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shrieks of the beaters, who, surrounding the sporting grounds armed with staves, and loudly beating drums, gradually close towards the centre, the poor frightened brutes in the preserves make towards the only path of escape left to them, which is an opening leading directly under the muzzles of the matchlocks of the sportsmen, who pour upon them a destructive fire. The mass and variety of game that is forced from the shelter of the jungle by this means is most surprising, for not only does it include numerous hogs and black buck, the nobler sport, but great varieties of smaller game, the beautiful cotah-pacha, with foxes, hares, &c. in abundance. Hawking is also a very general sport throughout the country, for the capture of the beautiful black partridge, very similar in plumage to that of Cutch, abounding both in the interior and on the banks of the Indus.
The chiefs of Hyderabad were in the habit of quitting their capital during a greater portion of the year, abandoning every affair of state and the most important duties to pass long periods in their hunting grounds. With them all interests, whether political or social, were subservient to these, of which they said, "We consider our Shikargahs of greater moment to us than our wives and children." Their conversation on all occasions turned on this topic alone, and a visit to the Amirs on the most important question of state affairs was sure to end in an invitation to accompany them to their hunting
grounds. The principal tribes of Bilúchis located in Sindh are the Murris, Khosahs, Umranis, Lakís, Chandias, Mughsis, Jalbanís, Talpúrs, Káloras, Jattois, Muzaris, Jokias, Numrias, Rinds, Kurmattis, Búrdis, and a few others; the parent country enumerates forty-eight original tribes. The strength of the Sindh army has generally been rated at 50,000
The Moana or Míani tribe of fishermen and boatmen, who find occupation and subsistence on the river Indus, form a third class of the Mahommedan population of Sindh, and form a large tribe, apart from either the Jutt cultivator or the turbulent Bilúchi, though it is usual to style as Sindhians all classes generally who inhabit the country: this has been hitherto observed by all travellers passing through it. The Míanis (or Moanas) are the most active and athletic race in Sindh, with a buoyancy of spirits and generally frank bearing unknown to the other classes. Many of them as fishermen live, it may be said, in rather than on the river, but all have villages immediately on its banks, their boats and nets furnishing all that is required for their maintenance. In many parts of the stream, especially near the great lake Munchur, whole families of this class live entirely after the Chinese fashion in their boats, having no other habitation.
The women share the labour equally with the men, and a sturdy lass is generally seen steering or paddling the boat whilst the man works at the nets,
a child being often suspended in a net-work cot between the mast and rigging of the craft, which is always very small and light for the advantage of easier navigation amongst the shoals and creeks. All the lakes and estuaries formed by the inundations are crowded with this description of craft.
The navigation of the Indus is carried on by the Míani, and passing his life on the river he is the only pilot to be trusted in its intricate channel: connected with this people, the Pullah fishery, for which the Indus is so celebrated, deserves particular notice. First placing on the water a large earthen vessel, and commending it to the care of Allah, the fisherman casts himself on it in such a manner that the mouth of the vessel is completely closed by the pressure of his stomach; he then paddles himself by means of the action of his hands and feet into the centre of the stream, holding deep in the water a forked pole about fifteen feet in length, to which is attached a large net; in his girdle he carries a small spear, and a check-string attached to the net indicates the moment when a fish is entangled. The spear is used to kill the fish when drawn up after capture, and the jar receives the spoil.
The Pullah (the Hilsah of the Ganges in sable fish) swims against the stream. The fisherman therefore walks some miles up the river bank, and then floats down it until he has secured sufficient for his day's sale or consumption.
The Míanis, as may be conjectured, are a poor race, though exceedingly numerous. They are dissipated, and a large proportion of the courtesans and dancing women of the country are from this tribe; they are of very dark complexion, but possess regular features, and some of the women would be considered remarkably handsome. The Míanis are also noted for the manufacture of mats and baskets, which are beautifully woven from the high reeds and strong grasses growing on the edge of the river; this class, when found near towns and villages, occupy a distinct quarter, generally outside or apart from the other inhabitants. Here they sell spirits, and the men beat drums and sing whilst the women dance and perform all the usual acts of courtesanship calculated to allure the passing stranger.
Affghans settled in Sindh.-Persians.- Various military Adventurers. - Hindús. Lohanas and Bhatias - employed as Revenue Servants. - Disregard of Caste and Religion. — Dispersion over Countries to the North-west - In Sindh principally located at Karrachi and Shikarpúr. — Costumes and Manners. -Integrity in Cash Transactions. — Amount of Population in Sindh — Difficulty of estimating — Impoverished Condition of.· Character ascribed to Sindhians. Language. Slavery. Modes of Salutation. Influx of Foreigners. Smoking universal. Summary of Character. -Influencing Circumstances.
THE few Affghans who settled in Sindh from the period when it was a portion of the Cabul monarchy, have become so naturalised, and are so amalgamated with the other inhabitants, as to retain few distinctive marks: they may be generally classed as zamindars and cultivators. Nadir Shah, in his passage through Sindh in A. D. 1740, left behind him many Persians, who settled in the country, and these families have become in many instances wealthy and influential. Adventurers from Persia generally managed at a later period to bring their deceit and plausibility to a good market with the credulous Amirs, whose court was consequently always well stocked with some of the reputed sons of Abbas Ali, and other noted characters,