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arc of a circle; as the fruit of Astragalus hamosus, Medicago falcata, &c.

36. Scimitar-shaped (acinaciformis); curved, fleshy, plane on the two sides, the concave border thick, the convex border thin; as the leaves of Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme. 37. Axe-shaped (dolabriformis); fleshy, nearly straight, somewhat terete at the base, compressed towards the upper end; one border thick and straight, the other enlarged, convex, and thin; as the leaves of Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme.

38. Falcate (falcatus); plane and curved, with parallel edges, like the blade of a reaper's sickle; as the pod of Medicago falcata: any degree of curvature, with parallel edges, receives this name.

39. Tongue-shaped (linguiformis); long, fleshy, plano-convex, obtuse; as the leaves of Sempervivum tectorum, and some Aloes.

40. Angular (angulosus); having projecting longitudinal angles. We say obtuse-angled when the angles are rounded, as in the stem of Salvia pratensis; and acute-angled when they are sharp, as in many Carices. Some call these angles the acies. 41. Three-cornered (trigonus); having three longitudinal angles and three plane faces; as the stem of Carex acuta.

42. Three-edged (triangularis, triqueter); having three acute angles with concave faces, as the stems of many plants; generally used as a synonyme of trigonus.

43. Two-edged (anceps); compressed, with two sharp edges; as the stem of an Iris.

44. Keeled (carinatus); formed in the manner of the keel of a boat; that is to say, with a sharp projecting ridge, arising from a flat or concave central rib; as the glumes of Grasses.

45. Channelled (canaliculatus); long and concave, so as to resemble a gutter or channel; as the leaves of Lygeum Spartum, Tradescantia virginica, &c.

46. Boat-shaped (cymbiformis, navicularis); having the figure of a boat in miniature; that is to say, concave, tapering to each end, with a keel externally; as the glumes of Phalaris canariensis scarcely different from 44.

47. Whip-shaped (flagelliformis); long, taper, and supple, like the thong of a whip; as the stem of Vinca, and of many plants. This term is confined to stems and roots.


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48. Rope-shaped (funalis, funiliformis); formed of coarse fibres resembling cords; as the roots of Pandanus, and other arborescent monocotyledons. Mirbel.

49. Thread-shaped (filiformis); slender like a thread; as the filaments of most plants, and the styles of many.

50. Hair-shaped (capillaris); the same as filiform, but more delicate, so as to resemble a hair: it is also applied to the fine ramifications of the inflorescence of some plants; as Grasses. 51. Necklace-shaped (moniliformis, nodosus, Mirb.); cylindrical or terete, and contracted at regular intervals; as the pods of Sophora japonica, Ornithopus perpusillus, &c., the hairs of Dicksonia arborescens, &c.

52. Worm-shaped (vermicularis); thick, and almost cylindrical, but bent in different places; as the roots of Polygonum Bis

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53. Knotted (torulosus); a cylindrical body, uneven in surface; as the pod of Chelidonium: this is very nearly the same as moniliform.

54. Trumpet-shaped (tubæformis, tubatus); hollow, and dilated at one extremity, like the end of a trumpet, De Cand.; as the corolla of Caprifolium sempervirens.

55. Horned (cornutus, corniculatus); terminating in a process resembling a horn; as the fruit of Trapa bicornis. If there are two horns, the word bicornis is used; if three, tricornis; and so on.

56. Beaked (proboscideus); having a hard terminal horn; as the fruit of Martynia.

57. Crested (cristatus); having an elevated, irregular, or notched ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet. This term is chiefly

applied to seeds, and to the appendages of the anthers of some Ericæ; such as E. triflora and comosa.

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58. Petal-like (petaloideus); having the colour and texture of a petal; as one lobe of the calyx of Mussænda, the bractea of many plants, the stamen of Canna, the stigmata of Iris. 59. Leaf-like (foliaceus, † folüiformis, † phylloideus); having the texture or form of a leaf; as the lobes of the calyx of Rosa, the apex of the fruit of Fraxinus, the persistent petals of Melanorrhoea.

60, Winged (alatus); having a thin broad margin; as the fruit of Paliurus australis, the seed of Malcomia, Bignonia, &c. In composition pterus is used; as dipterus for two-winged, tripterus for three-winged, tetrapterus for four-winged, &c.; peripterus when the wing surrounds any thing; epipterus when it terminates.

61. Mill-sail-shaped († molendinaceus); having many wings projecting from a convex surface; as the fruit of some umbelliferous plants, and of Moringa.

62. Knob-like († gongylodes); having an irregular roundish figure.

63. Halved (dimidiatus); only half, or partially, formed. A leaf is called dimidiate when one side only is perfect; an anther when one lobe only is perfect; and so on.

64. Fan-shaped (flabelliformis); plaited like the rays of a fan; as the leaf of Borassus flabelliformis.

65. Grumous (grumosus); in form of little clustered grains; as the root of Neottia Nidus-avis, Mirb.; rather as the fæcula in the stem of the Sago Palm.

66. Testicular († testiculatus); having the figure of two oblong bodies; as the roots of Orchis mascula.

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67. Ringent, or personate (ringens, personatus); a term applied to a monopetalous corolla, the limb of which is unequally divided; the upper division, or lip, being arched; the lower prominent, and pressed against it, so that when compressed, the whole resembles the mouth of a gaping animal; as the corolla of Antirrhinum.

68. Labiate (labiatus); a term applied to a monopetalous calyx or corolla, which is separated into two unequal divisions; the one anterior, and the other posterior, with respect to the axis: hence bilabiate is more commonly used than labiate. Salvia and many other plants afford examples. It is often employed instead of ringent.

69. Wheel-shaped (rotatus); a calyx or corolla, or other organ, of which the tube is very short, and the segments spreading; as the corolla of Veronica and Galium.

70. Salver-shaped (hypocrateriformis); a calyx or corolla, or other organ, of which the tube is long and slender, and the limb flat; as in Phlox.

71. Funnel-shaped (infundibularis, infundibuliformis); a calyx or corolla, or other organ, in which the tube is obconical, gradually enlarging upwards into the limb, so that the whole resembles a funnel; as the corolla of Nicotiana.

72. Bell-shaped (campanulatus, +campanaceus, †campaniformis); a calyx, corolla, or other organ, in which the tube is inflated, and gradually enlarged into a limb, the base not being conical; as the corolla of Campanula.

73. Pitcher-shaped (urceolatus); the same as campanulate, but more contracted at the orifice, with an erect limb; as the corolla of Vaccinium Myrtillus.

74. Cup-shaped (cyathiformis); the same as pitcher-shaped, but

not contracted at the margin; the whole resembling a drinkingcup; as the limb of the corolla of Symphytum.

75. Cupola-shaped († cupuliformis); slightly concave, with a nearly entire margin; as the calyx of Citrus, or the cup of

an acorn.

76. Kneepan-shaped (patelliformis); broad, round, thick; convex on the lower surface, concave on the other: the same as meniscoideus, but thicker. The embryo of Flagellaria indica is patelliform.



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77. Pulley-shaped (+trochlearis); circular, compressed, contracted in the middle of its circumference, so as to resemble a pulley; as the embryo of Commelina communis.

78. Scutelliform (scutelliformis); the same as patelliform, but oval; not round, as the embryo of Grapes.

79. Brush-shaped (+muscariformis); formed like a brush or broom; that it to say, furnished with long hairs towards one end of a slender body; as the style and stigma of many Compositæ.

80. Acetabuliform (acetabuliformis, tacetabuleus); concave, depressed, round, with a border a little turned inwards; as the fruit of some Lichens.

81. Goblet-shaped (+ crateriformis); concave, hemispherical, a little contracted at the base; as some Pezizas.

82. Cotyliform († cotyliform); resembling rotate, but with an erect limb.

83. + Poculiform (+poculiformis); cup-shaped, with a hemispherical base and an upright limb; nearly the same as campanulate.

84. Pouch-shaped († scrotiformis); hollow, and resembling a little double bag; as the spur of many Orchises.

85. + Foxglove-shaped († digitaliformis); like campanulate, but longer, and irregular; as the corolla of Digitalis.

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