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ment, being an act, which eminently displays the infinite perfections, is committed to the Son, that he may be perceived with indubitable evidence to possess these perfections, and may therefore receive that peculiar honour, which is due to Him only, by whom they are possessed. The honour, which is due in a peculiar sense to God, consists supremely in religious worship; in making him the object of our supreme affection ; and rendering to him our supreme obedience. All this is here required to Christ in the same manner, in which it is required to the Father.

Whether it be supposed, that this passage be intended to include angels, or not; they are expressly required to worship him in Psalm xcvii. 7, confounded be all they that serve graven images. Worship him, all ye Gods. St. Paul quotes a part of this verse in the following manner; And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, Let all the Angels of God worship him. It is therefore certain, that all the angels of God are required to worship Christ.

The only possible debate, which can arise here, is concerning the kind of worship, which is to be rendered. On this I observe, that the Greek word is cooxuvnodarwoav; and that this word is used twenty-four times in the New Testament, to denote the worship of the true God; that it is used many times more to denote the religious worship of false gods; and that it is, so far as I have observed, the only word, used to denote what is intended by worship, when considered as an act immediately performed. The words Θεραπευω, Λατρευω, and Σεβομαι, rendered also to worship, appear rather to express either habitual reverence, or service, or a general course of worship, considered as a character, or course of life. IIgoOxuvsw, so far as I have been able to observe, is the only term, used to denote religious worship by St. John; and is certainly the appropriate word for this idea, if there is any such appropriate word in the New Testament. It is, particularly, the word, used by Christ in his answer to Satan; Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God; and in his discourse with the woman of Samaria concerning the place where, the manner in which, and the persons by whom, God is acceptably worshipped.

Secondly. That religious worship is here intended is certain; because the Object of the worship, commanded, is directly opposed, in the command itself, to Idols; and the worship, required, to that which is forbidden. Confounded be all they that serve, that is, religiously worship, graten images ; that boast themselves of idols. As if God had said, Worship no more graven images, nor idols of any kind; for all their worshippers shall be confounded: Worship him; the Messiah; the Son of God; and not only you, the sottish men who are guilty of this idolatry; but all ye Angels, also, to whom this worship is often sottishly rendered.

In the same manner, is this worship commanded to both men and angels. Phil. ii. 9–11, Wherefore God also hath highly eralted him, and given him a name, which is above every name; That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that edery longue should confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. In this passage, all things celestial, terrestrial, and subterranean, (as it is in the original,) are required to bow the knee to Christ, and to confess him to be Lord. To bow the knee is well known appropriate phraseology to denote religious worship. I have left me, says God to Elijah, seven thousand in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him. 1 Kings xix. 18*. St. Paul also says, I bow my knees to the Father of all mercies. But to place it beyond all doubt, we need only refer to Isaiah xlv. 22, 23, whence this passage is quoted. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth : for I am God, and there is none else. self have I sworn, and the truth is gone out of my mouth; the word, and it shall not be revoked. Surely to me shall every knee bow, shall every tongue swear : saying, Only to Jehovah belongeth Saloation and Powert. To ascribe to Jehovah salvation and power: (the thing, which, the Apostle informs us, is the same with confessing that Christ is Lord;) and to bow the knee when making this ascription, is undoubtedly religious worship, if any thing is. Accordingly, this ascription is often made by the saints in the Scriptures, and the saints and angels in heaven.

In accordance with these requisitions we find Christ actually

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worshipped in great numbers of instances. I shall omit here the numerous instances, in which we are directly told, that persons worshipped Christ, while here in the world ; merely because they would give birth to a critical controversy, too minute, and too extended, for the present occasion. The instances, about which such a controversy cannot, at least decently, arise, are sufficiently numerous for my design.

1st. In Genesis xviii. we are told, that Jehovah appeared unto Abraham in the plains of Mamre, as he sat in the door of his tent. The manner of his appearance was the following. As he lifted up his eyes, and looked; Lo, thrce men stood by him; and he ran UP to meet them, and bowed himself toward the ground. To one of them he said, My Lord, if I have now found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant, &c. The person, here spoken to is called by Abraham, '978. This person in the 13th verse is called Jehovah; and in the 14th, says, Is

any thing too hard for Jehovah ? and informs Abraham of the destruction of the cities of the plain, which he had determined to bring upon them for their sins. To this person Abraham prays, repeatedly, for the preservation of these cities. Lot also, to whom he appeared in the following chapter, prayed to him for his own preservation, and that of the city Zoar, and was accepted. These persons are in the first place called three men. One of them, whom Abraham calls Adonai, or LORD, is afterwards called by himself, by Abraham, and by Moses, Jehovah; and was worshipped by both Abraham and Lot. The other two are afterwards repeatedly called Angels. Now it will not be pretended, that God, the Father, appeared as a man; or that he ate of the provision, furnished by Abraham : for no one hath seen God, the Father, at any time. Yet this person is here styled Jehovah, and was worshipped; and this person was Christ.

2dly. In Judges xiii. The Angel-Jehovah appeared to Manoah and his wife. When he departed, it is said, that Manoah kinezo, that he was the Angel-Jehovah: and it is added, Manoak said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God. But his wife said unto him, If Jehovah were pleased to kill us, he would not have received a burnt-offering, and a meat-offering, at our hands. In verse 16, the Angel had said to Manoah, If thou wilt

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offer a burnt-offering, thou must offer it unto Jehovah; for, it is subjoined, Manoah knew not, that he was the Angel-Jehovah. But after he had ascended in the flame of the altar, then, it is declared, Manoah knew that he was the ANGEL-JEHOVAH. The burnt-offering and the meat-offering Manoah and his wife then perceived themselves to have offered unwittingly to Hiin, who had manifested to them his acceptance of both at their hands.

Here the worship was not only presented to Christ; but, what is of much more importance to my purpose, was accepted by him.

3dly. David worships Christ in Psalms xlv. and lxxii. and cii. in ascribing to him the praise, which is due to God only. In the two first he declares, that the people shall praise him, and fear him, and fall down before him, and serve him for ever and ever. In the last he makes to him a long-continued prayer.

4thly. In Isaiah vi, the Seraphim worshipped him, saying, Holy, Holy, Holy, is Jehovah of Hosts.

5thly. Stephen, in Acts vii. 59, 60, prayed to Christ. And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, or as in the original, they stoned Stephen invoking, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge ; and, having said this, he fell asleep.

On this prayer of St. Stephen I make the following remarks.

First. Stephen at this time was full of the Holy Ghost, (verse 55,) and therefore perfectly secured from error.

Secondly. He was singularly favoured of God on account of the greatness of his faith and obedience; and, as a peculiar testimony of the divine favour, he was permitted to see the Heavens opened, and to behold the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God.

Thirdly. In the full assurance, produced by this vision, and the faith, with which he beheld it, he presented his final petitions to Christ.

Fourthly. The first of these petitions respected the highest personal object, which can be prayed for; viz. the eternal salvation of his soul ; and attributed to Him, to whom it was made, that infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, which alone can bestow salvation.

Fifthly. The second petition was of the same nature; being a prayer, that his enemies might not be finally condemned for the sin of murdering him; and of course attributed to the Person, to whom it was addressed, the power of forgiving, or condemning, these murderers. No higher act of worship was ever rendered than this ; nor was any act of worship ever performed on a more solemn occasion; nor by a person better qualified to worship aright; nor with a more illustrious testimony of acceptance. Yet this act of worship was performed to Christ.

Sixthly. This was the very worship, and these were the very prayers, offered to God, a little before, by Christ at his crucifixion. Slephen, therefore, worshipped Christ just as Christ worshipped the Father.

6thly. St. Paul often prayed to Christ directly*. Particularly, 1 Thess. iii. 11, 12, Now God himself, even our Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ direct our way unto you. And the Lord make you to increase, and abound, in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we do toward

you. Here a prayer is offered up by St. Paul, that he may be guided to the Thessalonians; and that they may be made to increase and abound in holiness, and established unto the end. This prayer is offered up to God the Pather, and to our Lord Jesus Christ, in the same manner, and the same terms: both being unitedly addressed in the same petition, without any note of distinction. The second of these petitions is also offered up to Christ alone. The same petition, in substance, is presented to the Father and Son, united in the same manner: 2 Thess. ii. 16, 17. In the third chapter, verse 5, Paul prays,

Now may the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God, and to the patience of Christ: and verse 16, Now the Lord of peace himself give you peace by all means. The Lord be with


all. Again, 2 Cor. xii. 8, Concerning this, that is, the messenger of

. Satan to buffet him, St. Paul says, Thrice I besought the Lord, that it might depart from me. But he said unto me, My grace is suficient for thee: for my power is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly, therefore, will I rather glory in mine infirmities; that the power of Christ may

In this passage St. Paul informs us, that he thrice prayed to Christ, respecting the particular subject mentioned.

Sce Bishop Burnet on the Articles. p. 48.


upon me.

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