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straight say, “Some, belike, I am allowed to lie?” whereas, the words are peremptory, even in Estius's reading, according to ours; “Use not to make any manner of lies."

Yea that very correction of the Vulgate interpretation, which Brugensis allows and magnifies, 1 Cor. xv. 51. with what safety can it pass the judicious; while he reads, Omnes quidem resurgemus, sed non omnes immutabimur ; We shall all rise again, but we shall not all be changed ? For, how can those rise again, that nerer died? "how are those capable of a resurrection, which are only changed? Whereas, the just sense runs *, according to our Version, We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed : for those, that are found alive at our Saviour's second coming, shall not sleep in death; yet, both they and the formerly dead must undergo a change.

I could utterly weary you with instances. How must he, that reads the Apocryphal Ecclesiasticus, needs say, that this man, how obscure soever in his authority, saw more and clearer than all the acknowledged prophets of the Old Testament! for he hath foretold us expressly the very name of our Lord Jesus, which none of them ever, beforehand, published : for he, speaking of the deep sea, is read in the Vulgate to say, Plantavit illum Dominus Jesus, “The Lord Jesus planted it;” Ecclus. xliii. 23. I shame to think what sport a Jew will make of such a gross mistaking: wherein 14085, Jesus, is mis; read for Nyons, islands, so as the right sense is only this, “ God, by his counsel, appeaseth the deep, and planteth islands therein."

But I forbear: only, if you have too much leisure, you may be pleased to cast your eye upon the margin t.

In these and many more, for I meant to give you the mistakes are important, and such as make no small change in the text: which I have therefore produced, that I might let you 'see how easy it is for a man, that takes all things upon trust, to be abused by his credulity; and how unsafe it is, much more for an unexpert and injudicious person, to meddle with the Holy Oracles of the Almighty *

but an essay,

*ě pro oủy.

+ Neh. vi. 2. Percutiamus fædus in vitulis, in campo uno: for in viculis, in campo, Ono.-Auni nostri sicut aranea meditabuntur ; Ps. 8c. 9: for, as a talc that is told.---Concupiscentia spadonis devirginabit juvenculam; Ecclus. xx. 4.super, for suhter; Gen. xxxv. 8.-vulnera, for ulcera; Ex. ix. 9.distinctum, for bis tinctum ; Ex. xxxix. 28.-sanctuarii, for sancto atrii; Lev. vi. 16.—ton. sis, for tusis ; Lev. xxii. 24.-neque, for alque; Lev. xxv. II.-solis, for salis; Deut. xxix. 23.non fuerit, for fuerit; Jos. ii. 18.-Occidentalem, for Orientalem; Jos. xii. 3.-hamata, for squamata; 1 Sam. xvii. 5.-vagi habitabunt, for pagi habitabantur; 1 Sam. xxvii. 8.-Judam, for ludam; 2 Sam. vi. 22.—14mulum, for tumullum; 2 Sam. xviii. 29.-lapides seculi, for sacculi; Prov. xvi, 11.-ad alia, for ad alta ; Prov. xxvi. 2.-sponsa, for speciosa; Cant. ii. 13. -adullera, for adulta; Ecclus. xlii. 9.-infidelem, for fidelem ; Isa. xvii. 10.imitantes, for irritantes : terra, for ter; Ecclus. xlviii. 2, 3.-obsurc'uit, for obsurduit ; Isa. xxxiii. 9.-imprudentem, for impudentem ; Ib). v. 19.-faunis sicariis, for fatuis sicariis; Jer. 1. 39.-vinctas, for linctas ; Ezek. xxiii. 15.-ejiciat, for mittat; Matt. ix. 38.-angelus, for angulus; Zech. x. 4.-servivit, for servavit; Hos. xii. 12.-confessus, tor confusus; Mark viii. 38.-sexta, for tertia ; Mark xv. 25.Mytelem, for Melita; cis xxviii. 1.--compellebantur, for complebantur ; Luke viii. 23.-placuerunt, for lilluerunt; Heb. xiii. 2.-adduxistis, for addisistis; James v. 6.--in carne, for in carcere; 1 Pet. iii. 19.-appropinquabit, for appropinquadil ; ! Pet. iv. 7:—-tubarum, for turbarum.; Rev. xix. 1.ade igno Chulduorum, for de Ur Chaldæorian; Neh. ix. 7.

The conclusion then must be, that, however it may be lawful for the eminently learned, either in schools or families, according as their calling may warrant them, to interpret even difficult Scriptures, and to untie the knots of a text: yet, since not many are thus qualified; and those, that are so qualified, if they neglect to follow the prescribed rules may easily miscarry, to the great peril both of their own souls, and others; I should therefore advise, that this may be the act of but some few choice persons, and of them with all possible caution; and that ordinary Christians, if they have a desire, besides all fundamental truths which are laid down openly and clearly in the sacred word of God, to inform themselves in those darker verities which lie hidden in more obscure scriptures, to have recourse to their learned and faithful pastors; and rather to rest in that light, which they shall receive from their well-digested instructions, than to rely upon their own (perhaps confident, but much weaker) judgnient,

* In compiling the above formidable catalogue of errors chargeable on the Vulgate, the author has evidently used a very incorrect edition of that version: and he has hence, unwittingly, attributed many mistakes to the translation, which were mere errors of the press in his copy. Of the fifty-three places above enumerated as faulty, the four following are not errors at all: Lev. xxv. 11. neque, is agreeable to the Hebrew: Prov. xxvi. 2. ad alia is as consonant to the Hebrew as ad alta: Jer. 1. 39. faunis sicariis is faunis ficariis in Sixtus's edition, and they are both obscure renderings of an obscure Hebrew word ON; but either of them is as good, if not better, than the Author's faunis fatuis : Hos. xii. 12. servivit accords with the He. brew, which servavit does not. The following eleven are errors found in the original edition of Sixtus, as the Bishop has quoted them: viz. 2 Sam. viii. 18. 1 Sam. xxiii. 26. 1 Chr. iv. 22. Job xli. 25. Ps. Ixxi. 15. Ecclus. vii. 13. I Cor. xv. 51. Ps. xc. 2. Ecclus. xx. 4. Gen. xxxv. 8. Neh. ix. 7. The remaining thirty-eight are errors of the press, not found in Sixtus's edition. 'EDITOR.





Whether the marriage of a son or daughter, without or against the

parent's consent, may be accounted lawful. MATRIMONY, though not a sacrament, yet a sacred institution of God, for the comfort and propagation of mankind, is so fruitful of questions, as that Sanchez *, the Jesuit, hath stuffed a huge volume with them alone.' It were pity, that so many should, in that estate, be necessary.

We meddle not with those secret, and (some of them) immodest curiosities; contenting ourselves only with those, which meet us every day in the ordinary practice of men: whereof this, which you have moved, may well challenge the first place: a question, wherein I was vehemently pressed in my late western charge, by some persons of greatest eminency in those parts, upon

occasion of some of their children undutifully carving for themselves in the choice of their matches. The offended parents, in the height of their displeasure, were very earnest to invalidate and annul the marriage. I gave them, in effect, the same account of the point, which now I give to you: That this disallowed marriage was one of those things, which are unjust and unlawful to be done ; but, being once done, are valid.

How unwarrantable and injurious it is in the child, to match himself without or against the parent's consent, there needs no other judge, than the law of nature itself; which teacheth us, that the child is no other than the peculiar goods and living substance of the parent : yea, as some civilians* have taught us to express it, he is pars viscerum matris, “a part of the mother's bowels," and

* Thom. è Sanchez, Societ. Jes. Theol. De Matrimonio.

part of the purest substance of the father; and, therefore, ought no more to be exempted from the parent's power of disposing, than the very limbs of his own body.

Upon this ground it was, that, by the Law of God t, it was lawful for the Jews, in case of extremity, to sell, as themselves, so their children also to servitude; but to those only of their own nation.

And in the Law Civilf there is the like permission, although under certain conditions ; and particularly, in an utter exigency, victus causâ. To the latter whereof, some expositors. || hold so strictly, as that they will not admit this to be done for the redemption of the parent from death

or perpetual bondage ; but only to preserve him from affamnishing: wherein, certainly, they are over-strait laced, and too much wedded to syllables; it being questionless the intention of the Law, to comprehend all equally-pressing necessities. To which they add, that this must be only in the father's power ; and that, to a child not emancipated, and left to his own disposing. It is not in my way to dispute the case with them : take it at the easiest, it sufficiently shews the great power, that nature itself yields to the parent over the child. By how much stronger, then, the parent's interest is in the child, so much more wrongful it must needs be in the child to neglect his parents in finally bestowing himself; and, if we look into the positive Law of Gods, we shall find the child so wholly left to the parent's will and disposition, as that he may, at ħis pleasure, dispense with or frustrate the vow of his child made to God himself.

Neither do the Roman Doctors generally hold otherwise, this day, in case of an under-age. And some of them extend this power yet further : yet not without a distinction; holding, that, after the age of puberty, those vows only are in the mercy of the father, which may be prejudicial to the government of the family, and paternal power : which is sufficient for my purpose, in the question in hand.

And, although those Casuists do sufficiently doat upon their Monkery, and the vows thereto appertaining ; yet they ascribe so much to the bond of filial duty, as that they teach**, That a son, which, his parents being in extreme need and wanting bis help, en"ters into a Religious Order ; or comes not out of it, though pro'fessed, when he might be likely, by his coming forth, to be aidful to his said parents; is guilty of a sin against the Fifth Commandment: so as, even with them, the respect to a parent ought to

* Jacob. Leoniss. Consil. Matrimon. 49. + Exod. xxi. 7. Deut. xv. 12, 13. * L ii. c. De patribus qui, &c. ll Covarruv. . iii. var. c. 14. ex Accursio et aliis. Les;. l. ii. c. 5. Dub). 4. & Num. XXX. 3, 4, 5, 6. Less. de Jure I. ij. c. 411. dub. 14. ** Navar. Enchir. 1. præ. c. 11. n. 14. Filius, quz parcntibus in extremâ necessitate constitutis, c.

overweigh a vow of religion; although consummate by a solemn profession.

But, that you may not object to me the age of the Law, as therefore abrogated because Mosaical, hear what the Chosen Vessel says, under the new Law of the Gospel.

If any man think, that he behaveth himself uncomely towards his virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him do what he will, he sinneth not; let her marry; 1 Cor. vii. 36. Nevertheless, he, that standeth stedfast in his heart, having no necessily; but hath power over his own will, and hath so decreed in his heart, that he will keep his virgin, doth well, &c. v. 37. Lo, the Apostle supposeth it in the parent's power, either to keep his daughter a virgin, or to dispose of her in marriage: she is not her own, either to hold or give; but must be altogether ordered by the superior will of a parent. Not that any force is allowed, either way, to be used towards the daughter; whether to continue her in a constrained virginity, or to call her against her mind upon a disaffected match: no; that God, who disposeth all things sweetly, would have us do so too: he allows parents to be rulers of their children, but not tyrants. What they do, therefore, in this kind, must be more by counsel, than command; and with more sway of love, than authority. Thus, consulting wisely with the state of times, and the child's disposition and abilities of containing, must the parent either keep his virgin, or labour

for the provision of a meet consortship. Thus did the two great Patriarchs of God's antient Church, Abraham and Isaac, provide fit matches for their holy seed; while the unholy provided unfit matches for themselves. Thus did their godly issue, in all generations, take their parents along with them, in the choice of meet yoke-fellows; while the godless, whether out of impetuous lust or stubborn disobedience, affect, with Esau, (Gen. xxvij. 6, 7, 8.) to be their own purveyors, to the great regret and heart-breaking of their parents.

Lastly, the latitude, that St. Paul gives of the liberty of marriage to all Christians, is, Tantùm in Domino; only in the Lord ; 1 Cor. vii. 39. Now, how can that marriage be in the Lord, which is against him and how can that be other than against the Lord, which is against the Lord's commandment ? and what commandment can be more express, than Honour thy father and thy mother ? Gal. vi. 1: and, Children, obey your parents ? v. 2 : and what can be more contrary to the honour and obedience due to parents, than to neglect them in the main business that concerns our lives ? and what business can concern our life so much, as the choice of a meet partner, with whom we may comfortably wear out all the days of our pilgrimage on earth?

Doubtless, then, we may, in a generality, safely conclude, that it is altogether unlawful for a child to slight his parent's consent, in the choice of his marriage. There may be some particular cases incident, wherein perhaps this may without sin or blame be forborne: as, when the child, either by general permission or former elocation, shall be out of the parent's disposing : or, where the

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