon a red. Berthollet em- barilla ; but a certain quantity of the weak, ployed a solution of tin in various ways, both in which is of two degrees of the above hydrothe preparation and in the maddering of cloth. meter, is reserved for dissolving the oil, the gum, He used different solutions of tin, and found that and the salt, which are used in subsequent parts the tint was always more yellow or fawn-colored, of the process. This lie of two degrees is though sometimes brighter than that obtained by called the weak barilla liquor; the other the the common process. Mr. Guhliche describes a strong. process for dyeing silk with madder: for one Dissolve the pearl ashes in ten pails, of four pound of silk he orders a bath of four ounces of gallons each, of soft water, and the lime in fouralum, and one ounce of a solution of tin; the teen pails. Let all the liquors stand till they

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