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2. Revolute (revolutiva, revoluta); when the edges are rolled backwards spirally on each side (Link); as in the leaf of the Rosemary.

3. Obvolute (obvolutiva, obvoluta, Link; semi-amplexa, De Cand.); when the margins of one alternately overlap those of that which is opposite to it.

4. Convolute (convolutiva, convoluta); when one is wholly rolled up in another, as in the petals of the Wallflower.

5. Supervolute (supervolutiva); when one edge is rolled inwards, and is enveloped by the opposite edge rolled in an opposite direction; as the leaves of the Apricot.

6. Induplicate (induplicativa); having the margins bent abruptly inwards, and the external face of these edges applied to each other without any twisting as in the flowers of some species of Clematis.


7. Conduplicate (conduplicativa, conduplicata); when the sides are applied parallelly to the faces of each other.

8. Plaited (plicativa, plicata); folded lengthwise, like the plaits of a closed fan; as the Vine and many Palms.

9. Replicate (replicativa); when the upper part is curved back and applied to the lower; as in the Aconite.

10. Curvative (curvativa); when the margins are slightly curved, either backwards or forwards, without any sensible twisting. De Cand.

11. Wrinkled (corrugata, corrugativa); when the parts are folded up irregularly in every direction; as the petals of the Poppy.

12. Imbricated (imbricativa, imbricata); when they overlap each other parallelly at the margins, without any involution. This is the true meaning of the term. M. De Candolle applies it in a different sense. (Théorie, ed. 1., p. 399.)

13. Equitant (equitativa, equitans, Link; amplexa, De Cand.); when they overlap each other parallelly and entirely, without involution; as the leaves of Iris.


14. Reclinate (reclinata); when they are bent down upon their stalk.

15. Circinate (circinatus); when they are rolled spirally downwards.

16. Valvate (valvata, valvaris); applied to each other by the margins only; as the petals of Umbelliferæ, the valves of a capsule, &c.

17. Quincunx (quincuncialis); when the pieces are five in number, of which two are exterior, two interior, and the fifth covers the interior with one margin, and has its other margin covered by the exterior; as in Rosa.

18. Twisted (torsiva, spiraliter contorta); the same as contorted, except that there is no obliquity in the form or insertion of the pieces; as in the petals of Oxalis.

19. Contorted (contorta); each piece being oblique in figure, and overlapping its neighbour by one margin, its other margin being, in like manner, overlapped by that which stands next it; as Apocyneæ.

20. Alternative (alternativa); when, the pieces being in two rows, the inner is covered by the outer in such a way that each of the exterior rows overlaps half of two of the interior; as in Liliaceæ.

21. Vexillary (vexillaris); when one piece is much larger than the others, and is folded over them, they being arranged face to face; as in papilionaceous flowers.

22. Cochlear (cochlearis); when one piece, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet or bowl, covers all the others; as in Aconitum, some species of personate plants, &c.

2. Of Direction.

1. Erect (erectus, arrectus); pointing towards the zenith.

2. Straight (rectus); not wavy or curved, or deviating from a straight direction in any way.

3. Very straight (strictus); the same as the last, but in


4. Swimming (natans); floating under water; as Confervæ. 5. Floating (fluitans); floating upon the surface of water; as the leaves of Nuphar.

6. Submersed (submersus, demersus); buried beneath water. 7. Descending (descendens); having a direction gradually downwards.

8. Hanging down (dependens); having a downward direction, caused by its own weight.

9. Ascending (ascendens, assurgens); having a direction upwards, with an oblique base; as many seeds.

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10. Perpendicular (verticalis, perpendicularis); being at right angles with some other body.

11. Oblique (obliquus); when the margin points to the heavens, the apex to the horizon; as the leaves of Protea and Fritillaria.

12. Horizontal (horizontalis); when the plane points to the heavens, the apex to the horizon; as most leaves.

13. Inverted (inversus); having the apex of one thing in an opposite direction to that of another; as many seeds.

14. Revolute (revolutus); rolled backwards from the direction ordinarily assumed by similar other bodies; as certain tendrils, and the ends of some leaves.

15. Involute (involutus); rolled inwards. 16. Convolute (convolutus); rolled up.

17. Reclining (reclinatus); falling gradually back from the perpendicular; as the branches of the Banyan tree.

18. Resupinate (resupinatus); inverted in position by a twisting of the stalk; as the flowers of Orchis.

19. Inclining († inclinatus, declinatus); the same as reclining, but in a greater degree.

20. Pendulous (pendulus); hanging downwards, in consequence of the weakness of its support.

21. Drooping (cernuus); inclining a little from the perpendicular, so that the apex is directed towards the horizon.

22. Nodding (nutans); inclining very much from the perpendicular, so that the apex is directed downwards.

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23. One-sided (secundus); having all the parts by twists in their stalks turned one way; as the flowers of Antholyza.

24. Inflexed (inflexus, incurvus, introflexus, introcurvus, infractus); suddenly bent inwards.

25. Reflexed (reflexus, recurvus, retroflexus, retrocurvus, refractus); suddenly bent backwards.

26. Deflexed (deflexus, declinatus); bent downwards.

27. Flexuose (flexuosus); having a gently bending direction, alternately inwards and outwards.

28. Tortuous (tortuosus); having an irregular, bending, and turning direction.

29. Knee-jointed (geniculatus); bent abruptly like a knee; as the stems of many Grasses.

30. Spiral (spiralis, anfractuosus); resembling in direction the spires of a corkscrew, or other twisted thing.

31. Circinate (circinatus, gyratus, circinalis); bent like the head of a crosier; as the young shoots of Ferns.

32. Twining (volubilis); having the property of twisting round some other body.

a. To the right hand, or dextrorsum; when the twisting is from left to right, or in the direction of the sun's course; as the Hop.

b. To the left hand (sinistrorsum); when the twisting is from right to left, or opposite to the sun's course; as Convolvulus sepium.

33. Turned backwards (retrorsus); turned in a direction opposite to that of the apex of the body to which the part turned appertains.

34. Turned inwards (introrsus, anticus); turned towards the axis to which it appertains.

35. Turned outwards (extrorsus, posticus); turned away from the axis to which it appertains.

36. Procumbent (procumbens, humifusus); spread over the surface of the ground.

37. Prostrate (prostratus, pronus); lying flat upon the earth, or any other thing.

38. Decumbent (decumbens); reclining upon the earth, and rising again from it at the apex.

39. Diffuse (diffusus); spreading widely.

40. Straggling (divaricatus); turning off from any thing irregularly, but at almost a right angle; as the branches of many things.

41. Brachiate (brachiatus); when ramifications proceed from a common axis nearly at regular right angles, alternately in opposite directions.

42. Spreading (patens); having a gradually outward direction; as petals from the ovarium.

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43. Converging (connivens); having a gradually inward direction; as many petals.

44. Opposite (adversus, † oppositus); pointing directly to a particular place; as the radicle to the hilum.

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