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45. Uncertain (vagus); having no particular direction. 46. Peritropal (peritropus); directed from the axis to the horizon. This and the four following are only applied to the embryo of the seed.

47. Orthotropal (orthotropus); straight, and having the same direction as the body to which it belongs.

48. Antitropal (antitropus); straight, and having a direction contrary to that of the body to which it belongs.

49. Amphitropal (amphitropus); curved round the body to which it belongs.

50. Homotropal (homotropus); having the same direction as the body to which it belongs, but not being straight.


3. Of Insertion.

A. With respect to the Mode of Attachment or of Adhesion.




1. Peltate (peltatus, umbilicatus); fixed to the stalk by the centre, or by some point distinctly within the margin; as the leaf of Tropæolum.

2. Sessile (sessilis); sitting close upon the body that supports it, without any sensible stalk.

3. Decurrent (decurrens, decursivus); prolonged below the point of insertion, as if running downwards.

4. Embracing (amplectans); clasping with the base.

5. Stem-clasping (amplexicaulis); the same as the last, but applied only to stems.

6. Half-stem-clasping (semi-amplexicaulis); the same as the last, but in a smaller degree.

7. Perfoliate (perfoliatus); when the two basal lobes of an amplexicaul leaf are united together, so that the stem appears to pass through the substance of the leaf.

8. Connate (connatus); when the bases of two opposite leaves are united together.

9. Sheathing (vaginans); surrounding a stem or other body by the convolute base: this chiefly occurs in the petioles of Grasses.

10. Adnate (adnatus, annexus); adhering to the face of a thing.

11. Innate (innatus); adhering to the apex of a thing

12. Versatile (versatilis, † oscillatorius); adhering slightly by the middle, so that the two halves are nearly equally balanced, and swing backwards and forwards.

13. Stipitate (stipitatus); elevated on a stalk which is neither a petiole nor a peduncle.

14. † Palaceous († palaceus); when the foot-stalk adheres to the margin. Willd.

15. Separate († solutus, liber, † distinctus); when there is no cohesion between parts.

16. Accrete (accretus); fastened to another body, and growing with it. De Cand.

17. Adhering (adhærens); united laterally by the whole surface with another organ. De Cand.

18. Cohering (cohærens, † coadnatus, coadunatus, † coalitus, + connatus, confluens); this term is used to express, in general, the fastening together of homogeneous parts. De Cand. Such are De Candolle's definitions of these three terms; but in practice there is no difference between them.

19. Articulated (articulatus); when one body is united with another by a manifest articulation.

B. With respect to Situation.

1. Dorsal (dorsalis); fixed upon the back of any thing. 2. Lateral (lateralis); fixed near the side of any thing.

3. Marginal (marginalis); fixed upon the edge of any thing.

4. Basal (basilaris); fixed at the base of any thing.

5. Radical (radicalis); arising from the root.

6. Cauline (caulinus); arising from the stem.

7. Rameous (rameus, ramealis); of or belonging to the branches.

8. Axillary (axillaris, † alaris); arising out of the axilla. 9. Floral (floralis); of or belonging to the flower. 10. Epiphyllous (foliaris, epiphyllus); inserted upon the leaf. 11. Terminal (terminalis); proceeding from the end. 12. Of the leaf-stalk (petiolaris); inserted upon the petiole. 13. Crowning (coronans); situated on the top of any thing. Thus, the limbs of the calyx may crown the ovary; a gland at the apex of the filament may crown the stamen ; and

so on.

14. Epigeous (epigaus); growing close upon the earth.

15. Subterranean (hypogaus, † subterraneus); growing under the earth.

16. Amphigenous (amphigenus); growing all round an object. 17. Epigynous (epigynus); growing upon the summit of the ovarium.

18. Hypogynous (hypogynus); growing from below the base of the ovarium.

19. Perigynous (perigynus); growing upon some body that surrounds the ovarium.


It has been already explained, that collective terms are those which apply to plants, or their parts, considered in masses; by which is meant that they cannot be applied to any one single part or thing, without a reference to a larger number being either expressed or understood. Thus, when leaves are said to be opposite, that term is used with respect to several, and not to one; and when a panicle is said to be lax, or loose, it means that the flowers of a panicle are loosely arranged; and so on.

1. Of Arrangement.

1. Opposite (oppositus); placed on opposite sides of some other body or thing on the same plane. Thus, when leaves are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the stem; when petals are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the ovary; and

so on.

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2. Alternate (alternus); placed alternately one above the other on some common body, as leaves upon the stem.

3. Stellate (stellatus, stelliformis, stellulatus); the same as verticillate, No. 4., except that the parts are narrow and


4. Whorled (verticillatus); when several things are in opposition round a common axis, as some leaves round their stem; sepals, petals, and stamens round the ovarium, &c.

5. Ternate (ternus); when three things are in opposition round

a common axis.

6. Loose (laxus); when the parts are distant from each other, with an open light kind of arrangement; as the panicle among the other kinds of inflorescence.

7. Scattered (sparsus); used in opposition to whorled, or opposite, or ternate, or other such terms.

8. Compound (compositus); when formed of several parts united in one common whole; as pinnated leaves, all kinds of inflorescence beyond that of the solitary flower.

9. Crowded (confertus); when the parts are pressed closely round about each other.

10. Imbricated (imbricatus); when parts lie over each other in regular order, like tiles upon the roof of a house; as the scales upon the cup of some acorns.

11. Rosulate (rosulatus, rosularis); when parts which are not opposite, nevertheless become apparently so by the contraction of the joints of the stem, and lie packed closely over

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each other, like the petals in a double rose; as in the offsets of Houseleek.

12. Cæspitose (caspitosus); forming dense patches, or turfs; as the young stems of many plants.

13. Fascicled (fasciculatus); when several similar things proceed from a common point; as the leaves of the Larch, for example.

14. Distichous (distichus, bifarius); when things are arranged in two rows, the one opposite to the other; as the florets of many Grasses.

15. In rows (serialis); arranged in rows which are not necessarily opposite each other: biserialis, in two rows; triserialis, in three rows: but these are seldom used. In their stead, we generally add fariam to the end of a Latin numeral : thus, bifariam means in two rows; trifariam, in three rows; and so on.

16. One-sided (unilateralis, secundus); arranged on, or turned towards, one side only; as the flowers of Antholyza.

17. Clustered (aggregatus, coacervatus, conglomeratus); collected in parcels, each of which has a roundish figure; as the flowers of Cuscuta, Adoxa, Trientalis, &c.

18. Spiral (spiralis); arranged in a spiral manner round some common axis; as the flowers of Spiranthes.

19. Decussate (decussatus); arranged in pairs that alternately cross each other; as the leaves of many plants.

20. Fastigiate (fastigiatus); when all the parts are nearly parallel, with each pointing upwards to the sky; as the branches of Populus fastigiata, and many other trees.

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