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brightly through the loops of time,” there is a possible for the loftiest intellect to put forth, was voice comes from the deserted ruin that tells of brought into activity. We have evidence of the the cessation of the sports of the gladiators, and results in the writings of contemporary poets, hisspeaks more powerfully, by one single utterance, torians, and moralists; and they unfold to us a of the true triumphs of the church, than the tiara series of facts so offensive in their nature, that we of the three worlds, or a pope kneeling upon the could not have believed their existence, had we peck of an emperor. The area was sometimes not been furnished with other testimony that none filled with water, and mimic sea-fights were ex- can deny. Nine years after the destruction of bibited ; and the whole could be covered with Jerusalem, whilst one of the apostles of our Lord curtuins to keep off the sun and rain. In the in- was yet alive, there was an eruption of mount terior circle are crucifixes and pictures, and ser- Vesuvius, by which the cities of Herculaneum vice is performed before them in honor of the and Pompeii were covered with ashes, and the martyrs who here perished in the early persecu- inhabitants perished. The same cities were tions. The late popes have been at great expense discovered in the 18th century, and the houses, the in the erection of buttresses to preserve the ruin furniture, the utensils, and the ornaments of the from further dilapidation. When the emperor inhabitants, were found in perfect preservation. and his court were present, with the senators, the They are now deposited in the museums of Italy, soldiers, and the populace, and there was heard but many of them are of such a description the expiring cries of innocent men, and the roar that they cannot be exhibited to general view; of infuriated wild beasts, and the shouts of the there are figures of the vilest abominations, the multitude mingled with the sound, the amphithea- most monstrous corruptions, that were objects of tre must have presented a spectacle of brutality daily sight and constant usage. It might have and blood in comparison with which even war, been wished that the ashes that covered these with all its cruelties, seems like a rational conten- cities had never been disturbed, did we not learn tion between man and man.

from their removal, in characters more clear than In Rome, the mind experiences a difficulty in can be produced from any other earthly source, the grappling with the past, that is not felt to the deep depravity of our nature, and the necessity of same degree in any other city of the world; and a divine revelation. It appears like the act of a this arises not so much from the indistinctness of gracious Providence, that at the commencement the impression as from its extent, and the diver- of these times of departure from the volume of the sity of its character. We can watch the rise of word of God, we were furnished with a warning the city from a single cottage; we can accompany so powerful against trusting to the imaginations it in the march of conquest, north, and south, and of men. We now learn to appreciate character east, until all Italy bent, crouching at its feet; it by an unerring standard, and must thus confess rested not here, but still grew, and extended its that the greatest of Roman citizens was one who empire as it numbered its years; the snows of was unknown to the senate, or if known despised, Germany could not arrest its progress, nor the and that the most important of all events consuns of Africa, nor the patriotism of Britain, nor nected with the history of the empire was an act the wisdom of Greece; it passed onward without of one of its procurators, in a small and distant ceasing, and wherever it passed it claimed the province. The apostle Paul could claim the pripossession as its own: no limits appeared to satisfy vileges of a Roman, and it was a Roman governor the cravings of its ambition, and in the full vigor who condemned Jesus Christ to the death of the of its existence it was deemed co-equal with cross. earthly space, and to name the empire was to The city retains much of its magnificence, part name" the world.” We have been taught to of which is drawn from the present, but more from look at the individuals by whom this dominion was the past: gained as more than men; and it is true that many were brave, and some were eloquent, and a

... And they who come, admire, few were virtuous; in power they were supreme, As we admire the beautiful in death.” as they could frown anger, and distant kings confessed their fears; and they could issue an The population is stated at about 150,000. The edict, and crowns were distributed or countries streets are regular, and the houses are for the most confiscated; but we must not deceive ourselves part respectable in their appearance. The squares by thinking that all this influence brought peace are ornamented with obelisks, many of which were to its possessors, or raised them above the weak- brought from Egypt, but the columns of Trajan ness and wickedness of our common nature. We and Antonine are the most worthy of attention. may confine ourselves to one definite period, and The Tyber, with its yellow waters, runs through it shall be that which occupies the broadest page the city, and some of the bridges by which it is in the empire's records, when the greatest of its crossed are of ancient construction. The founsons were yet in active existence, and the lesson tains are numerous, and some of them most beauwe shall learn will be instructive. The philosophy tiful, and they are as useful to the people as they of the Greeks was at this time studied by the are ornamental to the city. There are almost Romans, and it was by this that they professed to innumerable palaces, villas, hospitals, convents, be guided in their thoughts and acts; it had been and colleges. I visited with most interest the culled by Cicero, and the best of its precepts college of the Propaganda, from whence many were made known to the world in some of the great and good men have been sent as missionaries most eloquent periods ever penned by man; it to heathen lands. The modern Capitol is aphad the most extended of all theatres on which to proached by a noble flight of steps, near which are exercise its might; and all the moral power it is I statues of Castor and Pollux, and some ancient trophies. The buildings occupy the three sides exiled Stuarts, and of many other distinguished of a square, in the centre of which is an equestrian individuals. The space appropriated to divine statue of Marcus Aurelian, in bronze. In front worship is a recess in one of the transepts, and at is the hall of the Senators, with a fountain before one of my visits I saw a great number of dignitaries it, and three colossal statues that represent Rome, and other ecclesiastics, who officiated in their apthe Tyber and the Nile. On the right is the ball propriate robes. The dome is ascended without of the Magistracy; and on the left is the Museum, any difficulty, by a spiral staircase. From one of filled with ancient inscriptions, busts, vases, altars, the galleries that open into the interior, there is the and statues. I was most interested with the apart. most striking view of the vast proportions of the ment appropriated to the philosophers. The dying editice. The people walking below scarcely apgladiator is the most celebrated of the statues. pear like men, and the colossal statues of the mo.

The churches amount to upwards of 300, nearly numents sink into far less than the natural size. all of which would be regarded as objects of wonder It was only by actual admeasurement that I could in any other place. The Church of St. John La- realise the fact, that this structure so far surpasteran, the facade of which is most elaborate, is the ses all others in magnitude ; the eye deceives the cathedral of the popes. The Scala Santa is said mind, and it is not until it has been comprehended to contain the very steps by which our Saviour in parts, and well studied, that a just idea can be ascended to the judgment-hall of Pilate, brought formed of its claim to our special admiration. I hither from Jerusalem. They are nearly worn retained the same impression I had felt at Baalbec, away by the devotion of their numerous visiters, increased by having seen the temples at Athens, who ascend them on their knees. Under the church that the simple grandeur of the Grecian style of of St. Sebastian are the famous catacombs, in which architecture is in some degree lost when applicd the early Christians sometimes found refuge; to large erections. The prejudices of early years they are said to extend several miles. The Church must account for the fact, that I can feel more in of St. Paul, in which the apostle is said to have the cathedral of York than in the church of St. been buried, was burnt down in 1823, but is now Peter at Rome. It is the most pleasing thought in the course of re-erection, and if continued on connected with the history of this pile, that it was the same scale, will be one of the most imposing in part the cause of the Reformation. Indulgences erections of the present age.

were granted to colect money for its erection, and The church of St. Peter is the most magnificent the sale of these indulgences first attracted the shrine ever erected by man for the worship of attention of Martin Luther towards the unwarrantChrist. It was commenced in 1506, gradually ed pretension of the Romish priesthood, which rose during eighteen pontificates, and was com- ended in a complete separation from its hierarchy, pleted in 111 years. Its cost, if such a building and in a revival of religion that will not cease to exhad now to be erected in England, has been esti- tend until the universe be filled with the glory of mated at 36 millions sterling. The admeasurement, God. inside the walls, is 615 feet in length, and 448 feet The palace of the Vatican stands by the side of in breadth: and the dome is 464 feet high, nearly the church of St. Peter, and is 1300 feet long. It one-third higher than the dome of St. Paul's in is not now inhabited, but is used as a receptacle London. The first sight alınost always creates for works of art. Its two chapels, the Sixtine and disappointment, which is gradually succeeded by Pauline, contain some fine frescos, particularly the admiration at subsequent visits. The colonnade Last Judgment, by Michael Angelo. The library in front, and the Vatican at the side, take much extends the whole length of the building, and conaway from its apparent size, by their own gigantic tains 160,000 volumes and 40,000 MSS. The proportions. The grand façade is without an equal, books are shut up in cases. I saw many old MSS. but it seems to make the church all entrance, with and early editions of printed works, but could not no structure to support the character of its im- obtain a sight of the celebrated Codex Vaticanus, mensity. The effect of the interior is not com- as I was told that an express order was required mensurate with is actual size. The walls are lined from the chancellor for the purpose. The museum with marble ; and there are rich altars at nearly contains a countless collection of antiquities, and every window, over which are mosaics copied from may be called a wilderness of wonders. The the most celebrated masters. The whole is by Apollo Belvidere and the Laocoon are named far too gaudy for a house of prayer. The aisles among the finest productions of sculpture ever are filled with monuments, few of which are in good given to the world, and they are well worthy of all taste ; but two lions, by Canova, must be except the praise they have received. ed; and the monument, by the same hand, erected The pope resides in the palace of Monte Cavalo, at the expense of the British nation to the unfor- on the Quirinal hill. In the square before it are tunate Stuarts, is neat and simple. There is the two horses, one of which is said to be the work of figure of a female in the monument of Alexander Praxiteles, and the other of Phidias. I heard a VII., so beautiful that it has been partly covered favorable character of the present pope, Gregory with a robe of bronze. Under the centre of the XVI., as he is accounted a man of liberal senti dome is the reputed sepulchre of St. Peter, sur-ments; but this avails not towards any public admounted by a magnificent canopy, with pillars of vantage, as all the powers of the papacy are inbronze, 122 feet high, taken from the Pantheon. vested in the college of cardinals. I did not make Near the sepulchre is the grand altar, at which any attempt to gain a sight of his holiness, so called, only the pope and cardinals are allowed to officiate. as I was told that he was confined to his palace Beneath the of the present building are vault- from ill health, but I afterwards found that he had ed passages, which retain the pavement of the celebrated divine service in public during my stay original church, and in these are the tombs of the in the city.


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There has been a change for the better, in some men from a feeble priest to "the only begotten respects, since the time of Luther, or if the licen- of the Father, full of grace and truth." tiousness of the priesthood be equally great, it is It may be said that the sanguinary spirit for. not equally apparent. The presence of the great merly attributed to the Romish hierarchy no longer number of strangers who are constantly visiting exists, but be this as it may, there is the same the city may have had some effect in producing a love of darkness, the same complacency in the greater attention to public decorum. In 1829, ignorance of the people; and the great mass of there was nearly 40,000 persons returned in the the inhabitants of all Roman Catholic countries census who were not members of the Roman are as destitute in our own day of all knowledge Catholic church. The ecclesiastics, regular and of the essentials of Christianity as in the darkest secular, amount to about 5000. The ceremonies periods of the middle ages. Not long ago, in a of the church are couducted with great pomp, but certain district of France, the tracts and Scripthere is little to affect the heart or inform the mind. tures distributed by one of the Wesleyan missionaThere is no one to warn the people of their sins, ries, were commanded to be brought to the priest, or to explain to them the plan of salvation by faith who committed them to the flames, and cried out, in Jesus Christ. They have altars, stations, as the sparks ascended towards heaven, “So pechurches, and cathedrals; incense, candles, ban- rish all thine enemies, O God." ners, and processions ; relics, pictures, inages, and I am still far from wishing to throw back upon crosses; fasting, pilgrimage, confession, penance, the Roman Catholics their own tenet; they assert extreme unction, high mass, and many sacraments; that there is no salvation out of their church, but friars, nuns, priests, bishops, and cardinals; con- I will not say that there is no salvation in it. I fessors, martyrs, Madonnas, and saints: these are was pleased, in the country towns of Italy, to see the hopeso f the people, and trusting implicitly in the peasantry, when they came to market, enter the merit they bring, they eat, and drink, and die, the church, and placing their baskets by their side, but the sign they make at death is too seldom the kneel down, and appear for a few moments to be acceptable sign of the Lord.

absorbed in silent prayer. There are many who

I trust are building upon the right foundation, The errors of the church of Rome have been though the superstructure they erect be composed among the most destructive ever suggested by the of only "wood, hay, stubble ;" and we know, that great deceiver to the mind of man. They throw when the fire shall try every man's work of what their awful shade over a thousand years, and in- sort it is, “if any man's work be burned, he shall volve in their darkness a great proportion of all suffer loss, but he himself shall be saved; yet so that have ever professed the religion of Christ.- as by fire.” The pope at an early period stole the keys of the I was presented by a respectable member of the kingdom of heaven, and he proclaims the fact Roman Catholic church with the translation of a openly to the world without shame, by exhibiting document given to him by canon of one of the their forms on every possible occasion; and mil. principal cathedrals in Italy, whom he had conlions of immortal souls might have gained an en- sulted at the instance of a Protestant friend. trance into the way of truth had they not been The following extracts are in the language of the prevented by this bold assumption of divine au- translator, an Italian :-" There is great rivalry thority. The gate of heaven being thus closed, and jealousy between the monastic orders, but the word being taken away by which alone the the Capuchins are the most popular among the way of access to the throne of mercy could be people...... The Jesuits are leagued with the pope, understood, the popes attempted to array their not for the spirit of worship. but to make him the own forms in the attributes of deity, and set them- head of an universal dominion, at which they selves far above all that is called God. They ex- aim...... The translation of the New Testament acted homage from kings, recklessly trampled on into the vernacular tongue would be very advanthe rights of nature, banished the word of life, tageous. The people are very ignorant, and granted indulgences for the worst of crimes, shed know nothing but the forms to which they are the blood of the innocent, and infused poison into attached by habit and convenience...... The prethe sacramental cup of the Lord's Christ. The lates and other directors of Catholicism measure evil spirits might have laughed at the success of the faith of the people by the deference shown to their schemes, and have thought, that though they the church, and by their voluntary subjection to could not seduce Christ by temptation, nor destroy its form: as to the rest, they pay no regard, and him by death, nor confine him by the grave, they the people are not instructed in their duties.could nevertheless, by the aid of their faithful They make sermons during Lent for the pomp

of emissaries at Rome, take away from the earth chatting, but for the most part they are not intelall knowledge of the atonement he offered to in- ligible to the people. The other sermons are finite justice for the sins of mankind—the only commonly on miracles, or on subjects that concern power that can bring peace to the troubled breast, neither instruction nor morals...... Besides the forcor cleanse the heart from the polluiton of its sins. ed and cunning interpretation of some passages, But there was one copy of the Scriptures they the people believe in the pope from traditionary could not destroy, one ray of light they could not habit; but if they were never to hear any more intercept, one inighty spirit they could not chain about him, they would not mind it.” by all the force of their fatal spells, and from the The neighborhood of Rome is one scene of geuniversity at Wittenberg there came forth a cham- neral desolation. The malaria is making rapid pion of the Lord, who, by divine assistance, re- progress within the walls of the city, causing the turned the keys of heaven to many cities and ex- silence of death as it advances, and it threatens to tensive countries, and called away the minds of leave this once populous capital without a single inhabitant, before many more years have been shall answer to seraph, and harp to harp, saying, added to its age. In some parts of the city the “ BABYLON THE GREAT IS FALLEN, IS FALLEN : predictions of the apostle are already accomplished: ALLELUJAH : FOR THE LORD GOD OMNIPOTENT « The voico of harpers, and musicians, and of pi- REIGNETH.' pers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsmen, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the The cities and countries through which I passsound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all ed, after leaving Rome, are not connected with in thee; and the light of a candle shall shine no the Scriptures, except as being partakers in commore at all in thee; and the voice of the bride-mon of the general redemption purchased by groom and of the bride shall be heard no more at | Christ. It is therefore time that I doff my pilall in thee.” With equal fatality to the papal in- grim's weeds, and lay aside my scallop-shell and terest, but in great mercy to the world, the spread sandal shoon. The history of the past may have of divine light, by means of Bible and Missionary been painful, and that of the present may have institutions, is daily banishing from some part of brought discouragement, but it is a delightful the world the darkness of Roman superstition, thought to the Christian traveller, that however creating the activity of life as it advances, and it far he may wander, whatever land he may visit, promises to bring the knowledge of salvation to every valley and every hill he sees will one day all who have wandered from the fold of the true shine brightly with the glory of the Lord. “B Shepherd. Soon shall the sound, already whis- ed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who only pered by the still small voice of prophecy, be doeth wondrous things: and blessed be his glocaught by the saints, and martyrs, and elders, be- rious name for ever: and let the whole earth be fore the throne ; they shall shout aloud, and the filled with his glory; Amen, and Amen. The song shall be heard as the voice of many waters, prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.”— and the voice of mighty thunderings ;" and seraph | Psalm lxxii. 18—20.


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