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denouncing him for acts of which he was only responsible as the tool of those about him, looking forward to the day when he should obtain his ambitious views, and be made the Chief or Rais of the Khyrpúr branch of the Talpúr family. which occurred even sooner than he anticipated.
The Hindú and peaceable class of the Sindhian subjects profited generally, and some of them particularly, from our presence in the country. The large sums expended by our troops, and the constant calls for the supplies of these and the armies in advance for a period of four years, diffused a large amount of capital into the country; and the Amirs themselves shared the profits, in the increased value of their collections in kind, grain being at a high value, proportionate to the constant demand. The Bilúchi influence was, it is true, rather weakened in the guarantee given to their feudal heads, of a power independent of their feudatories; but the Jahgirs, and immunities of the latter being unmolested, they had the main object of their views, and were, like the Amirs themselves, becoming daily more habituated to our position amongst them, though they had long looked upon it as the point of all others fraught with the greatest danger to their interests.
In this state of the country, and its politics generally, the armies withdrew from above the passes, and all further connection with Central Asia ceased. Bilúchistan and Kilat were left with a treaty just
signed, which secured the constant friendship and protection of the British government to the young prince, the son of Mihrab Khan (who, it will be remembered, fell defending his capital against the assault of the British troops in 1839,) and our political and military position was declared to be to the eastward of the Indus, "within the limits which nature had assigned to our Indian empire." A great alteration was at once made in the direction. of Sindhian political interests by the appointment of that gallant and distinguished soldier Sir Charles Napier, to the sole authority, military and political, over all the territories of the Lower Indus; and all former arrangements for their administration were superseded, and declared null and void. This event brings us up to the period of October, 1842.
News how collected from Indian Durbars.-Withdrawal of Troops from Affghanistan.-Consequent Attention to the Affairs of Sindh.-New Treaty proffered to the Amirs. — British Troops march towards Capitals.-Mir Rústum flies to the Desert. -Major Outram returns to Sindh.-Brings Mir Rústum to General Napier.-Principal Obstacles to Ratification of Treaty.-Extra Demands.-Delay in signing Treaty.Signed under peculiar Expectations.—British Representative's Life saved. Attack on the Agency.-Battle of Miani. Surrender of Amirs.-Capture of Treasure. - Battle of Duppa, and Defeat of Shir Mahomed.-Sindh declared a British Possession. Amirs arrive as Prisoners at Bombay. -Alli Múrad's Position.
In the East those affairs which are interesting to a whole country are not long kept secret: the native news promulgators and coteries where discussions arise on all such topics are fertile agents for disseminating intelligence; nor is it strange that these parties have generally pretty correct information. In the succeeding narrative of the late important events in Sindh most of the particulars are derived from native authorities on the spot, who were present at the durbars, and knew the feelings of the chiefs, particularly as respects those treaties and conditions proposed to the Amirs which have not yet been put forth as public documents, though their purport is well known, and has been elsewhere
fully discussed. The other events are matters of every-day history, military operations being published in Indian government manifestos, and the stirring incidents connected with them being known to all.
The state of affairs in Sindh up to the last period alluded to (October, 1842,) had appeared to be particularly quiet, and, with trifling exceptions, satisfactory, though it was generally considered by those whose long experience entitled it to respect, that certain alterations would be made in our Sindhian arrangements to secure the greater advantages required in the navigation of the Indus, some modification of transit duties, and other fiscal impediments to trade, as well as the opportunity for commencing the introduction of a better order of government in the country generally, by establishing a closer interference in its affairs. There was also a distant allusion to certain intrigues said to have been carried on by the Amirs inimical to our interest during the Caubúl disasters. However, on the return of the British troops from beyond the Affghan passes, the affairs of Sindh and the whole Indus frontier appear to have attracted the particular attention of government; for certain conditions were soon after proposed to the Amirs, which were unexpected, and to which they could not readily acquiesce. The new treaty thus presented to the Talpúr chiefs, generally including both the Khyrpúr and Hyderabad families, was
considered to have for its leading features as an ultimatum, and in supercession of all former arrangements, though why does not yet appear, the cession in perpetuity of the towns of Karrachi, Tattah, Sukkur, Bukkur, and Rorí, with a strip of land on each bank of the river; the abolition of all tolls and transit duties of every kind throughout the Sindhian territories, and the giving over to the neighbouring chief of Bhawalpúr the whole of the Khyrpúr territory eastward of the river, from Rorí to Subzutkót, including those places, on condition of his also annulling all imposts on trade by the river through his territories. It will be seen that these measures were not calculated to be palatable to the Sindhian chiefs; for independent of the loss of revenue which the cession of such important territories as these must have occasioned, a portion being made over to a foreign and inferior power, the dignity of the whole Bilúch faction was most vitally assailed; whilst a most important point to the Amirs was at length decided against them in the infringement of their game preserves, an immediate result of our taking territory on both banks of the river. The abolition of the transit duties was an inferior question, and would have come in probably with others which it is supposed were to be mooted, for the still further advancement of trade, and other alterations, which were required to improve our relations with Sindh generally, before alluded to.