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associates, and whose lot had awakened their sympathies. He had studied closely, made distinguished proficiency, and cherished the affection of his class-fellows. He was a favourite of his parents, who were aged and infirm. Intense application to study brought him under the power of a fatal malady and to an early grave. He died of consumption. Whilst on his death-bed, tidings of his dangerous sickness were conveyed to his home. His father could not travel so far: no relative, brother, or friend, reached in time to receive his last communication, or console his last hours. His disease made rapid progress, and his death was amongst strangers. His fellow-students resolved he should have a public funeral, such as is given to those students whom they admire, and whom they honour as the ornaments of their universities. It is designated Fackelbrennen. Mr. Howitt, from whom I borrow the facts of the description, heard the bells of the various churches tolling, saw the preparatory procession.

Instead of a hearse, they had a low open car or wagon, covered over with an awning supported by boughs, and drawn by six horses. The foremost four horses were at a considerable distance from the two wheelers pulling with ropes, and these ropes covered with black. A pall was spread upon this rustic hearse: this pall was covered with garlands of laurel or bouquets of flowers. An outer garland, composed wholly of branches of laurel, served as a fringe. Two other garlands, formed of roses and lilies— the innermost of which was peculiarly beautiful, the gift of a female hand-festooned the bier: within these were laid the student's cap, his gloves, and his sword. The coffin, covered with black velvet and ornamental work of silver, plated nails, and shield, was placed under the pall. All had been rendered visible by a burning lamp set above the pall for the funeral was by night. There were two rows, twenty each, of mutes, who stood behind the car: these were servants of the various students who were

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appointed to walk by the side of the hearse bearing torches. Their flambeaux were now lighted, and the lamp removed from the car. The students who had come from the immediate neighbourhood, with the friends of the deceased, bore the pall, wearing court-dresses, with swords and scarfs. A military band, attired in black cloth, attended, playing music of a mournful strain. The chief mourners were students in full dresses, white neckcloths and gloves, bearing no torches. Then followed the main body of students, in the Burschen costume-frock-coats and caps-headed by two professors. Previous to the procession starting toward the place of interment, every student lighted a torch, which he carried in his hand. There were seven hundred students, all of whom, excepting the pall-bearers and chief mourners, were furnished with a torch to show the path to his brother's grave: a few bore the insignia of office, or marks of honourable distinction awarded to them as successful scholars.

They proceeded slowly toward the burying-ground: the length of the cortége passing through the main street toward the extreme end of the town extended half a mile, and the inhabitants of both sexes crowded in multitudes to witness the scene. They advanced with these lighted torches, singing a solemn funereal dirge till they reached. the grave. A clergyman performed the services connected with the interment, and one of the students stood forth and pronounced his oration, as a eulogy, commenting on the virtues of the deceased, such as affection or rhetoric might dictate. The whole company then returned back, rushing as a wild troop, three abreast, singing the most triumphant songs, shouting, rejoicing, whirling round and round and above their heads their burning torches. They came into what is called the Museum Platz-a square immediately contiguous to the college; and ranging themselves, seven hundred, in the order of a circle, they shouted, the band played the most exciting music, the

students sung in full chorus songs of exultation, as if they rejoiced in having sent their comrade home. Then those who were the leaders cast their burning brands into the air, one following the other, another and another, till all the seven hundred torches were whirled aloft and gathered into the centre of the square. The band ceased; the whole company then joined in one of their most melodious, masculine, and energetic songs, which made the air resound and the neighbouring hills echo the notes. As soon as this was done, the word was, Quench the fire;" they then trod upon the embers of the torches which had served to illumine these funereal orgies, and hurried home, leaving the scene in darkness; and having finally committed their comrade to the arms of the grave.


I leave this as my parting memorial of Heidelberg-a brief description of what her university students may do to prove their affection one towards another. But whilst we gaze upon the scene with deep interest, as characteristic and instructive, where, in all this, is there any reflection of just views of eternity and its relations with time? What is there here to cast a halo of softened and chastened light, as

"A bridge of glory o'er the grave,
Which bends beyond the sky?"

Where have we a sign or a token of their expectation of heaven, or their anticipation of the joys of the world to come, more than we should find in the funeral mysteries of heathen Grecks or the aborigines of Germany? We see the blank-it is indeed a dreary blank-a momentary illumination followed by deep, vast, gloomy darkness. They returned to their habitations after the exuberant manifestation of animal feeling; but they carry not the song of the redeemed in its sweet melodies to the throne, and they give not glory to Him who ransomed the sinner, who cheered our night with the star of hope, who brought life



and immortality to light by his resurrection, and has taught his followers how they may prepare for death, so that kindred may learn to sorrow, not as those who have no hope.

The concluding reflections of William Howitt may be poetical, but they are not evangelical, and give us but a sorry idea of his "second and more glorious life." I take a single extract from his comments, and with this conclude my version of the Fackelbrennen. “In going they had mourned the loss of a friend and fellow-mortal, cut off in the early hopes of youth; they had now paid the last acts of humanity, and rejoiced only in the advent of the departed to a second and more glorious life. This rejoicing music after an academical funeral is like a recognition of the immortality of man. It is like, and no doubt is intended to be, a vivid exultation in the resurrection, and a figurative declaration of the great truth, that, as all has been done for the departed which could tend to keep him longer with us, or to smooth his passage to eternity; that, as all duties which nature and friendship require were now performed towards him, regrets are vain-he needs noneand, as to us, they are worse than useless; we leave him to his felicity, and return to the duties and the social gladness of the earth." A better requiem than this indicates would have been sung by the devout men who carried Stephen to his funeral; or by the successor of Elijah, when he exclaimed, "My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof," declaring that the prophet was better to Israel than the strongest force of horses and chariots.


The Baths of Germany-Bubbles of the Spa-Bad-Ems- The Serpent's Bath-The Schlangenbad-Wiesbaden, and the Baden Baths.

I PROPOSED giving some account of the towns and places celebrated in Germany as spas, or watering places, resorted to by invalids in quest of health. You are aware that those towns are not such as we commonly understand by the bathing-places in our own country. The summer-quarters, to which thousands of our home-bred and untravelled population resort, are upon the sea coast, and derive their healing or sanatory power and reputation from the virtues of sea water and the sea air; and more than all, perhaps, from coincident exercise and mental relaxation. But the watering places to which I refer in Germany have derived their celebrity from mineral springs flowing in great abundance, and usually situated in picturesque localities: springs that contain within them various chemical properties, whose action on the secreting organs, or circulating vessels of the human system, it is presumed, is beneficial to the health, or tend to strengthen the constitution of the patients.

The places to which I more particularly refer, are Emsbad, Schlangenbad, and Schwalbach, Wiesbaden, and Baden Baden. Ems, Schlangenbad, Schwalbach, and Wiesbaden, are in the Duchy of Nassau. Baden Baden is the principal town, now at least, of the Duchy of Baden, having in connection with it various other towns not celebrated for their springs, their minerals, or other qualities.

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