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and saw that the wound I had made the day before had penetrated the ventricle of the cerebellum, as far as the basis of the skull. Every place was full of clotted blood, as well in the basis of the skull, as the parts between the ventricle of the cerebellum and the cerebellum itself, because the fourth sinus had been open d by the largeness of the wound. As to the first wound that was made, it pailed through the middle of the fubftance of the cerebellum to the opposite side.
EXPERIM Ν Τ ΙΧ. Another day, I thrust the instrument through the middle of the hind bone of the head, directing it straight forward, and a little towards the basis. The dog, tho’stunn’d with the stroke, loft ne cher motion nor sensation; on the contrary, the pain caused him to howl. I found him the next day living, as before. Then I pierc'd the cerebellum, having lung'd the instrument through the lower and lateral part of the hind bone of the head, directing the instrument from the left to the right, towards the basis. At fix in the evening he was yet living, but extremely feeble: he was depriv’d both of sense and motion, and the palpitation of his heart, as well as his respiration, was very small. This circumstance induced me to make an experiment upon the nerves of the diaphragm. I open’d the breast, and found the parts were as cold, as if he was actually dead; but the palpitation of the heart, and the respiration still continued. I prest the nerve of the diaphragm strongly with my fingers, and then I irritated it above the compreision, which caused the diaphragm to contract : afterwards I tied the nerve, and having irritated it, above the ligature, I perceiv'd no motion of the diaphragm ; but when I irritated the nerve below the ligature, the diaphragm began to contract: then I cut the
tion was always followed by a contraction of the diaphragm. I observed the fame thing on the other side. The diaphragm was contracted, whether I pinch'd the nerve above or be
lów. Upon opening the skull, I saw the first stroke had penetrated through the medullary substance of the brain into the brain itself; and that the other stroke, past a little lower, on one side, through the medulla of the brain, crossing the fourth ventricle, and proceeding to the opposite side of the head. The fourth ventricle was full of grumous blood; and the medulla spinalis was surrounded with blood.
EXPERIMENT X I repeated the fame experiments upon an apoplectick dog, and all the phænomena were like the former ; when I had observ'd this, I took out the heart, with a single stroke of a knife, and perceiv'd the heart beat strongly in my hand, as often as I irritated it with the edge of the knife, which continued four minutes; after which I cast it into cold water, and saw it still palpitate, by fits, 'till it was quite cold.
EXPERIME Ν Τ ΧΙ. I took out, by means of a trepan, a round piece from the skull of a dog, and raising a part of the temporal muscle I began to prick the dura mater, which lay in fight, and to irritåte it with the point of the knife; I then pour'd a solution of fublimate mercury thereon, but the animal shew'd no. sign of pain, and remain’d without any convulsion. This made me think he was apoplectick, for which reason I irritated the raw part of the skin, when by his howling, he discover'd that he was sensible of pain. The motion of the dura mater,and of the arteries, was made at the same instant, the dura mater being raised, at the time of the diastole, and in the systole it fell down. After having lacerated the dura mater, I broke, prick’d, and irriated the cortical substance; but the animal gave no sign of pain. I plung’d the instrument into the medulla of the brain, and the dog began to cry but I did not perceive him to be in great aggitation. I then let him loose, the better to observe his convulsions. Numb. I Vol. H.
He began to walk about the room, but as if he had been drunk, or stupid. I again plung’d the instrument into the medulla, upon which he made a great noise, but continued to walk without failing into convulsions. A little after he walk'd about the room for some mintues, like a horse that is turning a mill; he often fell, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, and then rising again, he still continued to walk in a circle. A few minutes afterwards he fell on a sudden ; his whole body was convulsed. I raised him up, but he could not stand on his legs. I placed him on the table, and his body bent in a semi-circle, and the muscles of the opposite part being seperated, he cried when they struck him. I then plung’d the initrument through the brain into the cerebellum. Immediately his whole body was seized with convulsions, and there was principally a contortion of the neck, and the hinder part of the spine of the back. This agitation having ceased for some moments, he seem'd to fhake himself twice or thrice, in the same manner as dogs usually do, when they come out of the water. At length falling, by little and little, into extreme weakness, neither blows nor any other iritation cou'd excite him; and, after a Thort ceffation of the convulsions and spasms, and fetching several deep respirations, he died.
EXPERI Μ Ε Ν Τ ΧΙΙ. The former experiment caused me to try another. After having taken away, by means of the trepan, a round piece of of the skull of a young dog, I irritated the dura mater with the point of a knife, as in the former experiment, and I dropp'd some oil of vitriol thereon; but the animal discovered no sign of pain, though the oil of vitriol corroded the parts, as far as it reached. While the oil of vitriol was swimming upon the dura mater, the dog fuddenly raised up his heail, and look'd about him : the blood which ran plentifully from the great atery of the lacerated dura mater hinder'd
me from making experiments on the medulla itself, by dropping oil of vitriol thereon. I then plung’d the knife into the right side of the brain, of which the dog was very sensible, and fell into convulsions. I afterwards thrust the knife through the brain, into the cerebellum, and immediately the animal was seized with terrible convulsions, in every part of his body, insomuch that there was not a single muscle, but what was in motion. When I had cut the brain towards the basis on each side, and had stirr'd the cerebellum about, so as to reduce it into a kind of soft pulp, the heart beat strongly for some minutes, and at the same time the brain was forced out, through the perforation, in a large quantity.
N. B. These experiments were received before the publica
tion of our laft Number, but could not be then inserted · for want of room. This omision, therefore, we hope
will be excus’d by our ingenious correspondent, for whom we shall hereafter express all possible regard.
S I was reading the papers one evening in ----s cot
fee-house, an advertisement caught my eye, in
have done the highest service to the cause of christianity, declare to have been no ways concern'd in the publishing
sitions, &C. As this work has excited the attention of the learned of every denomination, it is not in the least surprizing, that even the very recollection of it should make so strong an impression on my mind, as to occasion next night the following vision.---Methought I was all on a fudden in Westminster-Abbey, and on looking towards the C 2
choir I saw it filld with a vast crowd of people, who ex press’d the utmost attention, for there was scarce a mur-, mur to be heard, fo absolute was the silence. The novelty of the fight made me immediately join the multitude; and on my enquiring the cause of there being fo great 'a con, course, I was inform’d in a low whisper, by a grave elderly man, who stood near me, “ That the merits of the Free “ and Candid Disquisitions were instantly to be determined.” At the east end of the choir, on a throne of pure gold, ą personage of a most venerable aspect fat as judge: on her forehead was wrote in large capitals, The Sacramental Test, I immediately knew her to be the CHURCH OF ENGLAND. On her right hand sat a matron who shew'd the greatest chearfulness, and at the same time the utmost condescension and humility in her countenance : her name was ORTHODOXY. On her 'breast, next her heart, was placed something of a globular form, which emitted a light far superior to the lustre of our modern stars, or the most sparkling diamonds, so that my eyes were almost dazzled with beholding it. After viewing it as steadfastly as Į could, I discover'd the following words written under it by way of motto, viz. The eye of Faith. At the left side was CEREMONY, decently habited in a surplice, and bearing in her hand the cross in baptism.
On a signal given, immediately entered an odd fantastic figure, who seem'd to be very captious, discontented, and self-conceited. The garment she wore was of so notable a contexture that it never appeared one ininute to be the same, but continually diversified itself into every form and colour that imagination can suggest. The name of this person was ALTERATION. The *** and ***, and the Well-wishers to the Uriversity of Oxford, and rosy justices, and fat pluraliits followed her as partizans and attendants. In her arms íhe held a motley book, intitled, The Free and Candid Disquisitions, of which the appear'd extremely fond,