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Jesus weeps]


(over his grave. and met him: but Mary sat still in into the town, hut was in that place the house.

where Martha met him 21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, 31 The Jews then which were with Lord, if thou hadst been here, my bro- her in the house, and comforted her, ther had not died.

when they saw Mary, that she rose up 22 But I know, that even now, what hastily and went out, followed her, soever thou wilt ask of God, God will saying, She goeth unto the grave to give it thee.

weep there. 23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy bro- 32 Then when Mary was come ther shall rise again.

where Jesus was, and saw him, she 24 Martha saith unto him, I know fell down at his feet, saying unto him, that he shall rise again in the resurrec- Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brotion at the last day.

ther had not died. 25 Jesus said unto her, I am the 33 When Jesus therefore saw her resurrection and the life: he that be- weeping, and the Jews also weeping lieveth in me, though he were dead, which came with her, he groaned in yet shall he live:

the spirit, and was troubled, 26 And whosoever liveth and be- 34 And said, Where have ye laid lieveth in me shall never die. Be- him? They said unto him, Lord, lievest thou this?

come and see. 27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: 35 Jesus wept. I believe that thou art the Christ, the 36 Then said the Jews, Behold how Son of God, which should come into he loved him! the world.

37 And some of them said, Could 28 And when she had so said, she not this man, which opened the eyes went her way, and called Mary her of the blind, have caused that even sister secretly, saying, The Master is this man should not have died ? come, and calleth for thee.

38 Jesus therefore again groaning 29 As soon as she heard that, she in himself cometh to the grave. It was arose quickly, and came unto him. a cave, and a stone lay upon it.

30 Now Jesus was not yet come 39 Jesus said, Take ye away the

EXPOSITION. not unto death,” when he well knew that awake him.” Believers sleep in death; Lazarus was dying; but the meaning evi- but, in the resurrection, they awake in the dently is, that it should not terminate in Saviour's likeness. Shortly afterwards be death, but “in the glory of God," by his explains himself : “ Lazarus is dead;" resurrection from the grave.

but he adds immediately, “I am glad, for 2. Jesus, we may remark, delayed his your sakes, that I was not there, to the visit to Bethany till after Lazarus was intent ye may believe." dead and buried, and his body (in that 4. We have an affectionate proof of the climate particularly) must, in the natural attachment of the apostles to their Lord course of events, have begun to decay, and and Master. No sooner does he speak of the smell become so offensive as to satisfy going back to Judea, than Thomas, one every one of the certainty of its disso of the most affectionate, proposes to his lution.

fellow-disciples to go with him ; and anti3. The gentle manner in which our cipating the Jews would du him some misLord informs his disciples of the decease chief, he says, with a mixture of love and of Lazarus : first he says, “Our friend desperation, “Let us also go, that we may Lazarus sleepeth, but I go that I may die with him."

Ver 96 Shollvererdie_See Noteon John viti 61. himeals »

Ver. 3). Goeth unto the grave to weep.-See Ex- Ver. 39. He hath been dead four days.-Ver. 17, position of Matt. ij. 13-25.

it is said," he had lain four days in the grave." Ver. 33. Groaned in the spirit-or in spirit, i.e. The Jews generally buried their dead on the same in wardly-And wus troubled. - Marg, * troubled day on which they died.

Lazarus raised ]


[from the dead. stone. Martha, the sister of him that and said, Father, I thank thee that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by thou hast heard me. this time he stinketh: for he hath been 42 And I knew that thou hearest dead four days.

me always; but because of the people 40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not which stand by I said it, that they may unto thee, that, if thou wouldest be- believe that thou hast sent me. lieve, thou shouldest see the glory of 43 And when he thus had spoken, God? (K)

he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, 41 | Then they took away the stone

come forth. from the place where the dead was 44 And he that was dead came laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, forth, bound hand and foot with grave

EXPOSITION-Chap. XI. Continued. (K) Ver. 20—40. Jesus converses with custom was,

to weep.

there." She went the sisters of Lazarus. The news that Je- not, however, to " seek the living among sus was coming, soon spread itself in the the dead;" but she flies to her adored neighbourhood, and Martha immediately Lord-she casts herself at his feet, oversat out to meet him, and left Mary weep- whelms him with her tears, and repeats ing in the house. Immediately as she the same gentle complaiut as her sistersees Jesus, she laments that he had not “ Lord, if thou hadst been here my brocome sooner, saying, “ Lord, if thou badst ther had not died." been here my brother had not died : but Jesus inquires bow for the tomb of Laeven now"-What! after he had been zarus, and as they lead hiin thither_"JEdead four days, and the corpse had be- SUS WEPT." come offensive to the smell? Yes, even We attempt no comment on these intenow, “I kuow that whatsoever thou wilt resting words: those inclined to do so, ask of God, God will give it thee." Jesus might observe that these Tears werehere, as it were, puts words into her mouth; Tears of affection to Lazarusof sympathy " Thy brother shall rise again :" as if he to his sisters-and of compassion to the had said, 'Ask then the life of thy bro- Jews. ther :' but she understands him of a dis. The remark of the Jews was certainly tant resurrection at the end of the world : very natural : “ Behold (said they), bus “ I kuow that he shall rise again in the he loved him !” And some of them wbo resurrection at the last day." Jesus now had witnessed his late niracle on the mau announces himself as “ the resurrection boru blind, said, “ Could not this man, and the life;" and encourages her to be. which opened the eyes of the blind, have lieve, that even yet her brother might be caused that even this man should not have restored to ber through bis almighty power. died ?" but none of them seem to bave an. And he goes farther—" He that believeth ticipated the miracle now about to be per on me, though he were [spiritually) dead, formed. The Lord Jesus, " groaning in yet shall he (spiritually] live : aud he that himself, cometh to the grave"-doubtless (thus] liveth, and believeth in me, shall still weeping over his belovedl Lazarus. never die"—that is, shall not die for ever; He then orders the stone to be removed shall not suffer the pain of a second, an from the mouth of the cave in which he everlasting death. “ Believest thou this ?" had been buried, as was the Jewish case said he: she replies, “ Yea, Lord, I be- tom. Martha objects to this, perbaps lieve that thou art the Christ, the Son of thinking it dangerous, as she observed the God, which should come into ibe world:" body must be so far putrified as to euit an and baving, thus said, she instantly runs unpleasant, and perhaps infectious swell; to tell her sister Mary secretly, what doubt- but our Lord rebukes this attempt to disless was the fact-" The Master is come, annul his order: " Said I not unto thee, and calleth for thee;" and Mary as sud- if thou wouldest believe thou shouldest see denly and privately leaves her company- the glory of God?" Alas! how much of the thuse who had come to mourn with her glory of God do we lose the sight of througla and they very naturally conclude that she our unbelief! was gone to her brother's grave, as the

NOTES-Cbap. XI. Con. Ver. 41. I thank thee that thou hast heard me.- Ver. 12. I said it.-Doddr. “ I speak (thas :It does not appear that Christ uttered any prayer i.e. I thank thee, that the penple inay know that audibly; but God " heareth the desire of the hum. I act by commission from thee." ble," Ps. x, 17.

The prophecy]

(of Caiaphas. clothes: and his face was bound about he prophesied that Jesus should die for with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, that nation; Loose him, and let him go.

52 And not for that nation only, 45 Then many of the Jews which but that also he should gather together came to Mary, and had seen the things in one the children of God that were which Jesus did, believed on him. scattered abroad.

46 But some of them went their 53 Then from that day forth they ways to the Pharisees, and told them took counsel together, for to put him to what things Jesus had done.

death. 47 Then gathered the Chief Priests 54 Jesus therefore walked no more and the Pharisees a council, and said, openly among the Jews; but went What do we? for this man doeth many thence unto a country near to the wilmiracles.

derness, into a city called Ephraim, 48 If we let him thus alone, all men and there continued with his disciples. will believe on him : and the Romans 55 And the Jews' Passover was nigh shall come and take away both our at hand : and many went out of the place and nation.

country up to Jerusalem before the 49 And one of them, named Caia. Passover, to purify themselves, phas, being the High Priest that same 56 Then sought they for Jesus, and year, said unto them, Ye know nothing spake among themselves, as they stood

in the temple, What think ye, that he 50 Nor consider, that it is expedient will not come to the feast? for us, that one man should die for the 57 Now both the Chief Priests and people, and that the whole nation the Pharisees had given a commandperish not.

ment, that if any man knew where he 51 And this spake he not of him- were, he should shew it, that they self: but being High Priest that year, might take him. (L)

at all:

EXPOSITION. (L) Ver. 41-57. The resurrection of of life to the dead. 2. The decisive evin Lazarus, and its effect upon the Jews. - dence of this fact: the body had lain in The stone at the cave's mouth being re- the tomb four days. 3. The manner in moved by some of the bystanders, Jesus, which it was wrought, by a word speakafter a short but inaudible address to his ing; but not till after a solemu address to heavenly Father, that the people might the Deity. 4. The witnesses ; not only the know in wbose name he acted, and with sisters themselves, but also the Jews who whose sanction he acted, “lle cried with came to condole and to mourn with them; a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth!" some of whom, it appears, had also witHe came forth from tbe tomb where his nessed the cure of the man boru blind. body had been laid ; but being, of course, We are now to consider the effects of this entangled and encumbered with liis grave. miracie. 1. On the witnesses of the miclothes, the Lord commanded, “ Loose racle, many of whom believed on him. him, and let him go"-that is, set him at 2. On others, who did not believe, who

went immediately and informed the Scribes In this miracle we remark, 1. Its ex- and Pharisees. 3. The debate among his traordinary nature : it was the restoration enemies: “What do we?" say they, for


NOTES. Ver. 48. And take away both oter place and removal.-Lard. Cred, vol.ii. p. 310. nation. The meaning is, that then the Romans Ver. 54. A city called Enhraim (or Ephrem) -A Would no longer protect them in their religion and town in the N.E. part of Benjamin, not far from laws; but send an army to destroy them, as rebels Bethel. See 2 Chron. xiii, 19. and enemies,"Lardner, who refers to Josephus, Ver. 55. Purify themselves-by some preparatory Antiq. libxx. c. y. & 1.

services, before they ate the Passover. Ver. 49. High Priest that same year.-Lard. Ver. 56. What think ve, that he will not come, " that year;" i.e. at that time. Pontius Pilate was &C.Doddr., Camp., and other critics, point this governor of Judea ten years, and Caiaphas was put as two questions, thus: “ What think ye? (Do ye into the priestbood by Valerius Graccus, Pilaie's think] that he will not come up to the feast.» predecessor, and continued in it till after Pilate's


Jesus anointed by]


[Mary of Bethany.

4 Then saith one of his disciples, CHAP. XII.

Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, which

should betray him, 'HEN Jesus six days before the

5 Why was not this ointment sold Passover came to Bethany, where for three hundred pence, and given to Lazarus was which had been dead, the poor? whom he raised from the dead.

6 This he said, not that he cared 2 There they made him a supper ;

for the poor; but because he was a and Martha served: but Lazarus was

thief, and had the bag, and bare what one of them that sat at the table with

was put therein.

7 Then said Jesus, Let her alone : himn.

against the day of my burying bath 3 Then took Mary a pound of vint- she kept this. ment of spikenard, very costly, and 8 For the poor always ye have with anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped you; but me ye have not always. his feet with her hair: and the house

9 Much people of the Jews therewas filled with the odour of the oint- fore knew that he was there: and they ment.

came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that

EXPOSITION-Chap. XI. Continued. this man doeth many miracles, and if we This iniquitous advice, however, was let him alone all men will believe on him.

approved by the great majority, and from 4. The alarm excited : “ If all men be- that day they determined on his death. lieve on him, the Romans shall come and His time, bowever, was not yet come; Jetake away both our place and nation :" sus therefore retreated to an obscure town, that is, supposing the nation to own at some considerable distauce from the him as Messiah, the jealousy of the Ru- metropolis, for a time; and the people demans would be excited, and they would

bated among themselves whether he would put an end to the Jewish polity. Pilate, be likely to attend the approaching Pass. however, appears to have bad no suspicion over, in which case the Pharisees had of this nature, when he heard Jesus de- strictly charged them, that if any one clare, that his kingdom was not of this saw bim, he should give them notice, that world. (See chap. xviii. 36.) On the other he might be apprehended. hand, the rejection of Jesus really brought But the chief difficulty in this chapter on the destruction both of their temple and regards the prophecy of Caiaphas.

“ 'l'his city. 5. The advice and prediction of he (Caiaphas] spake not of himself;" that Caiaphas, the High Priest, that it were bet- is, he did not understand his own predicter to sacrifice one man, however inno- tion, which, through the overruling procent, than to risk the safety of the nation. vidence of God, was accomplished in a As a maxim of political expediency this manner far beyond his meaning or commay be admitted, and has been often acted prehension. Yes; blessed be His name! upon; but there are many things approved Jesus olid die for the nation-even for his and acted upon in human governments, murderers-and for all the children of God which will not bear the scrutiny of the (whom the Father had given into his great Supreme, who judges all actions as hands) that were scattered abroad through. either just or unjust, without any regard out the world. to political considerations.

NOTES. CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. Six days before the Pass. Matt. xxvj. l. If it be asked, "Why was not this over.-From the account of Matthew, it should

entertainment given at the house of Lazarus ?" it seem not to have been more than two days. Tous may be replied, Probably for fear of interruption it seems probable, that though Jesus came to from the Jews; for John informs us (ver. 10), that Bethany six days before the Passover, yet the enter- the chief priests were already plotting to destroy tainment might not be given till four days after- Lazarus also. wards.

Ver. 3. Spikenard.See Note on Mark xiv. 3,5. Ver. 2. Lazarus .. sat at the table. This describes

Ver. 4. Judas Iscariot. See Note on Luke vi. 16. him as a guest, and not as master of the house : for Ver. 6. Had the bag-i, e. he was steward and Matthew tells us, it was " in the house of Simon treasurer to the whole family. See chap. xiii. 29. the leper," that is, who had been a leper. See Note

Jesus enters Jerusalem CHAT. XII.

(on an ass. they might see Lazarus also, whom he went forth to meet him, and cried, bad raised from the dead.

Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Is10 But the Chief Priests consulted rael that cometh in the name of the that they might put Lazarus also to Lord. death;

14 And Jesus, when he had found 11 Because that by reason of him a young ass, sat thereon; as it is many of the Jews went away, and be written, lieved on Jesus. (M)

15 Fear not, daughter of Sion: be12 { On the next day much people hold, thy King cometh, sitting on an that were come to the feast, when they ass's colt. heard that Jesus was coming to Jeru- 16 These things understood not his salem,

disciples at the first : but when Jesus 13 Took branches of palm trees, and was glorified, then remembered they


was the remainder of what she had pur(M) Ver. 1-11. Jesus anointed by Mary, chased to anoint her own brother at bis the sister of Luzarus.-It has been doubled funeral; and which could not now be better whether this is the same anointing men- bestowed than in expressing her gratitude tioned by Matthew (ch. xxvi. 6, &c.) and for his resurrection. 3. The surly reproof by Mark (xiv.3); but the reasoning of Mr. of Judas, in which he appears, for the Preb. Townsend (who follows Doddridge moment, to have been joined with other and Michaelis) has fully satisfied us that disciples, though not from the same motive; it is; and the few circumstances which for Judas carried the bag. 4. The defence seem to disagree will be explained in our which the Lord made for Mary, as if he Notes. (See New Test. Arran. vol. i. p. 373 had said, “Talk not now of the poor ; -376.) The entertainment, as Matthew them you have always with you, and can says, was " at the house of Simon the at any time relieve; me ye have not always. leper," who probably was a wealthy man, I am about to leave you, and she bath whom Jesus had cured; Martha, whose done this very opportunely, just before my character is elsewhere given by Luke, as departure.' “ Against the day of my burial * cumbered about much serving,” (chap. hath she kept this;" and these words will 1. 10) here also seems to have superin- have an additional force, if we adopt the tended the preparations : Lazarus was one above supposition, that some of the same of the guests, and Mary, as before, was ointment had been used at the burial of wholly occupied with her beloved Lord, her brother. 5. We remark the effects and whom she anointed, first by breaking open consequences of this meeting of the Jews the box, and pouring part of its precious with Lazarus, and of the circumstances contents upon his head, as stated by Mat- wbich atiended it. Many of the Jews tbew; but also, as Johu informs us, with went away from the entertainment, as the same ointment of spikenard, she we understand it, and believed on Jesus ; bathed his feet.

though some think the expression, “ went On this account we may remark :- away" (ver. 11), means they deserted from 1. The publicity of the miracle which had the Pharisees, with whom they had been been wrought on Lazarus, in raising him connected. 6, and lastly, we observe bow from the dead. For “much people (or liberally our Lord rewards acts of kinduess many) of the Jews" came, ' not for Jesus' and sympathy in his people. “She hath sake only, but that they might see Lazarus done what she could" to houour me; and also, whom he had raised from the lead." “Verily I say unto you, wheresoever this The report, therefore, must have been gospel shall be preached throughout the widely spread in a short period. 2. We whole world, this also that this woman remark tbe grateful attentious of Mary to hath done, shall be spoken of for a memothe Lord, and tbe precious ointment where- rial of her.” (Matt. xxvi. 13.) with she anointed him, which some think

NOTES. Ver. 10. Consulted that they might.-Camp." De- of Lazarus. But Camp. renders it, “ forsook them ;” termined (or resolved) to put,” &c. Comp. chap. namely, the harisees, and joined theinselves to

Christ's disciples Ver. II, Weut axay-namely, from the company

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