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In the course of a few months his incapacity became so apparent, that they were obliged to select a person better qualified to fill the high station, and their choice fell, after much deliberation, on a nephew of Ghúlam Shah.

One year's experience proved their judgment had been again deceived, and they therefore deposed him, and elevated to the government Ghúlam Nubi Khan, a brother of Ghúlam Shah Khan. This might be in the year 1778, at which period Mir Bijar Khan, a son of Mir Biram Khan Talpúr, who at the time of his father's being put to death, as above mentioned, was absent on a pilgrimage to Mecca, arrived at Muscat. Ghúlam Nubi Khan, apprehensive of his return to head the Talpúr tribe in rebellion, employed every means in his power with the Muscat government to have him despatched or delivered up; but his endeavours to corrupt the first virtue of the Arab character were in vain. The laws of hospitality were sacredly observed to Mir Bijar Khan, and something more it is said than mere protection was afforded him. He soon after appeared in Sindh, and was immediately joined by the Talpúrs, who collected from all quarters. Ghúlam Nubi Khan, equally alert, mustered his tribe and its adherents, and attacked the Talpúrs without loss of time: a conflict ensued, in which Ghúlam Nubi, the Kalora chief, was slain.

Mir Bijar Khan, victorious and triumphant, directed his march to the fort of Hyderabad, in


which Mir Ubdúl Nubi Khan, the brother of Mian Ghúlam Nubi Khan, hearing of the latter's death, had blockaded himself, and put to death Uttur Khan, Sirafraz Khan, and Mir Mahomed Khan, with others, whose pretensions he thought might stand between him and the opening he now saw to his own ambition. In this effusion of blood, Sirafraz Khan is least to be regretted, as his cruelty in killing Mir Biram Khan had raised the vengeance of the son and tribe of that chief, and provoked the dreadful calamity of civil war. Mir Bijar Khan, on his arrival before the fort, finding it impregnable, sent many messages, replete with assurances of faith, attachment, and submission; upon the strength of which, Ubdúl Nubi Khan, with more candour perhaps than prudence, came out, and was received by Mir Bijar Khan with a sincerity and sacred adherence to his engagements seldom observed by Asiatics, when interest offers much temptation to infringement. He saluted Mir Ubdúl Nubi Khan with every honour and respect, took the first oath of allegiance to him, and seated him on the throne of his ancestor. Here it might have been hoped the wounds of the two tribes were effectually healed, for the former position of both was renewed, the Kaloras in the government of Sindh, and the Talpúrs again placed in the first rank of the service of the state, a brother of Ghúlam Shah's being on the throne, and a son of Mir Biram Khan's on its right hand.

About two years expired, when Izzut Yar Khan, a nephew of Mian Ubdúl Nubi Khan, who was among the attendants of the court of Candahar, procured for himself an order from the king and troops to carry it into effect, with both of which he arrived at Shikarpúr, on his way to Sindh. Thither Ubdúl Nubi Khan, with Mir Bijar Khan, and other chiefs, marched to oppose him, and a desperate engagement ensued, in which Mian Ubdúl Nubi Khan was victorious, and Izzut Yar Khan put to flight. The downfal of the Abbasides, or Kalora tribe, would seem to have been decreed by fate, for Mian Ubdúl Nubi Khan was prompted in some unintelligible manner to seek the destruction of Mir Bijar Khan Kalora, to whom he was indebted for his position. He essayed numerous modes in vain, but at last effected his purpose, by the co-operation of his friend, the Rajah of Joudpúr. From him two assassins were sent as messengers on business to Mir Bijar Khan, who, availing themselves of the pretence of secret communication to gain a nearer approach, plunged their daggers into his breast, and he instantly expired.

Repeated persecution having paved the way for the downfall of the Kaloras, who seemed devoted to a destruction which no experience or wisdom could ward off from the descendants of a tribe who had so dearly won the supremacy, and supported it for so long a period, under peculiar difficulties and civil dissensions, too common among semi-barbarous

people, the Talpúrs, on the murder of Mir Bijar Khan, assembled in great force at Shadadpúr, beyond Hyderabad, and proceeded to attack the seat of government. Mian Ubdúl Nubi, not thinking himself able to encounter them, fled over the mountains of Bilúchistan to Kilat, where he flung himself on the protection of Mahomed Nasir Khan Brahoi, and solicited his aid.


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Ubdúlla Khan Talpúr raises the Standard of Sovereignty.Ubdúl Nubi Kalora invades Sindh, assisted by Kilat Chief. -Kaloras defeated. Ubdúl Nubi supported by Joudpúr Rajah Again defeated - Proceeds to Affghan Monarch Obtains Assistance. — Talpúr Chief seeks Refuge at Omarkót. Kaloras reinstated. Chief commits outrage and is dethroned.—Mir Futteh Allí Khan Talpúr placed on the Musnud. Kaloras again make head, assisted by the Affghan KingAgain defeated. Zemán Shah demands arrears of Tribute. —Futteh Allí Khan defends his pretensions to the Throne of Sindh. Civil War averted. Talpúr Chief shares the Country with his three Brothers. Title of Char Yar or Four Friends.Character of Talpúr Chiefs.- History and Form of Government of Talpúrs.-Ismael Shah and Persian Family. Summary of Sindh History, from Mahommedan to British Conquest.

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AFTER Mian Ubdúl Nubi's flight from Hyderabad, the son of Mir Bijar Khan, by name Ubdulla Khan Talpúr, with Mir Futteh Khan, nephew by the sister's side of Mir Biram Khan, deceased, and other chiefs, raised the standard of sovereignty in Sindh.

About a year after this, Mahomed Nasir Khan, the chief of Kilat, sent Mir Zohruck, his nephew, with a large body of experienced troops along with Mian Ubdúl Nubi Khan, in order to reinstate him

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