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done there will be a constantly steady, if not increasing, demand on Bombay for new supplies; and the same rule which applies to the north-west will apply to Sindh itself in the course of time, and that not very distant.

Bilúchistan and Kilat merit some attention; for, like the countries beyond, though we have suddenly dissolved our connexion with them, they are not to be considered, it is to be hoped at least, as lost to us for trading purposes: they had this peculiar feature politically different from the others, that the rude chiefs who govern them had every thing to gain from our connexion, and courted it. We could thus have advanced our objects most materially by remaining amongst them as they wished, and have formed on the spot a nucleus for our traffic which would have been of great importance: however, we can now only look to the native trader's unassisted efforts to keep up the communication, and this he will continue to do, though on a footing by no means so promising as where we could have exercised an immediate influence with those so well disposed to acknowledge it. The great influence of Bilúchistan consists in its wool, which it supplies in greater quantity than any other country; an article of first consideration, and to the attainment of which attention has, of late years, been particularly directed. The mountain road from the Jalawán mountains where the staple is produced lies over the Halla mountains, to the sea

coast of Nikran, and is tedious and expensive from the black mail system before alluded to: it should rather be brought to the Indus, at a point near Sindh, where the land carriage would be but trifling, and thus arrive at the port of the country. But the main point of importance here is, that there is at once a secure and valuable return trade. Now Candahar, as far as our markets are concerned, does not immediately supply this desideratum, though the native trader in its drugs, dyes, dried fruits, and other commodities in constant request for Sindhian consumption finds enough for his purposes. The Kilat trade by way of Sommiani was important; and latterly became more so, when we had a British agent to watch and assist it.

Such will be the inevitable result to the Sindhian Candahar trade by the efficient navigation of the Indus; and we are now to proceed higher up that river, northward, and ascertain its effects prospectively in that quarter. Beyond Sindh the first mart of commercial importance is Múltan, situated between the Sútlij and Jilum, in the Lahore territories ; and having one of the only three communications (the Bolan, Khyber, and Damán now alluded to) through the mountains to Candahar, and thence to Hirat, and carrying on a very extensive trade to those countries by the agency of the Lohani Affghans, the supplies in British manufactures and metals being conveyed from Calcutta and Bombay by land carriage, the former through Lucknow, Delhi, and Bhawulpúr, the latter through Guzirat, Marwar, and

Bikanir. The extent of this traffic to the upper country will be understood when it is stated that in one year upwards of 5000 camels, laden with merchandise, pursued that route from Múltan. The return trade is of the same nature, and at the same period as that to Shikarpúr by the Bolan, consisting of drugs, dyes, dried fruit, horses, &c. If so extensive a commerce exists at this point, when the whole of its supplies are conveyed by land-carriage from the capitals of Bengal and Western India, with the enormous attendant delays and expenses, will it not proportionally increase or receive a great additional impetus if the river Indus be navigated to the merchant's purpose? Bhawulpúr, the whole of the Punjaub, including the great cities of Lahore and Amritsir, are supplied with British merchandize by the same means as Multan, at a cost of time of between two or three months, and the same arguments apply to all. (Independent of these, our position on the Sutlij, or, as it is termed, the North-western Frontier of India, de mands a formidable force. There can hardly be less than 20,000 men between the sea and Firozpur: these must be supplied; but beyond Sindh all is by overland communication.) The northern countries in the plain of the Indus, or its tributaries, are at the same time highly productive in valuable and constantly-demanded articles, so that a present return trade is included in all measures for general improvement.

It will be unnecessary to pursue the subject further. The conviction is forced upon the observer, that steam navigation of the river Indus alone will effect any radical change in the commercial prospects of the countries which are approachable by means of that stream; but that with it, the trade, which has hitherto languished, or been confined to certain limits, will expand to an extent likely to prove of value to both the natives and the British government. Thus the accompanying declaration by the highest authority in India has been put forth, and is in process of being acted upon:-"It is intended to maintain on these rivers a sufficient number of steamers adapted to commercial as well as military purposes; but it is expected that in a very short period the merchants of Bombay will find it to their advantage to employ steam-boats of their own to convey British manufactures by the Indus to the south-west frontier, and by the saving of several months in the time now required for their transport, so reduce their price as very materially to extend the demand for them in the northwest provinces and the Punjaub." A further statement shows that it is intended to increase the means of communication between the Sutlij and the Ganges, so that merchandise may be conveyed down that river from the Sutlij, and not up it as heretofore.

This appeal to the merchants of Bombay will doubtless be answered when the navigation of

the Indus shall have been placed on a footing of security, the result of a peaceable policy towards the tribes who command its banks, and without whose concurrence nothing can be done. If such a system be adopted in the first instance, and an efficient steam establishment be employed on the Indus and Sutlij, with the usual measures of protection to the trading community of Sindh, whose energies and perseverance alone require encouragement, commerce will have a fair beginning, and there can be no hesitation in concluding that no very great space of time will elapse ere it progresses rapidly to the advantage of all concerned. These are no hypothetical conclusions, but advanced on grounds of fair reasoning; and so far from seeking to colour the commercial prospects of Sindh and the Indus too highly, it will be seen that the whole are still held to be progressive, and that certain indispensable conditions remain yet to be fulfilled ere even a commencement can be made, much less a result attained; peace and its consequences, security, with an improved condition of the country and its inhabitants, being the principal of the conditions alluded to.

The weights and measures in use in Sindh are based on the Khirwah, which is equivalent to about 843 lbs. English dead weight, and for quantity, as for grain, is again divided into "kasahs" and "toyans," the relative value of these being difficult to ascertain, and varying much, according to the description of grain. Liquids are determined by

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