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45. Uncertain (vagus); having no particular direction.

46. Peritropal (peritropus); directed from the axis to the horizon. This and the four following are only applied to the embryo of the seed.

47. Orthotropal (orthotropus); straight, and having the same direction as the body to which it belongs.

48. Antitropal (antitropus); straight, and having a direction contrary to that of the body to which it belongs.

49. Amphitropal (amphitropus); curved round the body to which it belongs.

50. Homotropal (homotropus); having the same direction as the body to which it belongs, but not being straight.

3. Of Insertion.

A. With respect to the Mode of Attachment or of Adhesion.

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1. Peltate (peltatus, umbilicatus); fixed to the stalk by the centre, or by some point distinctly within the margin; as the leaf of Tropæolum.

2. Sessile (sessilis); sitting close upon the body that supports it, without any sensible stalk.

3. Decurrent (decurrens, decursivus); prolonged below the point of insertion, as if running downwards.

4. Embracing (amplectans); clasping with the base.

5. Stem-clasping (amplexicaulis); the same as the last, but applied only to stems.

6. Half-stem-clasping (semi-amplexicaulis); the same as the last, but in a smaller degree.

7. Perfoliate (perfoliatus); when the two basal lobes of an amplexicaul leaf are united together, so that the stem appears to pass through the substance of the leaf.

8. Connate (connatus); when the bases of two opposite leaves are united together.

9. Sheathing (vaginans); surrounding a stem or other body by the convolute base: this chiefly occurs in the petioles of Grasses.

10. Adnate (adnatus, annexus); adhering to the face of a thing.

11. Innate (innatus); adhering to the apex of a thing.

12. Versatile (versatilis, † oscillatorius); adhering slightly by the middle, so that the two halves are nearly equally balanced, and swing backwards and forwards.

13. Stipitate (stipitatus); elevated on a stalk which is neither a petiole nor a peduncle.

14. Palaceous († palaceus); when the foot-stalk adheres to the margin. Willd.

15. Separate († solutus, liber, † distinctus); when there is no cohesion between parts.

16. Accrete (accretus); fastened to another body, and growing with it. De Cand.

17. Adhering (adhærens); united laterally by the whole surface with another organ. De Cand.

18. Cohering (cohærens, † coadnatus, coadunatus, † coalitus, † connatus, confluens); this term is used to express, in general, the fastening together of homogeneous parts. De Cand. Such are De Candolle's definitions of these three terms; but in practice there is no difference between them.

19. Articulated (articulatus); when one body is united with another by a manifest articulation.

B. With respect to Situation.

1. Dorsal (dorsalis); fixed upon the back of any thing.

2. Lateral (lateralis); fixed near the side of any thing.
3. Marginal (marginalis); fixed upon the edge of any thing.
4. Basal (basilaris); fixed at the base of any thing.

5. Radical (radicalis); arising from the root.

6. Cauline (caulinus); arising from the stem.

7. Rameous (rameus, ramealis); of or belonging to the branches.

8. Axillary (axillaris, † alaris); arising out of the axilla. 9. Floral (floralis); of or belonging to the flower. 10. Epiphyllous (foliaris, epiphyllus); inserted upon the leaf. 11. Terminal (terminalis); proceeding from the end. 12. Of the leaf-stalk (petiolaris); inserted upon the petiole. 13. Crowning (coronans); situated on the top of any thing. Thus, the limbs of the calyx may crown the ovary; a gland at the apex of the filament may crown the stamen; and

so on.

14. Epigeous (epigaus); growing close upon the earth.

15. Subterranean (hypogaus, † subterraneus); growing under the earth.

16. Amphigenous (amphigenus); growing all round an object. 17. Epigynous (epigynus); growing upon the summit of the


18. Hypogynous (hypogynus); growing from below the base of the ovarium.

19. Perigynous (perigynus); growing upon some body that surrounds the ovarium.


It has been already explained, that collective terms are those which apply to plants, or their parts, considered in masses; by which is meant that they cannot be applied to any one single part or thing, without a reference to a larger number being either expressed or understood. Thus, when leaves are said to be opposite, that term is used with respect to several, and not to one; and when a panicle is said to be lax, or loose, it means that the flowers of a panicle are loosely arranged; and so on.

1. Of Arrangement.

1. Opposite (oppositus); placed on opposite sides of some other body or thing on the same plane. Thus, when leaves are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the stem; when petals are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the ovary; and

so on.

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2. Alternate (alternus); placed alternately one above the other on some common body, as leaves upon the stem.

3. Stellate (stellatus, stelliformis, stellulatus); the same as verticillate, No. 4., except that the parts are narrow and


4. Whorled (verticillatus); when several things are in opposition round a common axis, as some leaves round their stem; sepals, petals, and stamens round the ovarium, &c.

5. Ternate (ternus); when three things are in opposition round a common axis.

6. Loose (laxus); when the parts are distant from each other, with an open light kind of arrangement; as the panicle among the other kinds of inflorescence.

7. Scattered (sparsus); used in opposition to whorled, or opposite, or ternate, or other such terms.

8. Compound (compositus); when formed of several parts united in one common whole; as pinnated leaves, all kinds of inflorescence beyond that of the solitary flower.

9. Crowded (confertus); when the parts are pressed closely round about each other.

10. Imbricated (imbricatus); when parts lie over each other in regular order, like tiles upon the roof of a house; as the scales upon the cup of some acorns.

11. Rosulate (rosulatus, rosularis); when parts which are not opposite, nevertheless become apparently so by the contraction of the joints of the stem, and lie packed closely over

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each other, like the petals in a double rose; as in the offsets of Houseleek.

12. Cæspitose (caspitosus); forming dense patches, or turfs; as the young stems of many plants.

13. Fascicled (fasciculatus); when several similar things proceed from a common point; as the leaves of the Larch, for example.

14. Distichous (distichus, bifarius); when things are arranged in two rows, the one opposite to the other; as the florets of many Grasses.

15. In rows (serialis); arranged in rows which are not necessarily opposite each other: biserialis, in two rows; triserialis, in three rows: but these are seldom used. In their stead, we generally add fariam to the end of a Latin numeral : thus, bifariam means in two rows; trifariam, in three rows; and so on.

16. One-sided (unilateralis, secundus); arranged on, or turned towards, one side only; as the flowers of Antholyza.

17. Clustered (aggregatus, coacervatus, conglomeratus); collected in parcels, each of which has a roundish figure; as the flowers of Cuscuta, Adoxa, Trientalis, &c.

18. Spiral (spiralis); arranged in a spiral manner round some common axis; as the flowers of Spiranthes.

19. Decussate (decussatus); arranged in pairs that alternately cross each other; as the leaves of many plants.

20. Fastigiate (fastigiatus); when all the parts are nearly parallel, with each pointing upwards to the sky; as the branches of Populus fastigiata, and many other trees.

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