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does (p. 163), that the subsidizing of the clergy by the collection of a common fund began in 1662. Certainly in the very earliest days of the movement in 1583 and 1584, a fund of money was collected by the ministers in London from prominent laymen, was administered and parceled out by these same ministers in precisely the same manner as this fund. The practice continued certainly till 1592, but was then apparently for some years discontinued, owing to the active opposition of the government to the Classis movement. The historical continuity therefore was lost. The collection of funds and their distribution was resumed on a much larger scale under James and Charles. This whole question of the financing of the Puritan movement is one of the greatest importance and of the deepest interest, but to which as yet very little attention has been given.

This record makes it clear that relatively to the economic progress of the community and the general rise in prices and wages, the pay of the ministers had fallen off considerably. There are a good many in 1690 receiving less than £20, many with £10 or less. In the earlier days even the less prominent and able members had received stipends as large as £30 and £40, while £50 and £60 contributed by a relatively small congregation or by one layman was by no means uncommon. Those figures represent apparently the maximum which all but the most influential ministers could hope to obtain in 1690. Is it not possible that in this inability of both the Presbyterian and Congregational churches to obtain the same relative financial support as in the earlier decades, lies some explanation of their comparative loss of position and influence in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?



CHURCH AND STATE IN ENGLAND TO THE DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE. HENRY M. GWATKIN. Longmans, Green, & Co. 1917. Pp. viii, 416. $5.00. Dr. Gwatkin had made an eminent reputation in the field of early church history; and it is deeply to be regretted that a volume by him, dealing with a subject for which he showed no special qualifications, should have been published without the changes he would doubtless have wished to make. It is, frankly, a book that has no other value than that of a pedestrian narrative of obvious events without any real understanding of their perspective. Dr. Gwatkin seems rarely to have been abreast of modern research, and he unfailingly writes

with prejudice, once his own sympathies are engaged. He has little of that knowledge of constitutional history so essential to his subject. He does not understand the reign of Richard II, which he interprets in the spirit of "Little Arthur's History"; he does not know the causes of the struggle between Becket and Henry II in 1163; he knows nothing of Maitland's fundamental paper on Execrabilis in the Common Pleas; he has not examined Dr. Leach's work on the effect of the dissolution of the chantries; it would be astonishing, in view of his statements, if he had ever read the Institutes of a Christian Man.

These are perhaps sins of omission. But it is to be doubted whether Dr. Gwatkin really understood wherein consists the problem of Church and State, as English history interprets it. He does not seem to have realized that from the Conciliar Movement England was plunged into the mid-stream of European thought; a cautious Scottish monarch would not have brought Casaubon to this country for nothing. He does not see the significance of men like Tyndal and Cartwright and Sherlock, whose writings go to the roots of the problems they confronted. The real history of Church and State is not merely, as he makes it, a statistical table of events. It is the presentation of the conflict between divergent views of life, the explanation of their origin, the interpretation of their value. In this aspect Becket is not merely an English but a European figure; and the Statutes of Provisors and Præmunire are landmarks in the history of the secular State. The subject Dr. Gwatkin chose for these lectures is a great one; but such dignified anecdotage is inadequate to its treatment.



GOD'S WONDER WORLD. A MANUAL FOR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN JUNIOR GRADES. Together with Leaflets. CORA S. Cовв. The Beacon Press. Pp. 335. $1.25. Leaflets, 50 cts.

"The religious thought running through all these Lessons - that God is with us continually and leads us on to all that we accomplish - should never be lost from sight." This assertion (p. 250) informs the inquirer at once of the intention of the author. It is to lead children into a region where investigation will reward them with fascinating discoveries, and where they will constantly explore with delight, with reverence, and with consciousness of God. The ways of ants, bees, spiders, toads, bats, and owls; clouds, plants, and

trees; the work of the rain, the story of electricity - these and many other things are brought within the comprehension of children, and many suggestions are given as to leading a child to think and observe for himself. While there may be room for question as to the form in which some of these facts are presented, the book will be an invaluable assistant to both parent and teacher.

THE EXPERIENCE OF GOD IN MODERN LIFE. EUGENE WILLIAM Lyman. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1918. Pp. x, 154. $1.00.

Professor Lyman's peculiar designation of his theme in a work which seeks to show the compatibility of the Christian conception of God with the mental habits of a modern educated man, reminds one of Hocking's The Meaning of God in Human Experience, and, like it, is rather ambiguously suggestive of the apologetic method of the mystics. At first glance it seems to mean that modern life in its highest interpretation may be truly regarded as a divine experience, that is, an experience on the part of God Himself. It may also mean that men of the present day enjoy an objective experience of God, whereby He becomes as real to them as any other fact can be. This is evidently what the author means to say, for he speaks repeatedly of men consciously experiencing God, of this as an experience of objective reality, of God as "a fact" (pp. 11, 14, 31, 35, et al.). The position is that of the theological realist.

As the argument proceeds, however, the position seems to shift to the first of the two suggestions. For the claim made by some to the effect that they know God to be real because in certain definite experiences of theirs they feel an immediate assurance of His objective existence, is supported on the ground of the high quality of this experience. The author's favorite designation of its character is that it is an experience of "moral creativity." That is, the man has an experience of bringing new moral existence into being; there is no "world ready-made” but a "world in the making," and this is an experience of God, since God's nature is ultimately “moral creativeness." In this activity therefore man is one with God. The divine experience and his own are one. In man's moral career there is a divine experience. Man's moral creativity is God's own experience. Thus the author's realism becomes a form of mysticism. Is this God personal?

An effort is made to vindicate this claim on behalf of modern religious experience on three counts: its power in the development

of personality, its furtherance of social progress, and its contribution to the evolution of the cosmos. This seems the natural order in covering the whole field which apologetics must examine. The treatment, however, lacks integration. The three counts are taken separately, whereas they might be unified by showing how the personality comes to consciousness only in the community-consciousness and finds fulfilment only when the cosmos becomes organic to its selfexpression and self-realization. The value of the work lies in its suggestiveness rather than in thoroughness. The author deeply feels that the belief in the existence of God needs vindication anew and that this vindication must proceed from within the human conscious experience; but the conclusions he reaches are anticipated by saltations and not reached by clear and coördinated reasoning.

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The philosophical instrument mainly employed in obtaining results is Pragmatism, with some assistance from such works as Hobhouse's Development and Purpose and Bergson's Creative Evolution. The tentative character of the treatment is thereby accentuated, and brilliancy of suggestion alternates with obscurity of expression and far-reaching assumption. The terms, reality, fact, experience, religion, though key-words, are of uncertain meaning. The opening sentence, "The modern world is in quest, dumbly and half-consciously, of a religion," is in substance often repeated. But is religion something that men get and lose, or something that they seek? Is not their very seeking their religion? The testimony of such great men as Martineau, Bushnell, Ritschl, and Tolstoy to the reality of the experience of God is taken at its face value, but the proof of the truth of their utterances is found in "the reality sense,' a sense of being in contact with reality in a new and deeper way and of functioning harmoniously with it," "an experience sufficiently grounded in reality," "the feeling of reality" (pp. 32, 37, 43); which is surely unconvincing to any one who has not had that incommunicable experience. In his peroration and summary at the close the author frankly, it seems, abandons any attempt to reason with his readers: "In all these experiences fact and value meet and blend both in human ways and in ways that reach far beyond the confines of humanity. Experiences, we irresistibly feel [italics mine] are experiences of God. They reveal to us the very essence of creative power and they bring us into a veritable sharing in the creative process." If one is to be convinced finally simply by the irresistible feeling some one may have, there is an end to argument and theology must repose on dogmatism.

The aim of these lectures is a noble one, namely, to arouse a desire to share in the Christian fellowship with the will of God, and the area

of human endeavor opened to view is full of hope and promise; but it can be conquered only by a more stringent exercise of the unified powers of feeling, thought, and will than the author allows.



MYSTICISM AND LOGIC. BERTRAND RUSSELL. Longmans, Green, & Co. 1918. Pp. viii, 234. $2.50.

In this new volume Mr. Russell has brought together ten essays and addresses, previously printed elsewhere, the first of which gives its title to the collection. After the admirable account of Mr. Russell's philosophy recently given by Dr. Hoernlé in the pages of this REVIEW,' it would be superfluous to say anything further here. In the Preface, however, there is a reference to the essay on The Free Man's Worship which suggests that the author anticipated or has profited by one of Dr. Hoernlé's criticisms-"In theoretical Ethics the position. . . is not quite identical with that which I hold now. I feel less convinced than I did then of the objectivity of good and evil." In the case of other essays also, dated footnotes correct statements in the earlier text. Is it impertinent to suggest that such indications of changing thought should lead Mr. Russell to soften somewhat his dogmatic tone- although he would indignantly protest against the adjective. He has a shocking way of dashing cold water upon one's glowing ideals and ardent hopes of realizing them in the world; but a cold shower is stimulating to a healthy system.



The Religious Aspect of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy. R. F. A. Hoernlé. HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, April, 1916.

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