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turgid stream: in reaching the shore he refills the skin, and pursues his journey. Much care is required in adjusting the balance nicely: the body must be exactly in the centre of the inflated skin, which is turned with the legs of the beast upwards, and strapped to the thighs and shoulders. The slightest deviation causes a capsize; and few but those well trained can carry out this operation successfully. The chaguls, or leathern water bottles of Sindh, are tastefully ornamented, and much valued.

Dried fish may be mentioned as a great export from Karrachi to Cutch and Guzírat and Muscat. Sharks' fins also find their way to Bombay.

It remains to enumerate the animals in this tract of country; and first in importance is the camel, which is very generally reared throughout the whole of Sindh, and justly estimated for its incalculable utility. The Delta of the Indus and some marshy parts of the river's banks appear equally favourable to the animal as the dry and desert tracts eastward, where it is generally considered to be in its natural locality: large herds, however, pasture in the saturated tamarisk of the swamps in the Delta, and appear to thrive well. The whole of the land traffic, from the sea to the remotest parts of Central Asia, is carried on by camels: without it the merchant's calling must cease, and the wants of thousands be unprovided for. In Sindh it is also used for agricultural and domestic purposes, particularly in the lower part

of the river, where it invariably turns the waterwheel or oil mill, and is occasionally harnessed to the plough. Land travelling is only to be effected conveniently by means of the camel, which is both capable of great endurance, and is fleet, sure, and easy. Persons unused to camel riding find the pace of the animal fatiguing, but after a little practice it is resorted to for long journeys in preference to any other mode of travelling, and camels when well trained acquire a pace by no means disagreeable.

The camel saddle too of Sindh is remarkably luxurious, and the wealthy expend large sums upon their furniture and trappings, using a variety of soft well-padded saddle cloths of silk, satin, or embroidered cloth, decorated with an abundance of fringe and tassels. Necklaces of white shells strung on crimson cords are also common decorations, and a great man imagines it impossible to expend too much on his camel's gear.

The best riding camels are brought from Mikran, and their speed when well trained is almost incredible, the pace being a long trot. The saddle is so divided by an arch of wood-work in the centre, as to be capable of accommodating two persons; and the servant who guides the animal sits in front of his master, and holds the cords that are fixed to a peg that passes through the nostril of the camel, and by which he is governed.


Seyuds who consider the camel as a sacred animal, and the care of it honourable, breed large numbers, and the milk is constantly used in common with that of the buffaloe and sheep: it is nutritious and pleasant in flavour, but soon becomes sour by exposure to heat.

The horse of Sindh is a large powerful animal, bred by the Bilúchi chiefs in large numbers, but they are trained to an ambling, shuffling pace, intolerable to any but an Asiatic rider: the fleetest and best horses used in the country are brought from Khorassan, and are selected by freebooting chiefs in consequence of their swiftness and power. The common steeds ridden by the Sindhians are Yabús, thin, bony, miserable creatures, but yet capable of extraordinary endurance and fatigue.

The wealthy men in Sindh feed their horses highly, and caparison them with taste and splendour. Silver mountings, pommels, and stirrups, are common with rich velvet and silver housings. Necklaces of blue beads are also general, as they are considered a protection against the "evil eye.'

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The Yabús on the contrary always look starved, but in that condition are considered most serviceable by their owners, who rear them to endure hardships, and leave them saddled and bridled for hours after a journey, without paying them the slightest attention. The mules of Sindh also deserve attention as a most useful animal: they are large and strong, capable of bearing heavy loads, and living on the hardest fare. Asses are of large size, and share with camels the inland carriage of the country; they are principally used by the poorer Hindú traders.

The Sindhians, those particularly of Upper Sindh and the interior, are a very pastoral people, who breed and tend vast numbers of cattle. A man in Sindh, as among the patriarchs of the Jews, is considered wealthy and respectable according to his possessions in cattle, and large tracts are used as pasturage ground. The buffaloes or water kine abound in every hamlet; and a man must be poor indeed who does not possess one or more. The milk forms one of the staple commodities of food among the peasants, who eat it as curd, and sell it to their richer neighbours. The oxen of Sindh are

small but strong to labour, very numerous all over the country, and in universal use for agricultural purposes, the plough, water-wheel, cart, oil mill, &c.; and the goats are abundant and singularly large and handsome. The Mahommedans seldom kill sheep, but prefer goat's flesh, and on the arrival of any stranger of note at a village, the chief invariably sends him a present of a kid wherewith to make a feast. The sheep of Sindh is very inferior to the short-legged, thickly-wooled description of the western mountains, known as the Dúmba; the country is too swampy for the animal to thrive in.

Game of every kind is abundant in Sindh: of the smaller description partridges are most common, and the Mahommedan gentlemen hunt them with hawks, which is a favourite diversion. The kotahpacha too, or hog deer, is the great object of sport, for which the Shikargahs are maintained; the flesh is finely flavoured and much esteemed. This animal attains great size in Sindh; and the wild hog also affords them great sport, although they abhor the flesh as good Mahommedans. The poorer classes of Sindhians eat it, and indeed there are few things they refuse they are only equalled in this respect by the out-casts of India, who feed on carrion. In hunting wild hog, large Affghan dogs of great power and ferocity are used to harass and worry the beast, until, having in some measure expended his strength for the amusement of the hunters, his career is ended by the matchlock-men, who take every un

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