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[of Christ.


The resurrection]


he said. Come, see the place where IN IN the end of the sabbath, as it the Lord lay.

began to dawn toward the first day 7 And go quickly, and tell his disof the week, came Mary Magdalene ciples that he is risen from the dead; and the other Mary to see the and, behold, he goeth before you sepulchre.

Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I 2 And, behold, there was a great have told you. earthquake : for the angel of the Lord 8 And they departed quickly from descended from heaven, and came the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and rolled back the stone from the and did run to bring his disciples door, and sat upon it.

word. 3 His countenance was like light- 9 And as they went to tell bis disning, and his raiment white as snow: ciples, behold, Jesus met them, say;

4 And for fear of him the keepers ing, All hail! And they came and did shake, and became as dead men. held him by the feet, and worshipped

5 And the angel answered and said him. unto the women, Fear not ye: for I 10 Then said Jesus unto them, Be know that ye seek Jesus, which was not afraid : go tell my brethren that crucified.

they go into Galilee, and there shall 6 He is not here : for he is risen, as they see me.

EXPOSITION—Chap. XXVII. Continued. grace of God is added, to direct and to im- inised to rise again, they beg that the goprove it, it is difficult to speak in too high vernor will make sure the sepulchre, lest terms of the female character.

his disciples should steal the body, and by But the faithful followers of Jesus were the substitution of a living person, pretend not all females; por were the men always that he had risen from the dead. Pilate, of the lower class. Joseph of Arimathea however, having on his part no apprehenwas a rich man, though his disciple: and sions, leaves this to themselves. “ So they seeing bis Master dead, knew not how went, and made the sepulchre sure ; sealbetter to show his attachment and respect, ing the stone, and setting a watch.” than by begging his body of the governor, These circumstances, fortuitous as they in order to deposit it in a new tomb, which may seem, were doubtless all arranged in he had hewn out for himself in a rock in his providence, not only for the accomplishown garden. Nicodemus, another ruler of ment of our redemption, but also for the the Jews, and secretly a disciple (John fulfilment of divine prophecy. Isaiah had xix. 39), brought also a large quantity of said, “He made his grave with the wicked," spices, and having obtained leave of Pilate, or, as we render it, “ He was placed with they took down his body from the cross, the wicked in his death; but with the rich and having swathed the body in fine linen, was his sepulcbre.” Upon the cross" he and covered it with spices (or perfumes), was numbered among transgressors," but they closed the door, and placed a heavy be was honoured ju his tomb (see lsa. liii. stone against it. The bypocritical Phari- 9, 12, Expos. and Notes); but he fell only sees were at this time busy with their pass- to conquer ; he died to rise and reign, and over, or it is probable they would have thus fulfil another prophecy,“ o death, 1 tried to prevent this. Next morning, how- will be thy plague; o grave, I will be thy ever, recollecting (what all his disciples destruction !” (Hos. xiii. 14.) seem to have forgotten) that Jesus pro

NOTES. CHAP. XXVIII. Ver. 1. In the end of the sub- make no difference in the sense, the question is of n« bath.--Camp." Sabbath being over, and the first day importance. -- All hail-Camp." Rejoice !” Doddi of the week beginning to dawn.". This agrees with however, retains the term "hail," without the woni Mark xvi, 1. The Jewish sabbath began on Friday all, to which there is nothing answerable in the ori evening (when stars of the second magnitude arose), gina).-Held him by the feel, &c. " Exactly thi and ended at the same time on Saturday evening. kind of reverence may be seen daily among the Hin

Ver. 2. There was (Marg. " had been") a great doos, A Hindoo disciple, meeting his religiou earthquake-that is, before the women arrived." guide in the public street, prostrates himself before

Ver. 3. His countenance-not his face oply, but him, and rubs the dust off his feet, on his forehead his whole appearance.

and breast." Ward's Hindoo, vol.ii. p. 137. Ver. 1. As they went to tell his disciples. The Ver. 11. Non when they were going - Doddridge ancient versions, and many MSS. omit these words, “ While they were going; Camp, "When they wer and some critics therefore reject them; but as they gone."

The pretence]

[of the Jews. 11 Now when they were going, nor's ears, we will persuade him, and behold, some of the watch came into secure you. the city, and shewed unto the chief 15 So they took the money, and priests all the things that were done. did as they were taught: and this

12 And when they were assembled saying is commonly reported. among with the elders, and had taken coun- the Jews until this day. (U) sel, they gave large money unto the 16 | Then the eleven disciples went soldiers,

away into Galilee, into a mountain 13 Saying, Say ye, His disciples where Jesus had appointed them. came by night, and stole him away 17 And when they saw him, they while we slept.

worshipped him : but some doubted. 14 And if this come to the gover. 18 And Jesus came and spake


and about the same time, some of the sol(U) Ver. 1-15. The resurrection of Je- diers who had kept watch at the sepulchre, sus.--Very “ early," that is, about break ran and informed the chief priests of " ali of day, on the first day of the week (cor- the things that were done,” So that beresponding with our Sunday), Mary Mag- tween the women and the soldiers, considerdalene, and the other Mary, mentioned able agitation must have been excited, ver. 56 of the preceding chapter, came to among both the friends and enemies of Jes the Sepulchre, with a view of embalming sus: the former elevated to hope and joy; the the body of Jesus, not knowing that the latter alarmed, and justly, lest their malice stove had been sealed, and a military guard should be defeated, and the Roman goverplaced thereat, or they doubtless would nor excited against them. not have ventured to come. The guard, The excuse here invented by the guard, however, had been so terrified by the ap- though a very common one, was not only pearauce of an angel from heaven, and the highly improbable, but very dangerous to earthquake that took place at the same the guard themselves, to be advanced. If time, that part of thein had run into the they slept, how could they tell what becity, to tell 'what had happened, while the came of the body ? and besides, this was Test lay around the sepulchre, terrified and the confession of a capital offence, and at insensible. The angel, who had rolled the same time laid them open to the susaway the stone from the mouth of the picion of treachery and collusion. But it sepulchre, was sitting on it, and had courte was the only apology they could think of, ously invited the women to look in, and and to this day the Jews have not been able see the place where their Lord had lain, to suggest a better ground for their inwho was now risen from the dead. At the fidelity. same time they were directed to go and in all this, however, we may see the tell this joyful news to his disciples (espe- hand of Providence. Had no guard, or cially the apostles), and to inform them that only a guard of Levites, been appointed to he would give them all an interview with the sepulchre, such a pretence might have him in Galilee.

had the colour of possibility ; but even The women accordingly, with a mixture then it was not likely that men who were of fear and joy, rap to seek the eleven, and themselves so hard to believe, should unite impart to them the joyful tidings. By the in a plot to persuade others. Certainly thie way, however, Jesus himself meets them, extreme reluctance of the apostles of Jeslig and after discovering who he was, directs to admit the fact, is a strong presumption them to proceed with their message, and that they were compelled to it by ocular confirm his promise by the angel, that he demonstration, and with Thomas even that would be with his disciples in Galilee. The was scarcely found sufficient. (See John women of course proceeded to Jerusalem ; XX. 25–27.)

NOTES. Ver. 12. Gave large money-Doddr. " A large sum out of his tomb by night; and that the persons who of money :" more literally, of silver," i.e. shekels thus fraudulently conveyed him away, took occasion

Ver. 14. And secure you, The Roman (as well as from thence to report that he rose from the dead, and Grres) punishment for sleeping on duty, was death. ascended into heaven. And this message is spoken Orient. Lit. No. 1260.

of as baying been sent before the destruction of JeruVer. 15. Unto this day - wben Matthew wrote. salem." See Doddr. Jastin Martyr says " that the Jews sent chosen men Ver. 17. But some doubted_" Though some of the of considerable raak over all the world, not only in company) had (at first) doubted.” So Doddr. exthe general to represent Christianity as an impious plaius it. Paley says, “It is to be supposed that sect, but to assert' that the body of Jesus was stolen Christ appeared at first at a distance, when the NOTES-Chap. XXVIII. Con. greater part worshipped him; but some doubted, phrase, as too technical; to the verb " disciple" 1 till Jesus came up, and spoke to them."

Christ's commission] S. MATTHEW.

[to his apostles. unto them, saying, All power is given 20 Teaching them to observe all unto me in heaven and in earth. things whatsoever I have commanded

19 Go ye therefore, and teach all you : and, lo, I am with you alway, nations, baptizing them in the name even unto the end of the world, of the Father, and of the Son, and of Amen. (X) the Holy Ghost :

EXPOSITION-Chap. XXVIII. Continued. (X) Ver. 16-20 Christ's final exaltation, called, the Missionary enterprise. (Dr. Mor. and last commission to his disciples.-Jesus rison's Parting Memorial, 1826, p. 301.) had, previously to his death, appointed af- The introduction of the Christian loco terwards to meet his apostles in Galilee, trine of the Trinity into this institution, which was repeatedly fulfilled. Doddridge, may suggest to us, that the great point Wesley, and others, think it was on this which concerns us therein, is to render occasion that our Lord appeared to 500 bre- equal honour to the Father, the Son, and the thren at once (1 Cor. xv. 6); but this is by Holy Spirit, in their respective offices in no means certain. To us it appears that the economy of human redemption : a subthis was the last iuterview which our Lord ject better studied upon our knees than had with his disciples, previous to his re- in the schools. But when it is added, turn to heaven : so Mr. Preb. Townsend, Teaching them to observe all things Jo our Loril's words we remark the follow. whatsoever I have commanded you," we ing important points.

should never forget to give a prominent 1. The dignity to which Jesus Christ was situation to that peculiar and comprehennow about to be exalted, on his ascension sive precept of our Saviour, “ These things to the Father. “ All power is given unto I command you, that ye love one another." me in heaven and in earth." This must (John xv. 17.) refer to that delegated authority conferred The promise annexed to this command is upon the Messiah, which was the reward certainly of the most encouraging nature of his passion, and the ground of bis au- and, so far as it relates to the aids of the thority, as King of the church. (Ps. ii. 7-9; Holy Spirit in the conversion of the heart cx. I, &c. ; Matt. xi. 27 ; Jobn xiii. 3 ; xvii. must no more be limited to any age that 2; Phil. ii. 9-11, &c. &c.) Whether that to any nation : "Lo! I am with you always authority could be exercised by a mere eveu to the end of the world." creature; that is, whether such creature 3. With the propagation of the gospel could be every where present; every where among the heathen is here intimately con reign, protect, and bless his people'; is an- nected the initiatory ordinance of Christian other question, which we leave to be re- Baptism, as a distinguishing mark of sepa solved by those who wish so to degrade the ration from the heathen world. Much Son of God.

more attention has been paid to this part o 2. The commission which Messias gives our Lord's address than to the preceding to his apostles and others, to disciple, to Many volumes have been written as to th proselyte, to Christianize, or as Milton quantity of water necessary to the due ad better expresses it, to evangelize the world. ministration of this ordinance, the manne "! (says the divine Saviour) bare all power of its application, and the parties to whom in heaven and on earth ; go ye therefore, and it should be administered. These contra proclaim the glad tidings of mercy to every versies we are very far from wishing to re buman creature. This did the first dis- vive. We are fully persuaded that Christ ciples and apostles of our Lord, to the ans, the more they enter into the spirit extent of their means; and this, more or their Master's institutions, the less wi less, have all their true successors done, they be inclined to dispute respecting cit up to the present day; and this is still the cumstantials. doing of what, in common parlance, is

objects, as not found in the English language; but Townson. To us it seems probable that some, when is hard to say this of a word used both by Shakspes they first saw him, supposed it to be his ghost (as on and Spencer (see Johnson), and among divines, another occasion, Mait, xiv. 25.), till he appproached Bp. Beveridge, Dr. Scott, Mr. Wesley, &c. and spoke to them.

Ver. 20. Unto the end of the world. --Some rend Ver. 19. T'each all nations. The word teach here, this, " to the end of the age," meaning the Jewi is quite different from the one used in the next state; but Abp. Newcome understands it of ! verse. This word signities to " disciple," or make gospel dispensation, which will indeed run paral disciples (or Christians) of all nations; and is so ren

"Nothing seel dered in our margin, and to the saide effect, we be- more unreasonable (says Doddr.) than to limit 1) lieve, by all modern translators, Doddr. employs the words to the end of the Jewish state.” term "proselyte;" but Camp. justly objects to this

So Dr.

with the duration of the world.



INTRODUCTION. " THIŞ Evangelist was not an apostle, or companion of Christ during his ministry, though Epiphanius and several other fathers affirm that he was one of the seventy disa ciples. All that we learn from the New Testament concerning him is, that he was sister's son to Barnabas (Col. iv. 10), and the son of Mary, a pious woman of Jeru: salem, at whose house the apostles and first Christians often assembled. (Acts xii. 12.) His Hebrew name was John, and Michaelis thinks that he adopted the surname of Mark when he left Judea to preach the gospel in foreign countries, a practice not unusual among the Jews of that age, who frequently assumed a name more familiar to the natious which they visited, than that by which they had been distinguished in their own country. From Peter's styling him his son (1 Pet. v. 13), this evangelist is supposed to have been converted by him, and on his deliverance (recorded in Acts xii. 12.), Mark Weut from Jerusalem with Paul and Barnabas, and soon after accompanied them to other countries as their minister (Acts xiii. 5); but declining to attend them through their whole progress, he returned to Jerusalem, and there kept up an intercourse with Peter and the other apustles. Afterwards, however, when Paul and Barnabas settled at Antioch, we find Mark with them, and disposed to accompany them in their future journeys. He then went with Barnabas to Cyprus (Acts xv. 37–39); and subsequently accompanied Timothy to Rome, at the desire of Paul (2 Tim. iv. 11.) during his confinement in that city. From Rome he probably went into Asia, where he found Peter, with whom he returned to that city, in which he is supposed to have written and publisbed his Gospel. Such are the outlines of this evangelist's history, as furuished to us by the New Testament. Froin Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome, we learn that Mark, after he had written bis Gospel, went to Egypt, and having planted a church at Alexandria, Jerome states that he died and was buried there in the eighth year of Nero." Some affirm that St. Mark suffered martyrdom; but this fact is not men. tioned by Eusebius, or any other ancient writer, and is contradicted by Jerome.

That Mark was the author of the Gospel which bears his name, is proved by the una. Dimous testimony of ancient Christians, particularly Papias, and other writers of the three first and following centuries. Though not cited by name, this Gospel appears to have been alluded to by Clement of Rome in the first century; hut the testimony of antiquity is not equally uniform concerning the order in which it should be placed. S. MARK. Clement of Alexandria affirms that the Gospels containing the genealogies were first written ; according to this account, Mark wrote after Luke : but Papias, on the information of John the Presbyter, a disciple of Jesus, and a companion of the apostles, expressly states that it was the second in order; and with him agree Irenæus, and other fathers.

That this evangelist wrote in Greek, is attested by the uninterrupted voice of antiquity, and it is generally considered that he wrote for Gentile converts, on which account he has inserted several explanatory terms (as Corban, a gift, chap. vii, 11), and omitted many things of interest peculiar to the Jews, as Christ's genealogy, and miraculous conception, &c.

From the striking coincidences between Mark and Matthew, many learned men have supposed the former an epitomizer, or at least that he made great use of the latter's Gospel in the formation of his own. On the other hand, critics of equal eminence hare contended, from the many seemiug inconsistencies between them, that Mark never saw the Gospel of Matthew before his own was written, or such apparent discrepancies would have been avoided. It must be confessed, however, that the sacred-writers seem to discover a sovereign contempt for artificial arrangement; and no anxiety to avoid those apparent discrepancies, to which independent writers are always liable; but which persons combining to deceive, would certainly study to avoid. As to similarity of style and expression, if Mark was a disciple of St. Peter, as is generally believed, it is highly probably that he might have an early acquaintance with Matthew's Gospel, even if Mark had not : and that he wrote under Peter's counsel and inspection, is not only asserted by the ancients, but strongly argued from the particular account be gives of Peter's fall, and the caution with which he speaks of any circumstances to his honour.

With respect to the date of this Gospel, Mr. Horne places it between A. D. 60 and 63; but Dr. Lardner thinks it could not have been written before A. D. 64 or 65.

[See Horne's Crit. Introd, vol. iv. p. 252, et seq. 4th Ed., from which the above is copied and abridged, compared with Drs. Lardner and Campbell.]

' In pursuing our course of Exposition, as many parts of Mark's Gospel repeat the same facts with Matthew, and often nearly in the same words, we shall follow the play we pursued in the Old Testament, placing these in a smaller type, that they may be omitted by those who please in family reading, and confine our Exposition to new facts and circumstances; or to some of those very interesting parts of the history, on which we had not sufficient room for enlargement in going through the first gospel.

Those who wish to read the whole of this Gospel in their families can still do so, as nothing is omitted ; and the Notes will refer to those parts of the Exposition of Matthew, where the same facts or discourses are considered. In the Notes also, which are numerous, and sometimes copious, the different accounts will be reconciled so far as the Editor has been able ; for after all, from the antiquity of the writings there are many little apparent differences which defy the skill of the most learned. But while the leading facts are established beyond all reasonable contradictions, those minute circumstances will be found of no importance to either our faith or practice.

As to the term Gospel (in Greek Evangelion), it is remarkable that St. Mark uses it more frequently than the other three Evangelists taken collectively. Both the Greek word and the English (or rather Saxon), sigaify good news, or glad tidings; namely, those of salvation by Jesus Christ.

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