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The principle, as here exhibited, is simply this: where two stories are required, or rather, where a gallery is to be supported as well as the beams of the roof, instead of two distinct pillars complete, according to certain proportions within themselves, such as we

see in some of our churches, the one over the other, the Greeks, in this instance, adopted the principle of only one shaft from the architrave or beam to the floor, and divided it by the floor of the gallery, in this manner.

And it cannot be questioned, that the architectural effect in churches, where the roof is sustained by columns along the front of the gallery, would be far more imposing and solemn than the practice in use amongst us, of introducing two rows of columns, and generally of different orders. We have marked by the dotted perpendicular, that the column is supposed to be turned out of a block, the sides of which were equal to the diameter at the base a principle of simplicity to which Lord Aberdeen has also not adverted, but seems rather to be of opinion, with Vitruvius, that the entasis, or swelling of the column, was an essential in the rules and practice of the Greek architects, and not, as we are of opinion, a corrupt deviation from the original simplicity of the truncated cone. For, with all our veneration for Vitruvius, and respect for the taste and judgment of Lord Aberdeen, we conceive, wherever it can be shewn, that the primary lines of the forms in Grecian architecture can be traced in

to a more simple character than we happen to find them in any example before us, we ought to consider the deviation from that simplicity as a capricious deformity. It is doubtless true that the temple of the Parthenon at Athens is "the most beautiful, perhaps, of the buildings of antiquity;" but it does not therefore follow, that it is to be considered as a perfect specimen of Grecian architecture; for it may yet be proved by example, that a new modification of the proportions may produce a still more beautiful effect; and therefore, even although it may be the case that Mr Cockerell has discovered" that this entasis does really exist in the columns of the Parthenon," we should still refuse to acknowledge it as a beauty; but we are more disposed to suspect that Mr Cockerell has fallen into some mistake in his measurements, than that Stuart did not observe it, especially as our own persuasion, from a frequent survey of the edifice in every possible point of view, is, that the principle of

leave to say yet require to be shewn are beauties. For we again repeat, that it is not in the proportions of the Grecian column that the superior beauty of the architecture consists, but in the appropriation of a number of columns arranged according to a certain figure, constructed for a particular use. Besides, the idea of cheating the eye is both unphilosophical and far-fetched, for it can only be effected from a particular point of view; and the supposition that it was of any scientific consequence, would imply, that, except in that particular point, the full beauty of the column would not be perceptible.

the truncated cone was very strictly preserved. But my Lord Aberdeen takes it for granted that the Grecian architecture is perfect, and infers that every thing which may be discovered in the Parthenon must therefore be a beauty, although it remains to be proved, if that temple can or ought to be regarded as the most perfect specimen -the most beautiful yet produced we have acknowledged it is. And in speaking of the entasis he continues to say, "It is found in these examples (the Farthenon, &c.) to be executed very much in the manner prescribed by Vitruvius ;-as, a gradual addition to the diameter of the shaft; the greatest deviation from a right line drawn from the base to the capital being at a certain point about the middle of its height; but the diameter of the whole column being at no part so great as at the base. This line, therefore, forms the portion of a circle; although, in some more recent instances, it would appear more nearly to describe the parabolic curve. Notwithstanding this peculiarity of form has been discovered with so much difficulty, and is in fact scarcely distinguishable, there is no doubt that it was thought to be important in its general effect, and was adopted after a profound consideration of the subject. It is a proof of the highly refined and delicate perception of the Greeks; for Vitruvius explains the principle of its adoption, when he states that in columns of the same proportions, the apparent diminution of the diameter is always greater according to their respective height; and that this deception of the sight is to be corrected by the science of the artist. In order, therefore, to produce the desired effect on the eye, he directs that the diameter of the upper part of the shaft in a column fifteen feet high, should be one sixth less than its magnitude at the base; but that in one of fifty feet, the diameter should not be more than one eighth." We shall make no observations on this passage, but merely quote it as a proof and an example of what we have stated, namely, that Lord Aberdeen having assumed the perfection of the Grecian architecture, is easily satisfied with any explanation of peculiarities, that, with all due deference to his lordship, we would take

But although his Lordship is thus satisfied with the supposed perfection of the Grecian architecture as it exists in the proportions of the columns, and has given the preference to the proportions of those of the Parthenon, he has omitted, while stating the different proportions in other edifices, to deduce whether that difference was requisite or appropriate,—a circumstance which, we confess, does surprise us, for, on his own principles, every deviation in proportion ought to be regarded as the result of reflection, and for a purpose of adaptation; and consequently the reason of the difference between the proportions used in one edifice, built in the same style from those used in another, should be sought for in the variations of magnitude, and not, as his Lordship thinks, in their comparative antiquity. "A reference to the different proportions of the columns and their entablatures, has been supposed to afford a criterion of the antiquity of the edifice. Columns, in the earliest ages, are said to have been invariably low, and their entablatures massive; but as the art advanced, the entablature, it is affirmed, gradually diminished, and the columns became more lofty and slender." This is, no doubt, correct in the main; in the first ages of architecture, rudeness was inseparable from building, but the principal of those temples, of which Lord Aberdeen states the difference of proportions in the columns, do not belong to a rude age. They were edifices of the first class of refined art, when architecture had been thoroughly cultivated, and therefore some other reason than that of comparative antiquity must have led to that difference. We

should find but little difficulty in determining the comparative magnitude of the principal edifices in the list, with the exception of the temples at Agrigentum. But there is no end to a controversy of this kind, and we must, for the present, take leave of his Lordship, with whose work, as a gentlemanly production, we have been highly pleased, although, as a disquisition concerning the theory and principles of beauty in Grecian architecture, we freely assert it is far from being satisfactory.



shall not deny positively that comparative antiquity has nothing to do with the differences of his Lordship's table of proportions, page 152; but we contend, that, in the principal edifices therein enumerated, magnitude has quite as much to say; and it is somewhat singular that the Hexastyle at Selinus, which we have ourselves inspected and measured, exceeds in dimensions the Parthenon of Athens, about as much as the proportion between the diameter and the height of the columns of the latter differ from those of the former. Indeed, from a cursory inspection of the table, we



WE certainly were never more surpri-
sed in our life, than when Captain
Fraser of the Naiad, direct from New
South Wales, called upon us with this
interesting book; the first, we believe,
which has reached this country from
the Otaheitean press; and we were
still more gratified at the address, "To
the Great Wise Man of Edinburgh
Island, Britain." We did not know that
THE MAGAZINE had been so univer-
sally read in the South Sea Islands,
though the demand from shipmasters
has been unusually steady; and though
it is statedly reprinted in the Chinese
language both at Canton and Pekin,
we were not aware, till we saw the last
dispatches to the India Company, of the
importance attached to our work in the
Celestial Empire. It is positively as-
serted in the private letters, that the
Chinese government have come to the
resolution to accommodate all differ-
ences, upon our commander delivering
to the proper authorities a complete
copy of Blackwood's Magazine, (writ-
ten by the Scottish Con-fut-zee, as
they are pleased to term us,) for every
Chinese killed in the scuffle; and that
Captain Jenkins has been dispatched
in a quick-sailing vessel to India, to
procure the necessary number of co-
pies, at any price. A lady, a passen-
ger in a country ship, was actually
offered a lack of rupees for her copy,
which she would not part with, ex-

pecting it to make her fortune when she arrived at Calcutta.

But to the subject of the present article. Many of our readers will recollect the interesting young man whom Captain Fraser brought to Edinburgh about three years ago, a grandson of the celebrated Omai, whom Captain Cook took out to the South Seas after a residence in England. Though we only met with him twice, yet his amiable manners, and aptitude for information, made us augur well of the future prospects of the country which produced him, and the zeal of the missionaries in disseminating useful learning among a people so amiable. He spoke English pretty well; could write legibly, though not fast; and as he travelled thus far merely with a view to benefit his fellowislanders, he was anxious to acquire information that might be useful. Of that desire the present volume is the fruit. And Captain Fraser besides informs us, that before he left the island, Omai had begun a course of practical lectures on agriculture, illustrative of the use of the implements which were so kindly furnished to him by Mr Morton of Leith-walk. The present volume, indeed, evinces his talent for observation in a striking degree; and although it was not to be expected that he would be able to comprehend the principles of our more complicated ma

In one vol. 12mo. Otaheite, 1821. pp. 336. Sold in Oonalska, by Peter King, and in Ohwyee, by George Otoo.

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chines, yet of the more simple ones employed in the culture of the ground, he seemed fully aware of the construction and value.

On his landing at Leith, the shipping and docks struck him extremely; and he spent nearly a week in the shipbuilders' yards, examining the structure of the vessels, and the manner of fastening the beams and ribs. Mr Menzies' carpenters were indeed very civil to him, and encouraged him to assist them in their work, at which, for so short a space of time, he became very active. The forges of the smiths also attracted much of his attention; and, before he left the country, he was able to make nails, hinges, and such like articles, with considerable facility. But by far the most curious parts of this volume are those in which our manners, customs, and places of public resort, are described.

them, though it was dark; and this is an Observatory, to see better in the dark than in day-light, through long pieces of hollow wood.

"All the streets of this large city and island of Edinburgh are built of stone, and the houses are cut out of rock, with windows for light, and stone ladders on the walls for walking to the top, for they are built one above another. How high they are appears strange, for I, Omai, saw the hills beneath me, and the sea, which is the road for the ships to go to Otaheite. This is what I saw, but what man can believe it? And a bridge, that will I describe, for the like is not seen neither in Otaheite nor Owyhee. A bridge is a hill built across a deep hollow; but it is of stone, and one can walk under it and above, and it does not fall down. And some bridges have water under them; but the bridges of the island of Edinburgh, that wonderful city, have no water.

"And the Captain took me to see the places for bad men and bad women, that is them who steal; and these are the prisons; and one of them is called a Jail, the other Bridewell; for the number of bad people is great in the island of Edinburgh. And this was on a hill, or rather street, called Nelson's Monument, or the Calton, which is a high pillar; for there is a morai here, and a round house or temple, without windows, for those who study the stars, and tell the peo-ple when it is to rain. And in a little room in a house-which is not a house, for the Captain called it ObservatoryI, Omai, myself, saw the streets, and men, and horses, as if I could touch

"And the streets (I could not count them nor tell one from another, they are all so like, though some are longer and some are shorter,) are all shops; and shops are houses where men and women sell, some clothes, such as I never saw-some, I cannot tell what, so many things do they sell; and the bread is bigger than the bread-fruit, and better, though it grows in this country on a straw, which is called wheat. And the people make fires of black stone, for it is not wood, but it burns; and their candles in the shops are nothing but air, but the light is brighter than the candles of oil, and I, Omai, could not comprehend it. How wonderful it is!"

Captain Fraser next took Omai to the theatre. Kean was performing that evening; but Omai could not distinguish readily who were spectators and who were actors; and seemed to have little knowledge of the unities of time, place, or action. "There," says he, "the people all sit in rows, and there is a row of musicians; and the ladies were so beautiful I could have kissed them all, and the gentlemen looked as mild and sweet as ladies. And upon the other side was a house by itself, though sometimes it looked like a wood; and a gentleman, who roared in a strange dress, was killed, and he died, and I was sorry; but the people clapped their hands and stamped with their feet-and this is a tragedy. And a comedy or farce is the same thing, as the Captain told me; but there is no killing, only they look comical and laugh; and then there is a marriage according to the fashion of the country, and a great noise, and it is done. But I could not understand how the killed men came alive again; and how the same people were married again next evening; but the Captain told me it was true, and the Captain is a good man, and so is his wife and daughters, therefore, why should I, Omai, doubt his word ?"

No one can live long in this country, without hearing something of the two great parties in it who embrace opposite political opinions. Omai attempts to account for this, but in a manner, we fear, that would give little plea

sure to the zealots of either party. We prefer taking a paragraph on a less debateable subject.

"And the great chiefs of this island ride in leathern boxes, which are made of black wood, and dragged at the tails of horses. And the box is not on their backs, but it is on wheels, and has a door and windows, and is a lit tle house; and the ropes are of leather, which the Captain calls harness; and it is tied round the horses. And all the people who are afraid to walk, and the chiefs who are not strong, and the women, that is, ladies, whose clothes are fine, and their feet not made for walking, ride in these boxes. And a man sits on the top, with a long bamboo; and another stands behind, and pulls it back, for fear it should run away. And this is a coach; and a coach is not a ship, for it sails with horses, and not sails, and walks upon the land by wheels. Many such coaches did I, Omai, see, on the streets standing, for those who would give money to ride like a chief for an hour. And the mail coaches-what coaches are they! they have four horses, and be long to the King. And the great chiefs, they have also four horses; yet for all that, they are not true mail coaches."

The following is Omai's account of his visit to the Farliament House. We should doubt much if the judicatures of Otaheite will be improved by the description.

"The Hall of Chiefs and Learned Men, who judge in crimes and differences among the people, is wonderful, and their manner of settling disputes is beyond what I, Oinai, though the son of a chief, and the husband of three wives, could have thought upon, had I not travelled in the great Captain's ship to the magnificent island of Britain, called Edinburgh. There were old chiefs clothed in red-coloured skins or cloth, who sat in chairs built of leather, for they were not wood, and leather is the skins of cows and sheep; and they had large heads to contain all their wisdom, and their hair was white like the blossoms of the kutmyoo. And they looked upon papers, and had pens in their hands, and before their eyes were little windows for them to see justice more clearly. And at the back of the Chiefs was an image of justice, made of shining stone; and there were two houses or halls of judges; but the image of

justice was not the same in both, for it was different. And the red men looked down upon the black men below, and smiled and nodded their heads. And a black man rose up and spoke. He also had a white head like a cauliflower, but larger and more beautiful, and handles hung down his back like the tail of a sheep. And he pointed with his finger, and drew his cloth round him, and looked very wise, and read from a paper, and nodded his head, and spoke, and the people laughed. What he said I did not understand, for it was spoken so fast, that I could not perceive its meaning, though the learned English ministers of Otaheite taught me to read.

"Other black men sat in a lower room, and they wrote down all that was said, for they had pens in their hands and paper before them. And my Captain bid me look, that one of these black men was chief of the learned men, who make all the books to the King of the great island of Edinburgh, or Britain; and nobody reads but his books, for they are the histories of the kingdom; and their name is Marmion Waverley. They are even in Otaheite, and I, Ómai, can read their words, but I cannot understand them all, though the sound is pleasing, and sometimes like the paddling of a warcanoe.

"And a man stood up by the side of the principal Chief, who cried out for all those who wanted justice to come forward. And another black man stood up, and how fast he spoke! how he pointed with his finger, and beat the table with his hands, and looked as if he would have forced the big red men to do him justice! But they did not care for all his words, for they were not afraid, but laughed, and one of them was asleep. This did I, Omai, see, and I have written it down, for it was wonderful; and there are no such red chiefs at Otaheite. And they had books of papers tied with red bark, and they looked at them and whispered; and one of the red men went out and came back again; and this is the manner of justice among the people of the great island of Edinburgh or Britain.

"And in another square or hall, but larger, were all the people who were waiting for justice; and they wore black clothes round their bodies, for black is the colour of justice; and many had white heads, and many not;

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