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-Order of the table d'hote-Water bibbing-Political smoking-The
dinner serenade-Confessing religion-The Jewess at the pool-Sepul-
chral colloquies-The hog and the priest-The captive barometer-The
English solitaire-Wiesbaden-The Koch-Brunnen-Studyof the bubbles
-Subterranean soup-The hidden fountain-The spiritual parallel—
Russian influence-Perfidious policy-The depths of despotism-Means
of entrapping-Pursuit of pleasure-Maison de conversation-Madness
of play-Baden-Properties of the Spa.


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Switzerland-Interest in visiting this country-Contiguous pro-
vinces-Capital of Alsatia-Mountains and rivers—Basel—
Constance-Early reform-Protestantism and liberty-Swiss
scenery and history-Zurich and Berne-Minor cantons and
patriotic struggles
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Alpine outline-The lion of Lucerne-Constance-Another Custom-
house-Description of Strasburg-Strasburg Cathedral-Feats of folly—
The tower of Strasburg-Mülhausen manufactories-Heroism of suffer-
ing-Fight of liberty-Religious intolerance-A Sunday in Basel-
Battle of St. Jacob-Sunday sports-University of Basel-Mission Col-
lege-A bad principle-Aspect of Basel-Scenery of the Birs-Travel-
ling by night-Schwyz towns-Berne-Appearance of Berne-The
bears of Berne-The battle of Morat-Monument of Freyburg-First
Alpine vision-Neuchattel institutions-Lake Leman.


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Historical scenes on the Genfer See-Literary asylum-Refugee
Reformers-Canton of Vaud-Evangelization at Lyons-Asso-
ciations and characters at Geneva- ·Christian enterprise —
Lausanne-Literary refugees-Gibbon and Voltaire-The insects and
Bishop Vinet and voluntaryism-The Scotch traveller-The Law of
God - Protection and persecution-Dissent in Vaud-Lyons-The
church at Lyons-The Gospel propagated-Calvin and Servetus-Inci-
dental history-Geneva ecclesiastics-The suburbs of Geneva-Intoler-
ance of toleration-Modified standards-Haldane-Geneva-Spiritual
darkness-A progressive work-Truth invincible-A wealthy Christian
-Intolerance at Geneva-Education and government-Merle and his




Elder cities of Flanders-Modern Capital of Belgium-Political and moral aspect of the people.

BELGIUM, the first of continental countries through which I passed in my recent tour, and which imparted to my mind its primitive impressions of European nations, and will probably continue to retain the first place in my associations and reminiscences of travelling incident, will be, for to-night, the land of our adoption. The country contiguous to, or connected with Brussels, will primarily claim our notice; and as our route will be more directly among the towns which are situated between the sea-coast and port of Ostend and this Gallican capital of the Netherlands, we shall limit our survey to only the elder cities of the provinces of Flanders. I need not enter into minute details descriptive of the journey from Manchester, by way of London, through Kent, to the English coast; though along such a line it would not be difficult to find objects of attraction, scenes of loveliness and grandeur, and associations of greatness and enterprise unsurpassed by any romance of foreign adventure. The passage from Dovor to Ostend may be accomplished in eight hours by a steam vessel; and between some other of the contiguous ports in a fourth part of the time. The sea within the straits of Dovor, from port to port, is not often stormy; yet frequently it heaves up an odious swell, which causes no


pleasant sensations in the stomach; as troublesome as the agitated surf or brisk gale; so as fairly to test the equanimity and fortitude of the passenger, even should the vessel be of the best description. Certain squeamish qualms, if not of conscience, still quite as heartfelt in their influences, will visit the traveller, especially if he have never been before at sea. The shortness of the voyage, however, soon brings to a termination the inconvenience; and when the vessel approaches the opposite coast, the influence of the swell is less felt, and the unpleasantness abates. The inexperienced and sickened traveller is brought into better humour with surrounding objects, and begins almost to relish his voyage by the time he has reached the coast of Belgium.

The first town on the continent which attracted my notice, and at the same time recalled many historical associations, was Dunkirk. Its proximity to the mouth of the Thames secured to it in the records of English power early and prolonged distinction. When subject to the dominion of Spain, whose waning maritime power watched with vexing and restrictive jealousy the growing commerce of England, it was regarded by our merchants as the resort of, and a harbour for pirates, and was therefore marked out by Oliver Cromwell for chastisement, and doomed to conquest and subjugation under British rule. By his direction, the ambassador Lockhart, and MajorGeneral Morgan, had combined in hostile confederacy with Marshal Turenne; and, after discomfiting in battle a Spanish army of 30,000 soldiers, commanded by the Prince of Conde, the Duke of York, &c., 6,000 Englishmen stormed and captured the fortress and garrison of Dunkirk. Cromwell required, and the French king, counselled by Cardinal Mazarine, agreed, that an English force should occupy the fort, and an English commander should govern the city. Lockhart himself, in the Protector's name, was invested with the government of the

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citadel, which he held till the Restoration. The place afterwards acquired celebrity as a memorial of royal baseness, when Charles the Second, in a mercenary spirit, followed the counsels of his Lord Chancellor (Hyde), and sold the fortress to the French for 5,000,000 of livres, or £500,000. Clarendon's superb mansion, subsequently known as Dunkirk House, served to perpetuate his infamy. Lockhart's pride, as an Englishman, was SO wounded by the profligate policy of the monarch, that he would not in person fulfil the terms of surrender, but transferred obedience to the royal mandate to his deputy, John Prentice. This functionary was among the last of British subjects who submitted to the monarch of the Restoration; and his son, Archibald Prentice, is numbered among the first who, as a Scottish covenanter, resisted his authority in Britain.

The city of Dunkirk again excited national concern, and was the subject of royal treaties, in the reign of George the Third. Its contiguity to the coast of England induced some who, from attachment to the Stuart dynasty, or other political causes, were driven forth as exiles, to make it their rendezvous and refuge; where, as residents, they could correspond with their friends, and receive supplies. The British ministry in 1763 required that its Cunette should be destroyed, as well as the forts and batteries which defended its entrance from the sea. In compliance with this demand, Louis the Fifteenth, King of France, employed 300 men as sappers and miners for the work of demolition. Again, in 1793, the events and disasters of war gave Dunkirk renewed notoriety and importance in the history and achievements of English royalty. To repress the French Revolution, and support the Bourbon dynasty, a British army was marched into this country and repulsed before Dunkirk, while the Duke of York was placed in a most perilous position, and his troops threatened with destruction. This event was recalled to

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