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knowledge, properly so called; but this is of the less importance, as we are promised an official survey at no distant period. The attention of government appears, indeed, to have been of late directed to these regions by a variety of circumstances and their importance, with reference to the rising settlements on the mainland of Australasia, is such, that many years cannot elapse before we shall have ample information at our command. Whether the arguments which Mr. Earle urges in behalf of the expediency of the government's establishing his majesty's flag on some permanent footing in the Bay of Islands, are likely to produce au immediate effect, we do not pretend to say; but it is clear enough. that if the settlements of private British adventurers continue to increase and multiply in that quarter as rapidly as they have of late been doing, the affording them, and the shipping they attract, some regular countenance and protection, will by and by be felt to be called for by considerations of interest and policy, as well as of humanity and justice.

New Zealand was first discovered in 1642, by Abel Jansen Tasman, who gave it the name it bears in consequence of the supposed resemblance of its surface to that of his native country, to which, however, on subsequent examination, it has been ascertained to bear even less likeness than Monmouth does to Macedon. The Dutchman had seen a marshy flat at the one end of one of two islands, both of them remarkable for picturesque variety of scenery, and one containing a range of mountains far higher than any in Europe. The strait between the two islands was discovered by Cook in 1770, and bears his name: perhaps there may turn out hereafter to be more straits than one, and consequently more islands than two. The miserable outrages narrated by Dutchmen, Spaniards, the illustrious Cook, the Frenchman Marion, and in our time by Captain Berry respecting the catastrophe of the Boyd, suspended, until very recently, all idea of resorting to those shores for commercial purposes. The heroic Marsden made, as is well known, an attempt to plant a missionary settlement, but soon gave it up in despair. The South Sea whalers, however, took heart of grace, and it is to their courage and good nature in dealing with the natives, that we owe the success of Mr. Marsden's successors, and the near approach to security with which Europeans of all classes may now visit what the early Hollanders named on their maps the Bay of Murder.

Our author accounts quite en artiste for his own expedition to this land of bloodshed. He happened to see several natives of New Zealand while at Port Jackson, and was so much struck with their physical strength and symmetry, that he resolved to ascertain, by ocular inspection, whether they were selected speci

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mens of size and beauty, or belonged to a nation decidedly and greatly superior in such qualifications to his own countrymen. He accordingly took a berth on board the brig Governor Macquarie, and sailed from Sidney on the 20th Oct. 1827, in company with a Scotchman of the name of Shand, whom he had persuaded to join in the trip, and various other passengers, among the rest a party of Wesleyan Methodists, who were going to establish a settlement ;-and they all reached their destination in safety on the 30th of the same month. A noble river, the mouth of which had been detected, but never explored, by Cook, received the vessel, and they found themselves gliding among magnificent scenery, a hilly, richly-wooded country, with fertile and well cultivated fields interspersed here and there, and presently a succession of neat little settlements, where European artisans have established themselves, (under the protection of a chief who has cut his original name for the style and title of King George,) and were busily engaged most of them in sawing timber for the Botany Bay market, or preparing provisions for the whalers. The brig had not advanced, however, beyond the first reach, before Mr. Earle's curiosity as to the physique of the population was quite satisfied. The vessel was boarded by whole swarms of the natives, of both sexes, and of every rank, from the high chief who rubbed noses' with the skipper on a footing of familiarity and affection, down to the poor slave who durst hardly look the same way with his master. No sooner had a few pipes been smoked, and a few trinkets distributed, than these grateful guests set about exhibiting the agreeable state of their feelings by stripping themselves stark naked and performing a dance, which, our author says, he thought every minute would have stove down the deck of the Macquarie. This ballet in puris naturalibus, the rule puris omnia pura not being without its exceptions, drove Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs and three other worthy Wesleyans to their cabins, but quite delighted our unpuritanical painter, and enabled him forthwith to enrich his sketch-book with a copious display of backs and legs, not to be surpassed among all the wonders of the Elgin marbles. 'I observed them,' he says, ' with the critical eye of an artist: they were generally taller and larger men than ourselves, broad shouldered and muscular, and their limbs as sinewy as though they had occupied all their lives in laborious employments.' Their colour was lighter than that of the American Indians; their dark hair, not straight and lank after the Cherokee pattern, but disposed in richly luxuriant curls; their features, even to a learned eye, regularly beautiful; their motions in the dance not more remarkable for vigour than for grace. In short, Mr. Earle was quite captivated with this tableau vivant, and no longer at a loss

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to account for the perfection to which the Greeks carried the fine arts, accustomed as they were to see mother-naked athletes leaping, wrestling, and boxing, every day of their lives for hours together; or the comparatively poor success of the alumni of Somerset House, whose lines have fallen to them in a land of surtouts, and trowsers, and who have no opportunity of sketching the unsophisticated graces of nature, except when some brawny coalheaver is hired, by extra pots of porter, to enlighten the Academy by doffing his habiliments, and twisting himself into the attitude of the Apollo, or the Antinous, or winged Mercury;' or some vestal of Drury Lane condescends to earn half a sovereign by assuming, for a few minutes, the port and station of Venus Anadyomene, in the midst of two or three score of students, all philosophically measuring and computing, and eagerly transferring their discoveries to their several drawing-boards.

The dance over, and the of woλλ of these interesting posturemasters having withdrawn, the chiefs resumed their mat-dresses or kakahoos, and entered into rational conversation with the captain on subjects interesting to them in their capacity of pigmerchants. The ladies reappeared on deck-supper was servedand says Mr. Earle,

'We spent a very cheerful time with our savage visiters, who behaved in as polite and respectful a manner as the best educated gentlemen could have done. Their pleasing manners so ingratiated them into the good opinion of the ladies, that they all declared "they would really be very handsome men if their faces were not tattooed."-p. 12. The first of the new European settlements at which they landed, was at a place called by the natives E. O. Racky'-but the English have christened it' Deptford.' Here are a dockyard and number of saw-pits. Several vessels had just been laden with timber and spars for Port Jackson, and a handsome brig of one hundred and fifty tons burthen was on the stocks.

'I was greatly delighted,' says Mr. Earle, with the appearance of order, bustle, and industry. Here were storehouses, dwelling-houses, and various offices for the mechanics; and every department seemed as well filled as it could have been in a civilized country. To me the most interesting circumstance was to notice the great delight of the natives, and the pleasure they seemed to take in observing the progress of the various works. All were officious to " lend a hand," and each seemed eager to be employed. This feeling corresponds with my idea of the best method of civilising a savage. Nothing can more completely show the importance of the useful arts than a dockyard. In it are practised nearly all the mechanical trades; and these present, to the busy inquiring mind of a New Zealander, à practical encyclopædia of knowledge. When he sees the combined exertions of the smith and carpenter create so huge a fabric as a ship,

his mind is filled with wonder and delight; and when he witnesses the moulding of iron at the anvil, it excites his astonishment and emulation.

The people of the dockyard informed me, that although it was constantly crowded with natives, scarcely anything had ever been stolen, and all the chiefs in the neighbourhood took so great an interest in the work, that any annoyance offered to those employed would immediately be revenged as a personal affront.'-pp. 25, 26.

He describes, some pages lower down, a similar settlement at Korakadika, where a small party of Scotch artisans have established themselves in an equally flourishing manner. The native chiefs compete zealously for the favour of every succeeding band of adventurers that appear, each trying every possible expedient to induce them to pitch their tents on his own territory, and exerting himself to the utmost, when the choice has been made, to protect them and their property against hostile tribes, and what is more constantly necessary, against the depredations of King George of England's runaway slaves,' that is to say, convicts who have made their escape from Botany Bay, and planted themselves on these pleasant shores, where they are too useful in setting sick guns' to rights not to be welcomed, and cherished, though the natives, high and low, appear to have a perfect contempt for them. One great benefit to be expected from the erection of a government factory would be the disappearance of these nondescripts from the parts of the coast usually frequented by British traders.

The New Zealanders are, in common with all the South Sea Islanders, distinguished from the aborigines of America, by natural gaiety of heart, high animal spirits, and an active disposition, without which, indeed, no human creature can know much of happiness. Far from retreating, therefore, from the face of civilized strangers, and despising their arts, these people appear, from the moment the opportunity was offered them, to have exerted their energies most strenuously in providing the materials of commercial intercourse with the European nations. They toil by hundreds in the remote depths of their forests, hewing wood for the new dockyards, and often bring their floats in capital order from enormous distances. They cultivate potatoes and Indian corn, in very good style, for similar purposes; and though excessively fond of animal food, abstain from it entirely for months on end, that they may have comely herds of pigs against the arrival of the whalers. They imitate with Chinese accuracy the houses built by the English people, continuing, however, to decorate their interiors after the fashion of their ancestors, with paintings, and carvings of most elaborate workmanship, in many of which, Mr. Earle says, he saw marks of native taste not inferior to what

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he had observed among some of the elder labours of the Egyptians, There is, moreover, a happy distinction between the New Zealanders, and the people of the Sandwich groupe, which, as our author says, has had more effect than perhaps any other single circumstance whatever. The chiefs do not consider idleness as the badge and privilege of high rank. On the contrary, they are always foremost in every piece of work that is undertaken. The patriarchal leader brings the first hoe to the potatoe field, as well as the first axe to the forest, and the first rifle to the march. But what has been the primum mobile of all this recent industry? Let Mr. Earle answer.

'The first thing which struck me forcibly was, that each of these savages was armed with a good musket, and most of them had also a cartouch box buckled round their waists, filled with ball cartridges, and those who had fired their pieces from the canoes, carefully cleaned the pans, covered the locks over with a piece of dry rag, and put them in a secure place in their canoes. Every person who has read Captain Cook's account of the natives of New Zealand would be astonished at the change which has taken place since his time, when the firing a single musket would have terrified a whole village. -p. 10.

The moment the New Zealanders became acquainted with the nature of fire-arms, their minds were directed but to one point; namely, to become possessed of them. After many ingenious and treacherous attempts to obtain these oft-coveted treasures, and which, for the most part, ended in their defeat, they had recourse to industry, and determined to create commodities which they might fairly barter for these envied muskets. Potatoes were planted, hogs were reared, and flax prepared, not for their own use or comfort, but to exchange with the Europeans for fire-arms. Their plans succeeded; and they haye now fairly possessed themselves of those weapons, which at first made us so formidable in their eyes; and as they are in constant want of fresh supplies of ammunition, I feel convinced it will always be their wish to be on friendly terms with us, for the purpose of procuring these desirable stores. I have not heard of a single instance in which they have turned these arms against us, though they are often grossly insulted.'-p. 56.

Mr. Earle gives, in a later chapter, an anecdote which was considered, he says, at the time, as a most remarkable instance of the extent to which these savages will change their modes, when, by doing so, a musket or a flask of gunpowder may be procurable. A chief of the highest rank died, and the usual preparations had all been made for celebrating his obsequies, more majorum. A vessel hove in sight-a rumour, that she had quantities of arms and ammunition to dispose of, was circulated-the young chieftain instantly fixed his thoughts on bargaining-the funeral rites were huddled over as fast as possible, and every hand being wanted to

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