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but delivers him]

(up to the Jews. them: and when he had scourged and mocked him, saying, Hail, king Jesus, he delivered him to be cru- of the Jews! cified.

30 And they spit upon him, and took 27 Then the soldiers of the gover- the reed, and smote him on the head. nor took Jesus into the common hall, 31 And after that they had mocked and gathered unto him the whole band him, they took the robe off from him, of soldiers.

and put his own raiment on him, and 28 And they stripped him, and put led him away to crucify him. on him a scarlet robe.

32 And as they came out, they 29 And when they had platted a found a man of Cyrene, Simon by crown of thords, they put it upon his name: him they compelled to bear head, and a reed in his right hand: his cross. and they bowed the knee before him, 33 And when they were come unto

EXPOSITION. half the vengeance which they were now in such numbers, that it is said room was calling down from heaven upon themselves, wanting for the crosses, and crosses for and upon their country. This imprecation the bodies. I should think it bardly posappears to have been remarkably fulfilled sible for any man to lay these things togein the circumstances connected with the ther, and pot conclude the Jews' own imdestruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Bp. precation to be remarkably fulfilled upon Neuton traces a striking correspondence them ; his blood be on us, and on our between their sin and punishment, “ They children!' put Jesus to death when the nation was “We Christians cannot, indeed, be guilty assembled to celebrate the passover; and of the very same offence iu crucifying the when the nation was assembled to celebrate Lord of glory: but it behoves us to conthe passover, Titus shut them up within sider whether we may not be guilty in the the walls of Jerusalem. The rejection of same kind, and by our sins and iniquities the true Messiah was their crime; and the 'crucify the son of God afresh, and put him following of false Messiahs to their destruc- to an open shame' (Heb. vi. 25), and theretion, was their punishment. They sold fore whether, being like them in their and bought Jesus as a slave; and they crime, we may not also resemble them in themselves were afterwards sold and bought their punishment. They rejected the Mesas slaves at the lowest prices. They pre- sial, and we, indeed, have received him; ferred a robber and a murderer to Jesus, but have our lives been at all agreeable tó whom they crucified between two thieves; our holy profession ? or rather, as we have and they themselves were afterwards in- had opportunities of knowing our Lord sested with bands of thieves and robbers. more, have we not obeyed him less than They put Jesus to death, lest the Romans other Christians? And have not some of should come and take away their place and us (as in Heb. x. 29) even 'trodden under nation; and the Romans did come, and foot the Son of God, and counted the blood took away their place and nation. — of the covenant, wherewith we are sanctified, They crucified Jesus before the walls an unboly thing, and done despite unto of Jerusalem ; and before the walls of Je- the Spirit of Grace?'" (Newton's Dissert. fusalem they themselves were crucified vol. ii. Diss. xxi, pt. 4.)

NOTES. Yer. 27. The common hall. Gr. (or rather Latin ) Ver. 30. They spit upon him.-See Note on chap. Pretorium; Eng. Margin, “The house of the gover. xxvi. 67. nor," or I'raetor- The whole band what we Ver. 31. And led him anay.-Capital punishments might call his « body guard."

were, both by Jews and Romans, generally inflicted Ver. 28. Put on him a scarlet robe--that is, no without their cities; especially crucifixion. Orient. doubt, a decayed and left off robe. Mark calls the Cust. No. 1230. Tobe purple. See Mark xv. 20. Such pieces of mockery

Ver. 32. To bear his cross.--St. John informs us. Were not uncommon in those times. When Herod that at first Jesus went forth bearing his cross; it may Agrippa wished to display his royal dignity to the be, however, this referred only to the transverse people, the mob, in ridicule, dressed up a half crazy beam, and that Simon carried the upright part after han, with a pasteboard crowa, a reed for a sceptre, him; or if the cross was formed, that Jesus fainted and a robe of matting. Orient. Lit. No. 121; com

under the weight, and it was then laid on Simon, pare No. 1243.

Ver. 33. Golgotha .... a place of a scull--Camp. Ver. 29. A cronn of thorns. The species of “of sculls;" supposed to be so called from its having lbords here employed is doubtfal, and of no conse been a place of public execution. It is more usually quence. The object was, to infict pain and ridicule;

called Mount Calvary; but of the mount there are but, query, Have not all crowns more thorns than

no rernains, nor do the Scriptures mention it; though jewelsin them? A reed-most probably a common as a place of execution it might probably be an ele. walking cane. (Calamus.)

vated spot; and some think its shape, being round,


Jesus is mocked]

[and crucified. a place called Golgotha, that is to say, 40 And saying, Thou that destroya place of a skull,

est the temple, and buildest it in 34 They gave him vinegar to drink three days, save thyself. If thou be mingled with gall : and when he had the Son of God, come down from the tasted thereof, he would not drink.

35 And they crucified him, and 41 Likewise also the chief priests parted his garments, casting lots: that mocking him, with the scribes and it might be fulfilled which was spoken elders, said, by the prophet, They parted my gar- 42 He saved others; himself he ments among them, and upon my cannot save. If he be the King of vesture did they cast lots.

Israel, let him now come down from 36 And sitting down they watched the cross, and we will believe him. him there ;

43 He trusted in God; let him de37 And set up over his head his liver him now, if he will have him : accusation written, THIS IS JESUS for he said, I am the Son of God. THE KING OF THE JEWS.

44 The thieves also, which were 38 Then were there two thieves crucified with him, cast the same in crucified with him, one on the right his teeth. (R) hand, and another on the left.

45 | Now from the sixth hour there 39 And they that passed by reviled was darkness over all the land unto him, wagging their heads,

the ninth hour.

EXPOSITION-Chap. XXVII. Continued. (R) Ver. 26–44. Jesus scourged, mocked, little feeling or effect, can be attributed and crucified.-Were this narrative anony- to nothing so justly as our want of faith. mous, or were it wrought into a scene in Not that we are positive infidels, or reject one of our most popular novels, how would the facts of Scripture bistory as fabulous ; it affect our synipathetic feelings! Were but; we want that faith of appropriation it then converted into history, and the that migbt enable each of us to say, name of some dear relative or friend in- “ 'This was my friend, or brother! and serted, to fill up the blank, how greatly all this he endured for me!" would its interest be increased ? But were

" "Tras for my sins, my dearest Lord it also discovered, that all this suffering Hang on the cursed tree ; had been occasioned by some fault of ours, And groun'd away a dying life and that all these miseries bad been endured For thee, my soul, for thee!” (Watts.) ou our account, which of us could then Let us, by divine help, attempt briefly to read the narrative without agony and review bis sufferings under these imprestears? That we can now read it with so sious. 1. They preferred Barabbas! Ah! was

NOTES-Chap. XXVII. Con. like a human skull, was the true origin of the name cient commentators, in several early versions and Golgothu. The present Calvary is covered with re- editions." He thinks it was introduced here from ligious buildings, pretending to enclose our Sa. John xix. 24 , to which place it belongs; but as it viour's tomb, and other Christian antiquities, all of belongs there, the question is of no importance. which are doubtful, and some gross impositions ; Ver. 37. This is Jesus, &c.-On this inscription, though they afford a rich revenue to monks and see John xix. 19, &c. priests, both Greek and Roman Catholic. See Dr. Ver. 40. Thou that destroyesi.-See Note, chap. R. Richardson's interesting " Travels along the Me- Xxvi. 61. diterranean," vol. ii. pp. 322–333.

Ver. 42. We will believe him. - So unbelievers Ver.34. Vinegar.... mingled with gall.- The LXX argue. Could they see a miracle, they would beuse the same Greek word for worm wool, Mark lieve ; but our Lord says they would not, and facts says, “ Wine mingled with myrrh; probably sour confirm bis words. They saw Lazarus raised from winc (used as vinegar) mingled with myrrh, bitter the dead, yet would not believe. See John xi. 46. as gall. Myrıh itself, says Dr. Harris, is extremely Compare Luke xvi. 41. bitter." Nat. Hist. of the Bible. This mixture, or Ver. 44. Cast the same in his teeth.- Doddr, “Up. something like it, is said to have been given to crimi- braided him with the same reproach;” Comp. " În nals to deaden the sense of pain; which might be the the same manner." reason why our Lord refused to drink it. See Orient. Ver. 13. Now from the sixth hour. It is efident Lit. No. 1249.

that Matthew and Mark reckon from sunrise, which Ver. 33. That it might be fulfilled.-Psalm xxii. at this time (about the equinox) was six o'clock, by 18. See our Exposition. Persons crucified were our reckoning. Christ was then crucified at nine in always stripped of their clothes, which became the the morning the third hour, Mark xv. 25); the perquisites of the executioners. Orient. Lit. No. 1250, darkness came on at noon, the sixth hour, and conThis quotation, according to Campbell, is “ wanting tinued till three in the afternoon, which was the in a very great number of MSS. in which the most ninth hour. But John (if there be no mistake) reckvaluable are included ; in the works of some an. oned differently. See Jobo xix. 14.

His sufferings

[on the cross. 46 And about the ninth hour Jesus ran, and took a sponge, and filled it cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and Eli, lama sabachthani ? that is to say, gave him to drink. My God, my God, why hast thou for- 49 The rest said, Let be, let us saken me?

see whether Elias will come to save 47 Some of them that stood there, him. when they heard that, said, This man 50 Jesus, when he had cried again calleth for Elias.

with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 48 And straightway one of them 51 And, behold, the veil of the

EXPOSITION. that wretch, who had been convicted of in- it, and commonly nailed to it, through the surrection, robbery, and murder, released nerves and sinews of his hands and feet. in preference to my dear and benevolent After being thus fastened, the cross was friend ? the worst of men spared, and the raised erect, with exquisite agony to the best given up to punishment, and all to sufferer. Yet these wounds being all at the appease an infatuated mob? O how are extremities, life departed but very slowly. our resentments kindled at such base in Cicero calls crucifixion a " most cruel and justice!

horrid punishment; a punisbment which 2. They scourged Jesus ? Who? The must be far, not only from the body of a soldiers ! Much has been said of the se- Roman citizen, but also from his eyes, and verity of military punishments, even when even his thoughts." It was indeed never justly inflicted, and upon hardy soldiers; inflicted, but upon the vilest criminals and but was this severity exercised upon an in- the basest slaves. (See Orient, Lit. No. 1246.) nocent and benevolent individual, upon And is this the manner in which our my dearest friend and benefactor? Alas! friend, onr brother, and our Saviour died ? what language is sufficient to express our And was he thus tortured “ for us men. compassion and our grief!

and for our salvation?” “ 1; it nothing a Again, 3. They mocked him. Yes; while to you, all ye that pass by? Behold, they bleeding from the lashes of the Roman that passed by him, mocked him, wagging scourge, and from the crown of thorns with their heads and saying, Save thyself ; also which his temples were environed, they the chief pricsts, and scribes," and elders array him in the faded and dirty robe, pro- (who ought to have been far from this bably of some former Roman governor, and scene) said, “ He saved others ; himself haviug placed a reed, or cane, in his right he cannot save!" This, indeed, is the hand, by way of sceptre, they bow the only truth they uttered; for bad he saved knee, and hail him as their king, in ridi. himself, he could not have saved os. Also cule. Thus injury is heaped on injustice, one of the thieves crucified with him, and and insult upon injury, till they amount to at first probably hoth of them joined in the an accumulation of crime altogether un- reproach and ridicule, even in their dying precedented. Yet this is but the beginning moments. But let us confine our present of sorrows! For,

meditation to the illustrious sufferer in the Lastly, They crucify him. With the centre. There he haugs ! form of the cross, painters bave made our “ See from his head, his hands, his feet, eyes familiar; and they seem generally

Sorrow and love flow mingled down: correct. Arrived at the place of exe

Did e'er such love and sorrow meet,

Or thorns compose so rich a crown?" cution, the pieces of the cross heing put

(Watts.) together, the criminal was laid uaked upon

NOTES Ver. 46. Eli, Eli, &c.- This is a quotation from he was deprived, for a time, of the divine presence. Ps. xxii. I. These are not the precise Hebrew words, and comforting influence, while he suffered for our but in the Syro-Chaldaic dialect, which accounts for sins." the words being misunderstood by some of the by Ver. 48. With vinegar-or sour wine (see Note on standers (ver. 47), who probably came from a ver. 34), which was used as small beer with us) distance, and did not well understand the dialect for the drink of the poorer classes. The method of spoken at Jeriisalem.

giving this in a sponge to quench the thirst, appears We have said this darkness could not proceed from to be still practised in Egypt. It is said that the an eclipse; but we are not therefore bound to assign thirst occasioned by crucifixion is the greatest of a cause. Earthquakes bave often been preceded or its torments, a circumstance, we believe, common to accompanied by dark fogs, as at Lisbon and in Lon. persons that bleed much. Olient. Lit. No. 1252. don, which might possibly be the case here. See the Ver. 50. Yielded up the Ghost --- Doddr. “ Dis. article Earthquake, in the Encyclo. Brit.

missed his spirit." But Campbell remarks, the same Ibid. Why hast thou forsaken me? - In the ap- phrase is used by the LXX respecting Rachel, Gen. plication of this psalm to Christ, the words must Xxxv. 18; also frequently by Josephus, and other not be understood as the langpage of unbelief; but Greek writers. as Bp. Horne explains them, Christ complains that Ver. 5). The rail was rent.-Ancient writers tell us

The prodigies]

[at his death; temple was rent in twain from the top 53 And came out of the graves to the bottom; and the earth did after his resurrection, and went into quake, and the rocks rent;

the holy city, and appeared unto 52 And the graves were opened ; many: and many bodies of the saints which 54 Now when the centurion, and slept arose,

they that were with him, watching EXPOSITION-Chap. XXVII. Continued. (S) Ver. 45–54. Prodigies attending our this was a good man: this was the Son of Saviour's death.-These were, 1. A preter- God.” Here let us briefly consider the per: natural darkness in the middle of the day, sons before us; what they saw and heard; which could not proceed from a solar what they felt, and what they said. eclipse at passover time, because that was The persons were, the Roman centurion always at the time of the full moon : nor and his soldiers; men accustomed to view could the sun be eclipsed for any such scenes of blood and horror, whose feelings, length of time as is here specified. 2. An whatever they might naturally have been, earthquake, whereby the veil of the temple we may reasonably suppose to have been was rent in twain ; • the earth did quake, greatly blunted by their profession, and and the rocks rent, and the graves were the last feeling likely to possess them, was opened.” Whether any monument of this that of fear; yet they " feared greatly,". event now remains, or whether the fissure What did they see? They saw a man of in the rock now exhibited in the church of the most unblemished character treated as the sepulchre occurred at this early period, the very chief of sinners, and that merely we presume not to decide; nor is it rea- to gratify a few bigoted and cruel priests, sonable to demand ocular demonstration and their blind, infuriated adherents. They of an event which occurred nearly eighteen saw those meu transformed into worse than centuries ago. 3. Many bodies of the saiuts beasts — into monsters; for none other which slept, arose and came out of their could surely ridicule a man in the article of graves after his (our Lord's) resurrection, death, and jest with his dying agonies. They and went into the holy city (Jerusalem) heard their taunts and their reviliogs; they and appeared unto many. The expression heard, too, the dying prayers of the illus" after his resurrection," demands our trious sufferer : they heard him address the particular notice, as it secures to our Lord Almighty as his father and his friend; the honour of being the first-fruits of the they heard him (so Luke informs us) pray resurrection. Who these individuals were, for mercy to his murderers, and then pa. or to whom they appeared, are secrets as tiently resign his soul into the hands of God, impenetrable as the foundations of the But what effect had all these extraordiworld; nor can we guess the object of their wary scenes upon thein ? “ They feared resurrection, unless it were to bear witness greatly," being convinced by what they had to the resurrection of our Lord. Their seen and heard that Jesus could be peither going to show themselves in the holy city, an enthusiast nor an impostor, nor merely seems to imply that they were persons re- a wise and good man; they believed him cently deceased, and well known there. to be truly what he declared himself to be, The desigu of providence in all the pre- “ the Son of God!" vious circumstances appears to have been " I think (says Dr. Boothroyd) that the to prepare the minds of the spectators for centurion could not be ignorant of whal the acknowledgment which immediately our Lord had so often said of biinself (tha follows: “ Now when the centurion, and he was the Son of God), and that unde they that were with him, watching Jesus the impression which these awful event (namely, the Romau guard), saw the had made on his mind, he speaks, not as ! earthquake, and those things that were heathen polytheist, but as admitting th done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly claim which our Lord had made to be just.'

NOTES-Chap. XXVII. Con. that there were two vails; ore in the entrance to the butions on the Christians, as already mentioned outer temple, and the other between that and the Note on ver.'33. The truth, however, generally Ti most holy. 'The Greek term here made use of, is between extremes, and it is very possible there ma applied by Philo to the latter only, whic binay re- have been some foundation of truth to many of the present the way opened to us into bearen by the fables. The rent in the rock chiefly excites su: death of Christ. Heb vi. 19; X. 21.

picion from its being cased with marble. Ibid. The earth did quake and the rocks rent. Ver. 53. The holy city, -- "The Orientals devi -Maundrell, Sandys and other Christian travellers call Jerusalem by any other name than El-kods, 1! have been much gratified with the sight of a rent, or holy; sometimes adding the epithet El-sheris, ti fissure, in the rock of what is called the Holy Sepul- noble." Volney, vol.ii. p. 304. chre; but Dr. Richardson, a pious physician, and Ver. 54. Truly this was the Son of God.-Fro one of its latest visitants, considers the whole of this the omission of the Greek article to these noar exhibition to be a trick of the monks to raise contri. Campbell chooses to render this text, “ The son

His burial]

[in a new tomb. Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those the door of the sepulchre, and dethings that were done, they feared parted. greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son 61 And there was Mary Magdaof God. (S)

lene, and the other Mary, sitting over 55 And many women were there against the sepulchre. beholding afar off, which followed 62 Now the next day, that folJesus from Galilee, ministering unto lowed the day of the preparation, the him:

chief priests and Pharisees came to56 Among which was Mary Mag. gether unto Pilate, dalene, and Mary the mother of 63 Saying, Sir, we remember that James and Joses, and the mother of that deceiver said, while he was Zebedee's children.

yet alive, After three days I will rise 57 When the even was come, there again. came a rich man of Arimathea, named 64 Command therefore that the seJoseph, who also himself was Jesus' pulchre be made sure until the third disciple:

day, lest his disciples come by night, 58 He went to Pilate, and begged and steal him away, and say unto the the body of Jesus. Then Pilate com- people, He is risen from the dead: so the manded the body to be delivered. last error shall be worse than the first.

59 And when Joseph had taken the 65 Pilate said unto them, Ye have body, he wrapped it in a clean linen a watch: go your way, make it as cloth,

sure as ye can. 60 And laid it in his own new 66 So they went, and made the tomb, which he had hewn out in the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and rock: and be rolled a great stone to setting a watch. (T)

EXPOSITION. (T) Ver. 55–66. The burial of our Sa- rally owe and ascribe much of the daily viour. It is much to the honour of the comfort and enjoyment of their lives." female sex, that the evangelists have taken Ledyard, the celebrated American traveller, so much notice of the attachment and has remarked, that " women, in all counfidelity of those women who attended on tries, are civil, obliging, tender, and huthe ministry of our Lord; and who them- mane. In wandering over the barren selves ministered to his necessities and plains of Denmark; through honest Swecomfort. It was not a woman that be- den, and frozen Lapland; rude and churlish trayed him, or that denied him; nor is it Finland; unprincipled (Russia; and the said of them, “ they all forsook him, and regions of the wandering Tartar; if hungry, fled.” Dr. Doddridge, who remarks the cold, wet, or sick, the women have ever pious attachment of these females, is in- been friendly to me, and uniformly so." clined to think that their sex, “ in the Mungo Park, the unfortunate African trasight of God, constitute by far the better veller, bears a like testimony in favour of half of mankind : and to whose care and female benevolence. But when to this tenderness the wisest and best of men yene- natural virtue (if we may so call it) ihe

NOTES. a god," considering this centurion as a polytheist; ceased friends. See Oriental Literature, p. 360. yet we cannot bnt think, though he might not well Ver. 62. The day of the preparation-yiz. Friday. understand the Scripture phrase, he clearly meant Ver. 61. Until the third day-that this, and“ alter that Jesus was a most extraordinary character, and three days” (ver. 63), were conversible terms, we all that he pretended to be, when he called himself have here decisive proof, the Jews themselves being * the Son of God, of which it is most likely that he witnesses. had heard.

Ver. 65. Ye have a watch.-Perhaps referring to Ver. 56. Mary Blagdalene--that is, Mary of Mag the Roman guard in the castle of Antonio, which is dala; see Luke viji.2. - Mary (the wife of Cleo here offered them. phas, or Alphens, and sister of the Virgin Mary) Ver, 66. Sealing the stone.-'This was usually done lae mother of James and Joses (or Joseph) called with clay. Norden, in bisTravels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. ** brethren," or cousins of our Lord. The mother speaking of sealing a granary, says, "The doors are of Zebrdee's children was Salome, Mark xvi. l. shut only with wooden locks, but the inspectors of the See Calmet's Diet.

granary, after having shut a door, pot on it their seal, Ver. 61. Sitting over against the Sepulchre, - on a handful of clay, whieh they make use of as wax. Among the Greeks, as well as the Jews, women Query, Was this the kind of send used to secure our were accustomed to sit at the graves of their de. Lord's scpulchre?" Fragments to Calmet, No. lxxx.

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