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mental ftipulation of government, and to that reformation which he had fworn to maintain and practise; and for their bearing witness against the grand principle and foundation upon which he built his power of overthrowing religion, and setting up a new frame thereof in Britain, namely the blafphemous headship of ecclefiaftical fupremacy.

Hence it is evident to a demonftration, that the grand ftate of the quarrel, upon which the martyrs laid down their lives during the late tyrannical reigns, was really one and the fame with that for which the zealous and faithful minifters fuffered fuch hardships in the time of King James VI. and afterwards. This being the precife foundation upon which all the other acts and oaths were built, which the enemies made a handle of, to involve honeft people into the crime of treafon and rebellion - against the state, as it was then determined by their iniquitous laws. For as it was ftill the principal question put to them, own ye the king's authority? and the chief article of their indictment, if they either answered in the negative or kept filence; fo it is evident, that by this queftion they really meant, not to his civil authority only, but alfo his pretended claim to fupreme headship over the church; for no fooner had he authorised a parliament to meet at Edinburgh, under the inspection of that malignant wretch John Earl of Middleton, anno 1661, but that generation of enemies to the work of God, intending the utter rain thereof, fet up this Dagon of the royal prerogative, not only with refpect to things civil, as in the choice of his officers of fate, counsellors and judges, act fecond in the calling and diffolving of parliaments, and making laws, act third; in the militia, and making peace and war, act fifth, which were great invafions upon the national liberties of the subjects; but also in things facred, in the making of leagues, and the conventions of the subjects, act fourth; wherein all the former work of reformation is condemned, and the covenants made for its defence are declared treasonable and rebellious actions against the royal prerogative: And in confequence hereof, it is declared, act feventh, "That the league and covenant is not obligatory upon this kingdom, nor doth infer any obligation on the fubjects thereof, to meddle or interpofe in any thing concerning the religion and government of the churches of England and Ireland;

Ireland; and all the fubjects are difcharged to renew the fame, as they will answer at their higheft peril." And in the oath of allegiance and acknowledgment of his. majefty's royal prerogative, ftatute by the eleventh act of faid parliament, all perfons of whatsoever trust, post, office, or employment, are obliged to fwear, "That they acknowledge the king only fupreme governor of this kingdom over all perfons, and in all caufes. And that they do with all humble duty acknowledge his majesty's royal prerogative in all the particulars, and in the manner afore mentioned."

And to make the matter clearer, what they meant by the king's authority, in the preamble of the first act of the fecond feffion of the fame first parliament, they affert, That the ordering and difpofal of the external goverment and policy of this church, doth properly belong unto his majefty, as an inherent right of the crown, by virtue of his royal prerogative and fupremacy in caufes ecclefiaftical. And upon this bottom, he, with advice and confent of the estates of parliament, fets up the Epifcopal form of church government, the jurifdiction of bishops and archbishops over the inferior clergy, with their concomitant of patronages; and refcinds cafes, and annuls all acts of parliament, by which the fole and only power and jurifdiction within this church, doth ftand in the church, and in the general, provincial and prefbyterial affemblies, and kirk-feffions; and all acts of parliament or council, which may be interpreted to have given any church-power, jurifdiction or government to the office bearers of the church, their respective meetings, other than that which acknowledgeth a dependance upon, and fubordination to, the fovereign power of the king as fupreme. And in pursuance hereof, in the fecond act of the forefaid fecond feffion, intituled, act for preservation of his majesty's perfon, authority and government, he doth, with advice of his eftates of parliament, declare, That the affembly kept Glafgow in the year 1638, was in itself (after the fame was by his majefty discharged under the pain of treason) an unlawful and feditious meeting: And that all thefe gatherings, convocations, petitions, protestations, and erecting and keeping counciltables, that were used in the beginning, and for carrying on the late troubles, (thus they call the work of reformation), were unlawful and feditious; and that these



oaths, whereof the one was commonly called the nation al covenant, and the other a folemn league and covenant, were and are in themselves unlawful oaths; and therefore declares their obligation void and null, and refcinds all acts or conftitutions, ecclefiaftic or civil, approving them. Nor does it fuffice them to refcind thefe covenants, and other proceedings for carrying on the work of reformation, as contrary to his royal prerogative of ecclefiaftic fupremacy; and to inhibit all perfons to speak, write or act any thing in defence of the fame, and against the faid prerogative; but likewife in the fifth act of the forefaid feffion, all perfons in any place, office or truft, are obliged to fwear all the particulars contained in the forefaid acts, in that most impious oath, commonly called, the Declaration. And again in the fourth act of the third feffion, of the forefaid parliament intituled, act for establishment and conftitution of a national fynod, it is declared, That the ordering and difpofal of the external government of the church, and the nomination of the perfons, by whofe advice matters relating to the fame are to be fettled, doth belong to his majefty, as an inherent right of the crown, by virtue of his prerogative royal, and fupreme authority in caufes ecclefiaftical. And in the first act of the fecond parliament, holden-by that apoftate, John Earl of Lauderdale, intituled act afferting his majesty's fupremacy over all perfons, and in. all caufes ecclefiaftical, commonly called, the act expla-. natory, it is exprefsly declared, That his majefty hath the fupreme authority and fupremacy over all perfons, and in all caufes ecclefiaftical within this kingdom; and that by virtue thereof, the ordering and difpofal of the external government and policy of the church, do properly belong to his majesty and his fucceffors, as an inherent right to the crown: and that his majesty and his fucceffors may fettle, enact and emit fuch conftitutions, acts and orders, concerning the administrations of the external government of the church, and the perfons em-ployed in the fame,'and concerning all ecclefiaftical meetings, and matters to be propofed and determined therein, as they in their royal wifdom fhall think fit.

From all which acts it plainly appears, that the true fenfe of that authority, which they would have their private thoughts about was really as the martyrs undertood it, his ecclefiaftic fupremacy, and that no less than


a recognition hereof would ferve their turn: and though fome of the martyrs offered a distinction between the two, profeffing to own his civil authority abstract from the ecclefiaftical (as, for inftance, Mr John Dick), yet they were not abfolved, because they would not own his authority in grofs. And befides, their including the fupremacy over church matters, into the formal notion of the king's authority they could be pleafed with no lefs from any that they called before them than an owning the whole acts and laws, and entire exercise and administration of things in church and state, which was an implicit condemning of all the preceding reformation, and con-fenting to the perfecution and murder of the faints, who ftood up for its defence.

It is true indeed, these things were fo impious and abominable, that had they been propofed without mask, they would presently beget an horror in the mind of any, who was not entirely loft to all confcience and goodness; and therefore thefe children of the old ferpent had fo much of their father, that they made it their work to hide these horrid hooks with fome fpecious baits, that they might the more eafily entice fimple people into that fnare they had laid for them: and hence, knowing how much it is the effect of the true religion to make men loyal, and that the Prefbyterians were of all others the readiest to yield all lawful fubjection to their rightful princes, they ftill made ufe of the fpecious title of authority as a blind to hide the ecclefiaftical fupremacy, and bloody exercise of their government, from these they laboured to enfnare. They faw the fupremacy they intended to fix in the king, was fuch a monstrum horrendum, informe, higens, Hecate atque Erebo ortum, that without fome vail of his nature, no man would be fo mad as to embrace it. But when this would not do, but that still its ill-favoured face appears through the vizard; and all good men faw, that that authority which fought no other way to maintain itself, but by blood and rapine was really degenerated into tyranny, then they pretended to come fome fteps lower, and faid, that they requir ed no more at the hands of the people in order to difmils them, but that they would at their defire pray for the king, in their prefcribed form of words, viz. God fave the king; or that they would drink the king's good health. These were by them reprefented to be fo minute


and eafy things, and by a great many profeffors looked upon as fo trivial and indifferent, that they were in the fair way either to enfnare, or with more opportunity to expofe fuch as refufed to the contempt of indifferent spectators, as being fuch fcrupulous fools, and brain fick perfons, as were tranfported with an extravagant wild zeal without knowledge, who had rather have a hand in their own death, than do fo fmall and indifferent a thing in order to prevent it. And hence not the perfecutors only, but even a great many who profeffed prefbyterian principles, stood not to call them murderers, inftead of martyrs.

But all this notwithstanding, it is certain they had nothing elfe before them, but to bring people to a tame fubmiffion and flavish compliance with the whole courfe of their Chrift dethroning, and land enflaving conftitutions and administrations; for they intended the fame thing by urging people to fay, God fave the king, as by the oath of allegiance, declaration, or teft, name ly, an acknowledgement of their authority, wherewith they had vefted him in the forementioned articles, and others of like nature. Lefs than this could never ferve their defign, which was ftill the fame, whatever altera, tions might appear to be in their way of profecuting it: for either these things were fo infignificant and indifferent as they gave them out to be, and as others conceiv ed of them, or they were not; if we fay the former, then what monsters of mankind were thefe perfecutors, who pursued poor innocent people to death, and inflicted fuch cruel tortures upon them for trifles and things of indifferency. This is what themselves (I fuppofe) would never admit, to be reckoned a degree further loft to humanity than a Nero or Caligula, fo as to torment and deftroy men for fport: nay, they ftill pretended, that all thefe perfecutions were made upon weighty and juft caufes. If then we fay the latter, namely, that they were not fo very inconfiderable things as fome conceived, wherein could the moment and weight of them confift, but in this, that they were in owning of the authority, as it was contained in the laws? And what else was the fcope of the moft openly impious oaths, tefts, and bonds, but this? And befides, when any yielded this much, they were ftill urged further, till they had de


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