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cider, I should confine myself to a few sorts for if we have those sorts which are good, and good bearers, what can we wish more? I should therefore recommend the following:
The most favourite cider apple now in cultivation, is the cockagee; I am informed by some of our principal cider merchants it is decidedly the best for bottling, and will bring the greatest price; therefore, as this apple is a good bearer, and a free grower, it would be the most profitable of any to plant for cider.
Kirke's Lord Nelson, is not much known at present as a cider fruit, but this apple, which is a good bearer, produces a large quantity of fine astringent saccharine juice, and makes a most excellent cider to drink from the cask.
List of apples from one to twelve sorts recommended for small gardens.
1 Hawthorn Dean
2 Ribston Pippin
3 Kirke's Lord Nelssn
4 Cristy's Pippin
5 Beauty of Kent
7 Manks Codlin
8 Scarlet Nonpareil
9 Scarlet Pearmain 10 Hick's Fancy
11 Woodstock Pippin
12 Court of Wyck Pippin
The above are all described in the explanatory list, where the different seasons of ripening, with the character of the apples, may be found.
THE MODE OF PRODUCING NEW KINDS OF
Par. 75.-It is a well known fact, not only among botanists, but all those who have paid attention to the culture of the vegetable tribe, that by improper management their sorts will degenerate; and this is caused, by such sorts being planted too near together, by which means they unite with each other.
If you plant cabbages and potatoes, or cucumbers and turnips near each other, or anything of a different nature, they will not injure; but if
you plant cabbage and cauliflower, or savoy, or anything of a similar nature, it will cause the most perfect sort to degenerate, if they are allowed to bloom together. The same is the case with apples; for, if various sorts are in the same garden blooming near each other, although you might save your seed from what appeared a very fine apple, you would not judge which was the male parent in order to elucidate this particular, I will endeavour to state as plainly as possible, the nature of the apple from its first formation, till it becomes perfect, and produces the ripe pip or seed.
In the first place, when the bloom is quite open, the principal attraction is the leaves of the bloom, five in number; that which is called the corolla; below the flower, where the small green apple is formed, which continues to grow larger till it comes to perfection, this is called the flower cup or calyx; in the centre of the cup you see small yellow things, which are called stiles, and below the stiles are to be seen several other very small things with round heads like pins, which are called stamens, and these produce a fine dust
called the Farina or Pollen, which is collected by the bees and other insects, and which the former so industriously collect and lay up for their young, &c.
Various have been the opinions on this subject, but it is now become conclusive, that the bloom becomes impregnated with other varieties, through the bees and other insects; indeed, most insects after they become winged, are fond of the sweets they can collect from flowers; and although we have not so just an idea of many insects as we have of bees, yet I have no doubt many of them take part in crossing the fruits and vegetables: but the bees may be seen flying to a great number of different flowers and trees, before they have a sufficient load to take home to their hive, and by thus flying from bloom to bloom, and tree to tree, they occasionally drop part of the Pollen into another flower, which causes it to be impregnated with the nature of the fruit or vegetable from which it was collected; it therefore shows the necessity, if we wish to produce a new variety of any peculiar quality, to plant the trees where they will not be within a
considerable distance of any other; for instance, suppose you wish to raise a new keeping apple, it will be necessary to choose two good keeping apples, and if one were very sour, and the other sweet, it will have a great chance of combining these two qualities, which are quite necessary to constitute a good apple: or if you have a favourite early apple, and would wish to get one nearly like it that it would keep, then plant by it a good keeping apple, and you will have a chance of getting one nearly like it, and probably much better.
If your seedlings are at all strong, the best method, and most quick to prove them, is, the following spring after they have come up, to graft them on young fruit-bearing trees; it will bring them into bearing early, and by so doing, you likewise have an opportunity of noticing which are likely to become good bearers.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFERENT MODES OF
Par. 76. Various are the opinions respecting the influence the stock will have on the scion,