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The parable of]
CHAP. XIX.

[the ten pounds. 9 And Jesus said unto him, This he was returned, having received the day is salvation come to this house, kingdom, then he commanded these forsomuch as he also is a son of servants to be called unto him, to whom Abraham.

he had given the money, that he might 10 For the Son of man is come to know how much every man bad gained seek and to save that which was lost.(O) by trading.

11 And as they heard these 16 Then came the first, saying, things, he added and spake a parable, Lord, thy pound hath gained ten because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and pounds. because they thought that the kingdom 17 And he said unto him, Well, of God should immediately appear. thou good servant: because thou hast 12 He said therefore, a certain no- been faithful in a very little, have thou bleman went into a far country to re- authority over ten cities. ceive for himself a kingdom, and to 18 And the second came, saying, return.

Lord, thy pound hath gained five 13 And he called bis ten servants, pounds. and delivered them ten pounds, and 19 And he said likewise to him, Be said unto them, Occupy till I come. thou also over five cities.

14 But his citizens hated him, and 20 And another came, saying, Lord, sent a message after him, saying, We behold, here is thy pound, which I have will not have this man to reign over us. kept laid up in a napkin :

15 And it came to pass, that when 21 For I feared thee, because thou

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. XIX.

Where he was sensible of this, he restored (O) Ver. 1-10. The conversion of Zac- four-fold, according to the law; and as cheus, the chief publican.--Many of the there were, doubtless, many cases in the pubiicans appear to have been men of pro- course of his office in which he bad been perty; in gathering for the state they did guilty of oppression, he now devotes the not forget themselves. We need not won- half of bis present income to the poor, as der, tberefore, to find the chief publican, an evidence of his change of conduct and the head tax-gatherer of the district-cha- disposition. And he defers neither his jusracterised as rich. But, though rich, his tice nor liberality to his death-bed, as too mind was not wholly occupied in getting many do, who desire to retain the whole as money. He had heard that a great Prophet long as possible. “ Those who defer their had arisen in Israel, and bad an earnest gifts to their death-bed (Bishop Hall redesire to see him-not merely from an idle marks) do as good as say, Lord, I will give curiosity,

as we would hope, but probably thee something when I can keep it no from a desire to hear some of his dis- longer. Happy is the man that is his own courses, and see some of his miracles ; executor!" but, being short of stature, his only chance It was of the Pharisees and their adhe. seemed to be in climbing a tree, which ac- rents, doubtless, that the Evangelist says, cordingly he did. Jesus, passing by, saw that “they all murmured (as they were him also, and knowing his heart prepared to wont to do) that he was gone to be a guest receive him, called him down, and desired with a man that was a sinner.” Such is the him to basted home, and prepare to receive inconsistency of human nature, as if the both bimself and his disciples. He did so, Son of man were sent to save only those and received him beartily and joyfully; and who had not been lost. Jesus, however, frankly owned that, in the course of his acted with perfect consistency. He came profession, he had been guilty of extortion. not to call the righteous to repentance;"

NOTES. Ver. 12. A certain nobleman, &c.-The similarity plained in our margins to be 31. 2s. 6d.; by Doddr. of this narrative to the case of Arcbelaus, who went 71. 10s. ; Prideaux, 9. ; but in our table, taken la Roue to bare his kingdom confirmed over his Dr. Arbuthnot, at 51. 14s. See p. 694, end Tebellions subjects, has been remarked; but, besides of (). T. that, there is in other respects a great disparity, our Ver. 15. The money.--Gr. “the silver." So ver. 23. Lord appears to us to have exercised a particular Ver. 17. Over ten cities. This prince being now degree of caption in avoiding political allusions. supposed to be established in bis kingdom, distributes Ver. 13. llis ten servants.- Doddr. and Camp. the subordinate governments among those of his ser.

vants who had proved themselves faithful to their Ibid. Ten pounds-or minas. The mina is ex. trust, in proportion to their talents and assiduity.

" Ten of his servants."

33 And

Christ's entry)

S. LUKE.

[into Jerusalem. art an austere man: thou takest up that mount called the mount of Olives, he sent thou layedst not down, and reapest that two of his disciples, 30 Saying, Go thou didst not sow.

ye into the village over against you; in the 22 And he saith unto him, Out of tied, whereon yet never man sat : loose

which at your entering ye shall find a colt thine own mouth will I judge thee, him, and bring him hither.

31 And if thou wicked servant. Thou knewest any man ask you, Why do ye loose him? that I was an austere man, taking up thus shall ye say unto him, Because the

32 And they that I laid not down, and reaping that that were sent went their way, and found I did not sow:

even as he had said unto them. 23 Wherefore then gavest not thou as they were loosing the colt, the owners my money into the bank, that at my thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the coming I might have required mine need of him.

34 And they said, 'The Lord hath

35 And they brought him own with usury?

to Jesus: and they cast their garments 24 And he said unto them that stood upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon. by, Take from him the pound, and give 36.And as they went, they spread their it to him that hath ten pounds.

clothes in the way.

37 And when he

was come nigh, even now at the descent of 25 (And they said unto him, Lord, the mount of Olives, the whole multitude he hath ten pounds.)

of the disciples began to rejoice and praise 26 For I say unto you, That unto God with a loud voice for all the mighty every one which hath shall be given; Blessed be the King that cometh in the

works that they had seen ; 38 Saying, and from him that not, even that he name of the Lord : peace in heaven, and hath shall be taken away from him. glory in the highest. 39 And some of

27 But those mine enemies, which the Pharisees from among the multitude would not that I should reign over

said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disci

ples. 40 And he answered and said unto them, bring hither, and slay them be- them, I tell you that, if these should hold fore me. (P)

their peace, the stoves would immediately

cry out.

[Omit, and pass to ver. 41.] 28 And when he had thus spoken, he went before, ascending up to Jerusalem. 29 And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany, at the

41 | And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it,

42 Saying, If thou hadst known,

EXPOSITION—Chap. XIX. Continued. but when he entered the door of a penis that of the talents, Matt. xxv. 14—30. Yet tent he proclaimed, “This day is salvation as it differs in several interesting particucome to this house."-"Thrice happy Pub- lars, we shall give it a distiuct considerlican (says the pious prelate just quoted), ation. It appears to have been delithat hast climbed from thy sycamore tree vered in the house of Zaccheus, in answer to heaven ; and by a few worthless bags of to intimations, probably dropped by some of unrighteous mammon, bast purebased to the company, who expected, from the multhyself a kingdom incorruptible, undefiled, titude which followed our Saviour, that his and that fadeth not away." Chap. xii. 32,33. kingdom was now about to be established. (Hall's Cont. Bk. iv. Con. 4.)

The parable is not so clear as many, having (P) Ver. 11-26. The parable of the ten two aspects, if we may so express it, in one pounds. This parable is very similar to of which is exhibited the rebellious con

NOTES-Ckap. XIX, Con. Ver. 26. Unto every one that hath shall be given.- --These words seem taken from the chorus of angels See Matt. xiii, 12, and Note.

(ch. ii. 14), of which probably some of the company Ver. 29. He went before-i. e. at the head of his had heard, and here repeated incorrectly, for the company, to show the readiness with which he net angels sang “ Peace on earth.» his sufferings. Comp. ch. xii. 50.

Ver. 40. The stones would immediately cry out Ver. 29–40. And it came to pass, &c.-Compare Some of the Jews, as appears by the preceding the parallel passage in Matt, xxi. 1-9. We shall verse, being sbocked at what they thought blas. mark the principal differences.

pbemy in the multitude, applied to the Lord Jesus to 30. Ye shall find a colt tied.-Matt. xxi. 2, men. reprove them; but he, instead of censuring, justifies tions an ass and a coll, but the other Evangelists a them as fully warranted by the occasion. This is a colt only; but from ver. 7, in Matthew, it seems both strong hyberbole, but quite in the Oriental stile, were employed. See our Note on ver. 5 there. See Hab. ii. 11. Ver. 38. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest.

He cleanses)
CHAP. XIX.

(the temple. even thou, at least in this thy day, the 45 And he went into the temple, things which belong unto thy peace! and began to cast out thein that sold but now they are hid from thine eyes. therein, and them that bought;

43 For the days shall come upon 46 Saying unto them, It is written, thee, that thine enemies shall castą My house is the house of prayer: but trench about thee, and compass thee ye have made it a den of thieves. round, and keep thee in on every 47 And he taught daily in the tem

ple. But the Chief Priests and the 44 And shall lay thee even with the Scribes and the chief of the people ground, and thy children within thee; sought to destroy him, and they shall not leave in thee one 48 And could not find what they stone upon another; because thou might do: for all the people were very knewest not the time of thy visitation, attentive to hear him. (Q)

side ;

EXPOSITION. duct of the Jews, who refused to have Jesus in the latter case, an unbappy temper or to reign over them, and the other, the neg- a guilty conscience may render health and ligent conduct of some of his own professed wealth altogether unavailing to confer hapdisciples, who took no care to improve piness, or even comfort. the deposit which he had intrusted with The parable, however, appears to us to them.

have a particular reference to the gospel “He came unto his own, and his own ministry, which is described as treasure received him not." (John'i. 11.) They deposited in earthen vessels ; and of which hated him, and would by no means sub- treasure the apostles, and their successors mit to his authority; and, therefore, after in the ministry, are appointed stewards, he bad reckoned with his own confidential and respecting which the utmost fide. servants, he commanded" Those, mine lity is required. (See 2 Cor. iv. 7; I Cor. iv. enemies, which would not that I should 1, 2.) reign over them, bring hither, and slay Among these servants here is one who them before me"-an allusion, perhaps, to proves totally negligent, or unfaithful to his some of the summary executions of which trust; who, instead of employing his pound we read in the Old Testament; as for like the others, wrapped it in a cloth or napinstance, Agag, whom Samuel slew. (1 kin ; just as a like idle servant in another Sam. xv. 2, 33.)

parable buried his talent in the earth, But to turn to the other part of the pa (Matt. xxv. 25.) And it is observable, that rable: it differs from that of the talents, the misconduct in both cases arose from which were bestowed in different propor- erroneous notions of the divine character tions. Here they are supposed to be the supposing that, as God is the author of all same-a pound (or mina) intrusted with our graces, and all our mercies come from each servant for the purposes of trade; but him, that no duty remains with us, either which was variously improved, according to exercise the one or improve the other. to the care and industry of each possessor. Whatever notion reduces buman nature And here we may remark, that though to mere machinery, is alike injurious to our temporal benefits, separately taken, as the divine character, and hostile to pracwisdom, riches, power, &c. are bestowed tical religion. in great variety ; yet, taken collectively, (9) Ver. 41--48. Jesus weeps over Jeruthe blessings of Providence are distributed salem.--" We have here (says the excelin more equal proportions than is com- lent Mr. Howe) a compassionate lamenmonly supposed." To one, God gives health tation in the midst of a solemn triumph. and poverty; to another, riches and the Our Lord's approach to Jerusalem at this gout: and even wbere sickness attends on time, and his eutrance into it, as the forepoverty, and health on riches, another ar- going history shows, carried with thein ticle may be thrown in, which more than some face of regal and triumphal pomp; balances the portion: thus the consolations but with such alloys as discovered a mind of religion will more than counterpoise most remote from ostentation; and led by the combined evils in the former case; or, judgment, not vain glory, to transmit

NOTES. Ver. 43. Cast a trench about thee.-Cainp. says, however, always irnplies a trench or ditch with"Surround thee with a rampart," which is thought out it. to be the meaning of the Greek word rendered Ver. 46. M. house, &c.-See Isa. Ivi. 7; Jer. vii. 11.

trench,” and which occurs only here in the Ver. 48. Were very attentive.-Marg. “ Hanged New Testament. A military wall, or rampart, on him."

The queries of ]

S. LUKE.

[the Priests & Scribes. CHAP. XX.

Priests and the Scribes came upon him

with the elders, [Omit, and pass to Chap. xxii. ver. 14.]

2 And spake unto him,

saying, Tell us, by what authority doest AND it came to pass

that on one of those thou these things? 'or wbo is he that gave days, as he taught the people in the thee this authority ? 3 And he answered temple, and preached the Gospel, the Chief and said unto them, I will also ask you one

EXPOSITION-Chap. XIX. Continued. through a dark umbrage (or shadow] some weep, yet, as a sinless man, he could have glimmerings of that excellent majesty no will nor desire in opposition to the will which both his sonship and mediatorship of his heavenly Father: “ Not my will entitled him unto : a very modest specimen (said he) but thine be done." And thus of .... his kingly state. Such as might hath he taught us also to pray, “ Thy will rather intimate than plainly declare it, and he done in earth as it is in heaven," where rather afford an after instruction to teach- no consideration of creature bappiness can able minds, thau beget a present convic- for a moment be put in competition with tion and dread in the obstinate and un- the divine glory. Hence we find in " the teachable. And this effect we find it had, fall of Babylon," so pathetically described as is observed by another evangelical his- by St. John (Rev. xviii. xix.), the elders, torian, who, relating the same matter, the mystic animals, and the whole company how, in his passage to Jerusalem, the of the redeemed say, “ Amen, Hallelujah." people met him with branches of palm

trees It is certainly our duty to lament over the and joyful husannas; he riding upon an sins and miseries of our friends and of manass's colt, as princes or judges (to signify kind; and yet when we see the divine meekness as well as state) were wont to judgments fall upou them, to be silent, as do (Judges v. 10), tells us, “These things Aaron was, at the death of Nadab and his disciples understood not at the first ; Abihu (Levit. x. 3); or to say with the but, when Jesus was glorified, then re- Church in Acts xxi. 14), “ the will of the membered they that these things were writ. Lord be done." ten of him.' (John xii. 26.) .... How The circumstances here predicted were little he was taken with this piece of state certainly, in a most remarkable manner, is sufficiently to be seen in this paragraph fulfilled. It is predicted (ver. 43), “Tbine of the chapter. His inind is much more enemies shall cast a trench about thee," taken up in the foresight of Jerusalem's &c.; and Josephus says, though it was sad case ; and, therefore, being come thought impracticable, yet Titus so aniwithin view of it (which he might come mated his soldiers, that, in the course of modiously have in the descent of the op- three days he surrounded the city with a posite hill, Mount Olivet), He beheld wall 39 furlongs in circumference, with the city, it is said, and wept over it.'" 13 castles in its circuit; and by this means (Howe's Redeemer's Tears, &c. pages all hope was cut off that any Jews within 51, 52.)

the city should escape. When Titus also Two things concurred, according to Mr. had taken the city, and when the temple Howe, to cause this sorrow and these tears, was burnt, contrary to his wishes, he as respected Jerusalem and the Jews. ). caused the foundations both of the city and The greatness of the calamity as respected temple to be dug up, and levelled with the the city and nation, of which some parti- ground; and afterwards, as Socrates re. culars have been stated in our exposition lates, the whole was so entirely destroyed, of Matt. xxiv. : and, 2. The lost oppor- that “not one stone was left upon anotunity of preventing this ; “ If thou hadst ther." (Doddr. Harm. $ 147, and Jos. Jew. known," &c. ; implying that they had, Wars, bk, viii. ch. 1.) through their perverseness, and the What follows of Jesus casting out buy. wickedness of their rulers, lost an uppor- ers and sellers from the temple, is evitunity of mercy wbich could never be re- dently parallel to the relation of Matt. covered.

(xxi. 12, &c.), and need not be re-consiBut it has been objected, if Jesus were dered; but it is here added, “ He taught that divine person whom we represent him, daily in the temple," at which times also could he not have prevented the calamities it appears, by the former evangelist, “ that which he lamented ? and, if so, Why thus the blind and the lame came to him in the passionately lament them? To this we temple, and he healed them.” This, however, reply, 1. That our Lord Jesus must here be only enraged his bitter enemies, the chie considered in his mediatorial capacity, and priests and scribes, who sought means for his inferior nature, in which he could have his destruction, but feared the people, who no control over the divine decrees. His hung upon his lips with the utmost attenoffice was not to alter, but to fulfil them. tion and admiratiou. And, 2. That, however, as a man, he might

The Parable]

CHAP. XX.

[of the Vineyard. thing; and answer me: 4 The baptism sayest and teachest rightly; neither acof Jolin, was it from heaven, or of men ? ceptest thou the person of any, but teachest 5 And they reasoned with themselves, say the way of God truly : 22 Is it lawful ing, If we shall say, From heaven; ne for us to give tribute unto Cesar, or no ? will say, Why then believed ye him not ? 23 But he perceived their craftiness, and 6 But and if we say, Of men; all the peo- said unto them, Why tempt ye me? ple will stone us: for they be persuaded 24 Shew me a penny. Whose image and that John was a prophet. 7 And they superscription hath it? They answered answered, that they could not tell whence and said, Cesar's. 25 And he said unto it was. 8 And Jesus said unto them, them, Render therefore unto Cesar the Neither tell I you by what authority I do things which be Cesar's, and unto God the these things. 9 Then began he to speak things which be God's. 26 And they to the people this parable ; A certain man could not take hold of his words before the planted a vineyard, and let it forth tu bus peoplc: and they marvelled at his answer, bandmen, and went into a far country for and held their peace. a long time. 10 And at the season he 27 Then came to him certain of the sent a servant to the husbandmen, that Sadducees, which deny that there is any they should give him of the fruit of the resurrection; and they asked him, 28 Sayvineyard : but the husbaudmen beat him, ing, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any and sent him away empty. 11 And man's brother die, having a wife, and he again he sent another servant: and they die without children, that his brother beat him also, and entreated him shame, should take his wife, and raise up seed fully, and sent him away empty. 12 And unto his brother. 29 There were thereagain be sent a third : and they wounded fore seven brethren : and the first took a him also, and cast him out. 13 Then wife, and died without children. 30 And said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I the second took her to wife, and he died do? I will send my beloved son : it may childless. 31 And the third took her ; be they will reverence him when they see and in like manner the seven also : and bim. 14 But when the husbandmen they left no children, and died. 32 Last saw him, they reasoned among themselves, of all the woman died also. 33 Theresaying, This is the heir : come, let us kill fore in the resurrection whose wife of them him, that the inheritance may be our's. is she? for seven had her to wife. 34 And 15 So they cast him out of the vineyard ! Jesus answering said unto them, The chiland killed him. What therefore shall the dren of this world marry, and are given in lord of the vineyard do unto them? 16 He marriage. 35 But they which shall be shall come and destroy these husbandmen, accounted worthy to obtain that world, and and shall give the vineyard to others. And the resurrection from the dead, neither when they heard it, they said, God forbid ! marry, nor are given in marriage. 36 Nei17 And he bebeld them, and said, What is ther can they die any more : for they are this then that is written, The stone which equal unto the angels; and are the chil. the builders rejected, the same is become dren of God, being the children of the rethe head of the corner ? 18 Whosoever surrection. 37 Now that the dead are shall fall upon that stone shall be broken ; raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will when he calleth the Lord the God of Abragrind him to powder.

ham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of 19 And the Chief Priests and the Scribes Jacob. 38 For he is not a God of the the same bour sought to lay hands on him; dead, but of the living : for all live unto and they feared the people : for they per- him. ceived that he had spoken this parable 39 Then certain of the Scribes answering against them. 20 Avd they watched said, Master, thou hast well said. 40 And him, and sent forth spies, which should after that they durst not ask him any quesfeign themselves just men, that they might tion at all. 41 And he said unto them, take hold of his words, that so they might How say they that Christ is David's son deliver him unto the power and authority 42 And David himself saith in the book of of the governor. 21 And they asked Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit him, saying, Master, we know tbat thou thou on my right hand, 43 Till I make

NOTES. CHAP. XX. Ver. I-8. And it came to pass, &c. person down upon a great stone; the other, by let. -The text of Matthew parallel to this will be found ng a stone fall upon him. ebap. xxi. 23-27.

Ver. 36. Equal to the angels.-Matthew and Mark Ver. 9-19. Then began he to speak, &6.-Here say, “as (or like) the angels.” Luke's expression Tollows the parable of the vineyard, already consi. is stronger ; but we understand it to mean only, dered on Matt. xxi, 33-46.

that in respect of marriage, they are on equal er. 18. Whosoever shall fall, &c.-Dr. Whitby

footing. thinks here is an allusion to two different ways of Ver. 39. Thou hast well said.See the parallel sloning among the Jews; the former by throwing a text in Mark xii. 32.

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