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Of Philip)

CHAP. I.

[and Nathanael. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, said unto him, Before that Philip called the city of Andrew and Peter.

thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and I saw thee. saith unto him, We have found him, 49 Nathanael answered and saith of whom Moses in the Law, and the unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of Prophets, did write, Jesus vf Nazareth, God; thou art the King of Israel. the son of Joseph.

50 Jesús answered and said unto 46 And Nathanael said unto him, him, Because I said unto thee, I saw Can there any good thing come out of thee under the fig tree, believest thou? Nazareth ? Philip saith unto him, thou shalt see greater things than Come and see.

these. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to 51 And he saith unto him, Verily, him, and saith of him, Behold an Is- verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye raelite indeed, in whom is no guile! shall see heaven open, and the angels

48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence of God ascending and descending upon knowest thou me? Jesus answered and the Son of man. (C)

EXPOSITION (C) Ver. 35–51. The calling of Andrew ciples immediately forsook their callings and Peter, Philip and Nathanael. -Andrew and followed Jesus : the probability is, appears to have been the first called of all that their constant attendance was not rethe twelve apostles. He was previously a quired till Jesus formed an establishment, disciple of the Baptist, and, as we here see, and provided them a home. followed Jesus in consequence of the re- Next day-the frequent use of this term commendation of John, his master. The seems to imply that John, when not occuother disciple with him, is supposed to have pied in his official duties, used to walk been John the Apostle; but this conjecture with some of his disciples on the banks of is founded only on the concealment of his the Jordan, and Jesus probably did the name, which is believed to have been the same. Whenever John, therefore, saw case with Jobu in other instances, where Jesus, he pointed his disciples to him as himself was meant.'

“the Lamb of God,” or the Saviour of When they followed Jesus it was about the world; and thus bare record of him the tenth hour of the day, which, reckoning in the face of his disciples and the publie. from six in the morning, makes it four in The consequence was, that many of John's the afternoon, from which hour they re- disciples followed Jesus, as he had himself mained with Jesus, at his apartment, till predicted—“ He must increase, but I must the evening. Before, however, Andrew decrease.” went in to sit down, he went in search of But what most interests us in this sechis brother Simon, who appears to have tion, is the calling of Nathanael, whom been near upon the spot, and went with we have supposed to be the same with him; and they sat down together, listen- Bartholomew the apostle (See Expos, of ing, and doubtless “ wondering," as others Luke vi. 12-19), and on whose amiable had done before, at the gracious words character we shall here offer a few obserwhich proceeded from the Saviour's mouth. vations. 1. We inark his simplicity-he On this occasion, it should seem, Jesus first was “an Israelite indeed, in whom was gave to Simon the name of Peter, which no guile;' no hypocrisy, nu dissimulation : is here explained to signify “a stone." In yet, 2. Though simple, he was not creduMatt. xvi. 18, our Lord alludes to the same lous; so far from it, he scrupled to believe interpretation ; but, by this passage, the in Jesus because he came from Nazareth, name had been imposed long before. It a town inhabited by ignorant, rude, and does not appear, however, that these dis- vicious characters; so that it appears to have

Gennesareth. e a poor fish.

Galilee 6. Nazarelli.

NOTES. Ver. 44, Bethsaida-- was at this time a poor fish Ver. 51, Verily, verily Gr. Amen, Amen, which ing village on the lake of Gennesareth.

is, in fact, a Hebrew word, signifying (* certanly,!! Ver. 46. Nazareth. This was a town of Lower or " in truth;" but it is remarkable that lobn, in Galilee, about two leagues East from Mount Tabor. a lopting this word, alway's doubles it, while the Il bore a bad character, even among the Galileans, ether Evangelists use it'singly a circumstance we which is fully justified by the treatient which our can account for only froin the earnestness of his Lord himself received from them, Lake iv. 28, 29. manner. -Angels ascending and descending, to This is one instance in which our Saviour " inade wait, &c. * 80 Doddr. Bat Campbell renders it bimself of noi reputation." it shop) i bevor ascending from 'd', and descending upon."! ? valaikis 126.3

Adiu sau ai ui iuni Dia. W 11 ya wale wanata

East from Mount Lover

or in trithebrew word, signifyin Amen adopting this but it is remarksins 9 cortanlı.

[graphic]

EXPOSITION-Chap. I. Continued. been a proverbial saying, "Can any good of God ascending and descending (to wait] thing come out of Nazareth? Thus the good upon the Son of man.” Several instances physician placed himself in the centre of of this nature occurred to the apostles (of the diseased. 3. Though not credulous, he whom we have reckoned Nathanael to be did not obstinately resist evidence: when one) during their master's life; but the Jesus convinced him that he knew what grand instance of it was at his ascension passed in his secret retirement, he at once (Acts i. 11), to be exceeded only at the day acknowledged the divinity of his charac- of judgment (See Matt. xxiv. 31, 32; xxvi. ter : “Rabbi [master or doctor], thou art 30). It appears to us that angels were the Son of God; thou art the King of constantly in attendance upon our Lord, Israel." 4. We have here an instance not though not always visible to others; and only of Nathanael's simplicity and ho- who can say that they attend not on his nesty, but of his piety; since under the disciples also ? " Are they not all minis fig-tree" appears to have been his usual tering spirits, sent forth to ininister for (or place for retirement and prayer, where he on behalf of) them who shall be heirs ol knew that he was excluded from every eye salvation ? ” (Heb. i. 14.) but his, who readeth the heart. Our Lord here adds, addressing Natha

“Are they not all thy servants, Lord ?

At thy command they go and come; nael, and the other disciples with him,

With cheerful haste obey thy word, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, hereafter And guard thy children to their home.” ye shall see heaven open, and the angels

Watts.

NOTES. CHAP. II. Ver. 1. Cana of Galilee. - A small to seven gallons each; but it were better to leave town, four or five miles from Nazareth.

indeunite-measures.'It need not be supposed, how "Ver. 4. Woman. That there is nothing disrespect ever, that the whole of the water was changed, bu ful in this address, is evident from its use in classi- so much only as was called for. cal writers. Xenophon puts it into the mouth of a Ver. 8. The governor of the feast-i.e. the pres Persian chief, when consoling a captive lady of the dent or chairman, whose duty on such occasions highest rank Augustus is made to use it to Cleo- described by the author of Ecclesiasticus, cha patra, and Antenor to Helen. It may, therefore, be

xxxii. I. The Greek term is architriclinos, w! considered as equivalent to Madan. See Orient. sat at the head of the table, which was shaped lil Lit. No. 1357.70

the Greek letter si, as represented by anciel Ibid. What have I to do with thee?—Parkhurst painters. Comp. Note on Matt. xxvi. 20. and Camp. What hast thou to do with me?” The Ver. 9. When the ruler-or governor; it is !! expression, though certaidly not disrespectful, im same word. plies reproof: “Why cost thou in erlere »

Ver. 10. When men have well drunk.- Dold Ver. 6. Two or three firkins. This is an English drank plentifully ;'' Camp." largely," or freely reasure, unknown to the Greeks or Jews. Dodur. which last lentas seem best. The Isx. use the sai Camp., and others, suppose the Ileb, Baths to be word ia Gen. xliii. 34; Sol.. Songtuk bag. i. intended, which are reckoned to con ain from four in none of which does it iusply intoxication.

Jesus purifies]
CHAP. II.

[the temple. fested forth his glory; and his disci- 15 And when he had made a scourge ples believed on him. (D)

of small cords, he drove them all out of 12 | After this he went down to Ca- the temple, and the sheep, and the pernaum, he, and his mother, and his oxen; and poured out the changers' brethren, and his disciples: and they money, and overthrew the tables ; continued there not many days.

16 And said unto them that sold 13 And the Jews' Passover was at doves, Take these things hence; make hand, and Jesus went up to Jeru- not my Father's house an house of mersalem,

chandise. 14 And found in the temple those 17 And his disciples remembered that sold oxen and sheep and doves, that it was written, The zeal of thine and the changers of money sitting: house hath eaten me up.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. II.

The language of Jesus on this occasion, (D) Ver. 1-11. Our Lord attends a to bis virgin mother, appears mysterious, marriage feast, and changes water into and cannot perhaps be fully explained. wine.-lo explaiuing this narrative, it is 'The epithet “Woman," however abrupt necessary to glance at the nature of the it may sound to English ears, in Greek Jewish marriages, which lasted seven days, means nothing disrespectful; but was adpersons coming and going, perhaps, all dressed, by men the most accomplished, the time (Judg. xiv. 17). From a defi- to females of the highest rank. And the ciency of wine it has been inferred that expression “What have I to do with thee?" the married couple were poor ; but it is (or, rather, “What hast thou to do with . equally possible that the report of Jesus me?") though it may imply a gentle re

being present at the feast, hai rlrawn tu- proof, may only be designed to intimate gether an accession of guests quite unex- that whatever filial duty Jesus might owe pected. On these occasions a president, to Mary, as his mother, that relation gave or governor of the feast, was appointed ber no right to interfere with his public to regulate the festival and preserve de- duties. He was “ about his Father's busicorum.

ness," as he had said many years before Many reasons may be assigned for the (Luke ii. 49), and knew when and how to attendance of Jesus on this occasion. The act, without any human direction. His marriage was probably an alliance formed “hour" (as he said on other occasions) in his own family; and though circum- was not yet come, and he might have stances would not permit bis sanctioning wise reasons for delay, unknown to her as the sacred ordinance by his example, his well as to us; and it is evident she did not presence on this occasion might be de- understand this as a refusal, because she signed to express his approbation of a directed the servants to obey his orders. union instituted by God himself, and sanc. “At the command of Jesus (says Bp. tioned by holy men of every age. He Taylor) the water-pots were filled with might wish it to be understood also, that water, and the water was, by his divine he was no cynical philosopher, but designed power, turned into wine, where the differto mix in all the innocent enjoyments, as ent economy of God and the world is well as duties, of civil life, which were not highly observable. Every man sets forth incompatible with his divine character. good wine at first, and then the worse ; He was no ascetic, nor affected the retire- but God not only turns the water into ment of a desert; but he came eating and wine, but into such wine that the last drinking, even with reputed sinners, that draught is most pleasant. The world prehe inight have the better opportunity of sents us with fair language, promising introducing his holy doctrines and precepts hopes, convenient fortunes, pompous hoamong all classes of society.

nours, and these are the outside of the

NOTES. Ver. 15. Of small cords-i. e, the cords that had to more than 32,000 doily, would require a larger been employed to tie up the cattle. - Oren, Camp. market than our Smithfield, in London. It is possi* cattle." Osen (properly speaking) being cas. ble, however, that Josephus exaggerated, as well as trated animals,could not be sacrificed. See Mote on the Jews: he mentions, that Herod, in his lóth year, Exod. xxü.30: Levit. 1.3.

in repairing the temple, doubled the space of ground Ver. 16. An house of merchandise.-Doddr. and which had enclosed it, which will account for this Camp. tralic").-a public market: and the extent large market. See Lard, Cred. ii. 290. of that market may be judged or from what Josephus Ver. 17. The zeal of thine house, &c.-See Psalm tells us, that at one Passover the Jews sacruticed Ixix. 9, and Note. 236,500 victims of difierent kinds, which amounting

Jesus predicts]

S. JOHN,

[his resurrection. 18 Then answered the Jews and bered that he had said this unto them; said unto him, What sign shewest thou and they believed the Scripture, and unto us, seeing that thou doest these, the word which Jesus had said. things?

23 Now when he was in Jerusalem 19 Jesus answered and said unto at the Passover, in the feast day, many them, Destroy this temple, and in three believed in his name, when they saw days I will raise it up.

the miracles which he did. 20 Then said the Jews, Forty and 24 But Jesus did not commit himsix years was this temple in building, self unto them, because he knew all and wilt thou rear it up in three days? men;

21 But he spake of the temple of 25 And needed not that any should his body.

testify of man: for he knew what was 22 When therefore he was risen iu man. (E) from the dead, his disciples remem

EXPOSITION-Chap. II. Continued. bowl; but, when it is swallowed, these readers to the observations offered by us on dissolve in the instant, and there remains Matthew, so far as the circumstances agree; bitterness, and the malignity of colliquin- we add only a remark on the proneness there tida (i.e. the wild cucumber, bitter and is in mere professors of religion to make a acrid in the extreme). Every sin smiles in gain of yodliness; and to pursue their own the first advance, and carries light in the interests, under the pretence of serving face and honey on the lip; but, when we God. For it was doubtless the pretence of have well drunk, then comes that which is these men, io briuging their cattle into the worse, .... sears and terrors of conscience, courts of the temple, to serve the conveand shame and displeasure, and diffidence vience of those who wanted them for sacri[we might add, despair) in the day office; and of the money-changers, to acdeath... [But] Jesus keeps the best wine till commodate either buyers or sellers with the last : not only because of the direct exchange for money or drafts : but, carereservation of the highest joys till the near less as they were in religion, we cannot beapproaches of glory, but also because our lieve that the priests would have tolerated relishes are higher after a long fruition these excesses, bad they not reaped advanthan at the first essays; such being the tages therefrom, either in the form of rentnature of grace, that it increases in relish

age for the ground, or fees for the privilege as it does in fruition.” (Life of Christ, of their standing! Strong and severe as Pt. 2, § 10.)

was the language of our Lord, relative to This is called “ the beginning," or these guardians of the temple, we doubt “ first," of Christ's miracles, as Dr. Camp- not but that it was perfectly just; and we bell renders it; for we pay no regard to the fear that there are few temples, few reports of the juvenile miracles which com- churches, few chapels, few religious instipose the pseudo-gospels of the apocryphal tutions of any kiud, in which his eyes, New Testament:" and by this miracle he which are “as a fame of fire," do pot showed forth not only the glory of his discern some thieves who rob God and power, but of his beneficence; and all his oppress his poor! Alas! if the sons of miracles were of the same benevolent cast. Aaron-if the sons of Eli, practised villany, As he turned water into wine, so he turned we need not wouder to find the like in the pain into ease, darkness into light, and degenerate days of Herod and Caiapbas. death into life: in this casc also he kept And when the Sou of Man again" coineth, the best wine till last,

shall be find faith in the earth,"— fidelity

in the church,-or integrity in its ministers? (E) Ver. 12—25. Jesus purges the temple, (See Luke xviji. 8.) and foretels his own death.-liseems evident, It is not wonderful that the Jews, both and is so generally understood, that our priests and laymen, should be alarmed on Lord twice, at least, cleansed the temple of this occasion. A Reformer comes among these catile-traders aud mouey-changers. them, under the character of a Prophet, Tbis, which was the first instance, must and by the zeal he manifests, they know have happened soon after the miracle just not how far the reform may spread; aud related ; the latter instance occurred wear every priest and every ruler, conscious of the close of his miuistry, and is related by abuses, trembles lest" it should extend to the three other Evangelists. (Niatt. xxi. 12; him; - the more so as reformers are naMark xi. 15; Luke xix. 45.)

turally sanctionce by the injured and opTo avoid repetition, we beg to refer our pressed. Certain Jews, therefore, probably

His conversation]

CHAP. III.

(with Nicodemus. CHAP. III.

him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee,

Except a man be born again, he canTHERE was a man of the Pharisees, not see the kingdom of God..

Damed Nicodemus, a ruler of the 4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How Jews:

can a man be born when he is old ? can 2 The same came to Jesus by night, he enter the second time into his moand said unto him, Rabbi, we know ther's womb, and be born? that thou art a teacher come from God: 5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I for no man can do these miracles that say unto thee, Except a man be born thou doest, except God be with him. of water and of the Spirit, he cannot

3 Jesus answered and said unto enter into the kingdom of God.

EXPOSITION. deputed by the Sanhedrin, demand of him he had said this." So our Lord had prua sign, or miracle, in proof of his divine mised, that after his resurrection the Holy authority as a Reformier : " What sigu Spirit should bring all things to their re. shewest thou uutu us, seeing that thou membrance" which he had said to them. doest these things ?"

(Ch. xiv. 26.) Jesus replied, no doubt with such an In this, and in every instance in which expressive action (pointing to himself) as the Jews demanded a miracle, our Lord might have led them to a just interpreta- constantly refused to gratify them, because tion of his meaving: “ Destroy this tem- his miracles were mostly designed to relieve ple," meaning the temple of his body; the poor and the distressed : during the "and in three days I will raise it up." The time of the Passover, however, Jesus reJews, however, whether through inatten- maining at Jerusalem, wrought many mition or perverseness, understood Jesus as racles, and those who saw them believed in speaking of the temple in which they then him ; but these people, though they acWere; and, therefore, shocked with the im- tually witncssed many miracles of this napossibility of such a thing, they exclain, ture, were always inquiring after others** Forty and six years was this temple in probably wishing to see soine splendid exbuilding, and wilt thou rear it in three hibition of his power-such as that to which days?" " But (says the historian) he Satan tempted him (Matt. iv. 6), to cast spake of the teinple of his body."

himself down from a pinnacle of the temA difficulty has been felt in making out ple, before all the congregation. But Jesus, the “forty and six years" here mentivned, though he never sent away a poor and misince, by the account of Josephus, it was serable object in distress, never wrought a built within eight or nine. Lardner re- miracle merely to exhibit himself, or gratify marks, however, that this refers to what curious hearers. Herod did at his own expense; but the As to those who did, or at least professed Jews were continually adding improve to believe in him, he knew too much of ments and embellishments, as late as human nature to trust in them. " He A. D, 65, within a few years of its final knew man"-his weakness, frailness, and destruction by Titus. Yet they, as well as inconstancy; and he knew “what was in the Christians, called this the second tem- man," panely, the deceitfulness and deple. (See Lard. Cred. i. ch. 11.)

pravity which was in his heart. (Matt. xv. Not only did the Jews misunderstand 18, 19.) He, therefore, never trusted himour Lord, as to the temple of which he self in the hands of his enemies till his spake, but his disciples appear not to have hour was come, to offer himself in sacrifice comprehended his meaning till after his for our salvation. resurrection : “ then remembered they that

NOTES CHAP. III. Ver. 3. Ercent a man be born again. which we find in the Greek." The oldest versions -Marg. " from above." So ver. 7, The Greek concur in the former interpretation, which is also anothen) is ambiguous, and means either again, clearly the sense of the word in Gal. iv. 9. or " from above;" and some expositors prefer the Ver. 5. Ercepta man be born of nater and of the latter interpretation, which it is clear the word Spirit-i.e. Excepta mau be born not only of water, beurs, both in ver.31, of this chapter, and in ch. xix. but also of the Spirit. Christian baptism, strictly II. * But that the common rersion is here preier speaking, was rot yet instituted ; the only baptism able (says Dr. Campbell), is evident from the answer known to Nicodemus was that of Proselytism, which given by Nicodemus, which shows that he under har been long practised by the Jews, and was now stood it no otherwise than as a second birth. And practised both by John and Jesus; but are the advolet it be remembered that, in the Chaldee language cates of baptismal regeneration prepared to say, that spoken by our Lord, there is not the same ambiguity John's baptism was attended with a regenerating

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