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Christ leaves his]
CHAP. XVI. [disciples for a time only. 16 A little while, and ye shall not the world shall rejoice: and ye shall see me: and again, a little while, and be sorrowful, but your surruw shall be ye shall see me, because I go to the turned into joy. Father.
21 A woman when she is in travail 17 Then said some of his disciples hath sorrow, because her hour is come: among themselves, What is this that but as soon as she is delivered of the he saith unto us, A little while, and child, she remembereth no mure the ye shall not see me: and again, a little anguish, for joy that a man is burn while, and ye shall see me: and, Be- into the world. cause I go to the Father?
22 And ye nuw therefore have sor18 They said therefore, What is ruw: but I will see you again, and this that he saith, A little while ? we your heart shall rejoice, and your joy cannot tell what he saith.
nu man taketh from
you. 19 Now Jesus knew that they were 23 And in that day ye shall ask me desirous to ask him, and said unto nothing. Verily, verily, I say untu them, Do ye enquire among yourselves you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the of that I said, A little while, and ye Father in my name, he will give it shall not see me: and again, a little you. while, and ye shall see me?
24 Hitherto have
asked nothing 20 Verily, verily, I say unto you,
in my name : ask, and
shall receive, That ye shall weep and lament, but that your joy may be full.
EXPOSITION. so not away the comforter will not come ; an assumption of the divine perfections but if I depart, I will send him unto yon.' utterly unjustifiable in a mere creature; Our Lord then goes on to explain more but it has here reference more particularly particularly the office of the Holy Spirit in to the great scheme of human redemption, the conversion of the world. • He will revealed by the Father to the Son, by both reprove,” or, more properly, convince the to the Holy Ghost, and by him to ihe aposWorld (1) of sin—and especially of unbe- tles and first preachers, and through their lief
, because they rejected the Messiah means to all succeeding ages. and Saviour of the world : (2) Of righ- But the sanctifying and consoling influteousness-that is, of Christ's personal in- ences of the Holy Spirit must not be conlicence and purity ; “ because (says he) fined to the first preachers only, nor to the I go to my Father, and ye see me no apostolic age. The learned Calvin remarks more ;' intimating that, were he the least on this passage : “ He [the Holy Spirit] defiled with sin, the Father would not ac- shall receive of mine, and shall shew it cept the sacrifice he offered, nor receive unto you;" that the words imply, that we him into glory. (3) Of judgment—i.e. of may receive the Spirit to this enil, that we the divine judgment already inflicted upon may enjoy the benefits of Christ. And Satan, the prince of this world, and soon what does the Spirit confer on us? To be after to fall upon a guilty nation, who have washed in the blood of Christ; to have sin been led by him into the deepest of all removed and abolished in us by his death crimes. (See Expos. of ch. xii. 31, p. 320.) and passion; to have our old mun crucified; The Holy Spirit is then spoken of as and to experience the power of his resurtheir Guide' into “ all the truth"- that is, rection, by causing us to walk in newness evangelical or divine truth; for this pro- of life ; in short, to be made partakers of mise bath no reference to other truths, all his blessings. The Spirit then bestows whether natural or scientific. But he en- nothing on us that was not in Jesus Christ, dowed them with the spirit of prophecy; of whom he receives it to give to us. In and revealed to them the character, the the same manner we ought to think of the offices, and work of the Saviour, and thus doctrine; for he does not enlighteu us with promoted his glory; it being, as the Scrip- the view of leading us the least astray from tures assure us, a constant object with the the Son of God; but he displays and opens. divine persons to promote each others' to us the treasures which are bid in Jesus klory: the Father glorifies the Son, the Son Christ. In short, the Holy Ghost bestows: the Father, and the Holy Spirit both. on us no other riches than those of Jesus,
When our Lord sabjoins, “ All things to the end that he may manifest the glory that the Father hath are mine," it implies of Christ, and magnify it in all and by all.".
Petitions to be asked]
[in Christ's name. 25 These things have I spoken unto 30 Now are we sure that thou you in proverbs : but the time cometh, knowest all things, and needest not when I shall no more speak unto you that any man should ask thee : by this in proverbs, but I shall shew you we believe that thou camest forth from plainly of the Father.
God. 26 At that day ye shall ask in my 31 Jesus answered them, Do ye name: and I say not unto you, that now believe ? I will pray the Father for you :
32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, 27 For the Father himself loveth is now come, that ye shall be scatteryou, because ye have loved me, and ed, every man to his own, and shall have believed that I came out from leave me alone: and yet I am not God.
alone, because the Father is with 28 I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world : again, 33 These things I have spoken unto I leave the world, and go to the you, that in me ye might have peace. Father.
In the world ye shall have tribulation : 29 His disciples said unto him, Lo, but be of good cheer; I have overcome row speakest thou plainly, and speak- the world. (2) est no proverb.
EXPOSITION-Chap. XVI. Continued.. (Z) Ver. 16 -- 33. Christ farther dis- the Apostles, but also to the universal courses of his death and resurrection, and Church of Cbrist, dispersed through the of the trials awaiting his Apostles.-In our whole world. For unless the Holy Ghost last section we ventured to affirm (as, in- bad been always present, governing and deed, we have often done before) that the preserving the church from the begiuning, gift of the Holy Spirit was by no means it could never have sustained so many and confioed to apostolic times, but is, and great brunts of affliction and persecution, was intended to be continued, so long as with so little damage and harın as it hath. Christ shall have a church on earth. We And the words of Christ are most plain in now resume this most important topic, in this behall, saying, that the Spirit of order to show, by a brief quotation, that Truth should abide with them for ever ; this was most decidedly and explicitly the that he would be with them always (he doctrine of the Reformers of the Church meaneth by grace, virtue, and power), of England, to prove which we shall quote eveu to the world's end.' one of the Homilies which they published, “Also in the prayer that he made to his and ordered to be read in the Established Father, a little before his death, he maketh Church :
intercession, not only for himself and bis “Our Saviour Christ, departing out of apostles, but indifferently for all them that the world unto his father, promised his should believe iu him through their words, disciples to send down another Comforter, that is to wit, for his whole church. And that should continue with them for ever, again, St. Paul saith, 'If any man have and direct them iuto all truth; which not the spirit of Christ, the same is not thing to be faithfully and truly performed, his.' Also, in the words following: 'We the Scriptures do sufficiently bear witness. have received the spirit of adoption, Neither inust we think that this Comforter whereby we cry, Alba, Father.' Hereby, was either promised, or else given, only to then, it is evident and plaid to all meu,
NOTES-Chap. XVI. Con. Ver. 25. In proverbs-Twice). Marg. “ Para- terse 25. bles." So Doddr. Though this is not the same Ver. 30. That any man should ask thre-that is, word asually rendered parables, it is sometimes used so plain, that no man need ask thee for an exAs synonimous with it, for the eastern proverbs are
planation.' often highly figurative and enigmatical. See Note Ver. 32. To his onn.-Marg. " flis own home." on Matt xiii. 3.
The Greek is equivocal, and may comprehend house, Ver. 29. No proverb.-Marg. " Parable," as in family, occupation, &c. &c.
[ for himself,
I have finished the work which thou CHAP. XVII.
gavest me to do. THESE words spake Jesus, and 5 And now, O Father, glorify thou
lifted up his eyes to heaven, and me with thine own self with the glory said, Father, the hour is come; glo- which I had with thee before the rify thy Son, that thy Son also may world was. glorify thee :
6 I have manifested thy name unto 2 As thou hast given him power the men which thou gavest me out of over all flesh, that he should give the world : thine they were, and thou eternal life to as many as thou hast gavest them me; and they have kept given him.
thy word. 3 And this is life eternal, that they 7 Now they have known that all might know thee the only true God, things whatsoever thou hast given me and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast are of thee. sent.
8 For I have given unto them the 4 I have glorified thee on the earth: words which thou gavest me; and
EXPOSITION. that the Holy Ghost was given, not only as to furnish them with all the wisdom and to the Apostles, but also to the whole body knowledge requisite to their important of Christ's congregation, although not in office. like form and majesty as he came down at Previously to this conversation, vur the feast of Pentecost." (Homily for Whit- Lord had instructed his disciples to offer Sunday, Part 11.)
their petitions to the almighty Father in In the following words our Lord ex- his name; but it should seem that they presses himself somewhat enigmatically: had done, as we too often do, neglected to * A little while and ye shall not see me.' use their privilege; for “hitherto they had The meaniug of which we take to be, that asked" little or “nothing" in that name, for a little while he should be taken from He therefore now encourages them thus their view by death, but soon return; and 10 ask, by assuring them (if we rightly then they should see him again, after his understand the 26th verse) to this effect; resurrection : but this also would be only that the Father would be so well pleased for a little wbile, because he must go to to receive their petitions in his Son's the Father, and they should see him
name, as a proof of their attachment to ascend. This is called a Proverb, but bim, that (if of a proper nature) he would (as remarked in our note) more properly immediately grant them, without any para parable, or enigma, which our Lord, ticular application from him tv second it. finding their minds thus perplexed, eluci- “ For the Father himself loveth you, bedates by another. He compares their si- cause ye have loved me.” Having said tuation, during the time of his death, to these things for their encouragement, he that of a woman in travail, full of anxiety concludes with telling themi “In the and pain till she is delivered, and then world ye shall bave tribulation; but be of filled with a reverse of joy and transport, good cheer, I have overcome the world.” which must undoubtedly have been the
“ Yes : the promis'd tribulation, case, when they beheld their risen Saviour,
Saviour, in the world we find; and saw him ascend to glory. “And in
Find the pledge of pure salvation that day ye shall ask me pothing;" that is, after our Lord's resurrection and ascent
In a patient, cheerful mind. to glory, they should need to make no “ We on all our foes shall trample, more personal inquiries; and so it was : Sharers of thy victory; for in a few days afterwards, the miracu- Followers of thy great example, lous influences of the Holy Spirit were Conqueror of the world through thee.” poured down in such a wonderful manner,
NOTES. CHAP. XVII. Ver. 2. To as many as.-Doddr. Dr. Smith's Messiah, vol. ii. p. 294—301. and Camp. * To all that.”
Ver. 4. I have
finished-i. é. I am upon the point Ver. 3. The only true God.- On this verse, see of foishing. See chap. xix, 30.
And for his]
[disciples. they have received them, and have world, I kept them in thy name: those known surely that I came out from that thou gavest me I have kept, and thee, and they have believed that thou nune of them is lost, but the son of didst send me.
perdition; that the Scripture might be 9 I pray for them : I pray not for fulfilled. (A) the world, but for them which thou 13 [ And now come I tu thee; and hast given me ; for they are thine. these things I speak in the world, that
10 And all mine are thine, and they might have my joy fulfilled in thine are mine ; and I am glorified in themselves. them.
14 I have given them thy word ; 11 And now I am no more in the and the world hath hated them, beworld, but these are in the world, and cause they are not of the world, even I come to thee. Holy Father, keep as I am not of the world. through thine own name thuse whom 15 I pray not that thou shouldest thou hast given me, that they may be take them out of the world, but that one, as we are.
thou shouldest keep them from the 12 While I was with them in the evil,
discharged the ofice of a prophet, is now (A) Ver. l-12. Christ's prayer, both commencing his priestly office, by praying for himself and his disciples.-Supposing, for his disciples, previously to offering bis as we are much inclined to do, that our atoning sacrifice. Saviour left the supper-room, when he said The opening of the prayer shows the (chap. xiv. 31), “Arise, let us go hence," earnestness and solemnity with which it we are not to conceive of the conversation was uttered. The Jewish High Priest had in chap. xv, aud xvi. taking place in the to offer, “ first for his own sins, and then streets of Jerusalem ; but rather that our for the sins of the people (Heb. vii. 27); Lord hastened without the walls with his but our great High Priest had no sins of disciples, while the Jews were all busily his own to atone for; yet he prayed for engaged within ; and choosing the most himself as man and Mediator, as well as for retired way, by the side of the brook Ke- his apostles and disciples. Nor must his dron, be might walk to some distance be- petitions be confined to his disciples of that fore he found it conveniently fordable (as age or country, any more than the Holy there was often much rain about this sea- Spirit which he promised, as we shall fud son), and during that time might hold clearly expressed in verse 20. We shall, this conversation with them; and in some however, consider the petitions as they secret and retired spot (possibly in some house of prayer--sec Luke vi. 12, Expos.) The first petition is, in substance, that close it with the following prayer, to which, as the Son had glorified the Father while as it was undoubtedly offered in their hear- on earth, so, that the Father would glorify ing, and coutained much instructive and the Son with the glory wbich he bad eu. consolitary truth, they might listen with joyed with him “ before the world was," a pious pleasure.
that is, with heavenly glory; for we can It has been properly remarked, that our no way reconcile this with the notion of Lord, having in the preceding discourses Christ having no existence previous to his
NOTESẠChap. XVII, Con. Ver. 10. Thine are mine.-Compare chap. xvi. 15. Milton uses the word ercepl with similar license :Ver. 11. And now I am no more. -Dodds. “No
• God and his Son except. longer.” Compare ver. 4.---That they may be
Created thing nought valued be." one.-Not one person, but thing. See Note on chap. X. 30.
See also, in the original, Matt. v. 13; John v. 19; Ver. 12. But the son of perdition. The son of 1 Cor. vii. 5, &c. perdition," is one who deserves to be destroyed : Ver. 13. That they might have my joy fulfilled in so " a son of death" is one who deserved to die; themselves.-Camp. " That their joy in me may be 2 Sam. xii. 5. The use of the particle (ri me) complete," or fulfiled. “but,"here deserves some attention. We have given Ver. ló. From th: eril-viz, the evil that is in the Doddridge's remark above; and may here add, that world.
Christ prays for]
[his disciples. 16 They are not of the world, even 17 Sanctify them through thyas I am not of the world.
truth : thy word is truth.
EXPOSITION. incarnation. 2. Our Lord prays that he But how is this knowledge « life etermay be glorified on earth also, by the nal?" Of scientific knowledge it has been diffusion of his gospel through the world. said, that “ kuowledge is power,” because "As thou hast given him power over all it enables men to effect what mere bodily iesh, that he should give eternal life" strength never could ; much more so is the bot to all flesh, but-" to as many as thou knowledge of the true God, and Jesus hast given him." Calvinistic expositors Christ bis Son. This directs the conduct, generally explain this expression of the and purifies the heart : this guides us in decree of election; or refer it to the stipu- every difficulty, and supports us under lations of the covenant of redemption, every trial; and when death draws his is the excellent Dr. Doddridge_" That he black veil 'vver every object of earthly may give eternal life to all that thou hast comfort or enjoyment, this opens to us a given him by that covenant, to be redeemed view into the celestial world, and points and saved." But others think, if we allow to him that sits upon the throne and to the sur Lord to be his own interpreter, his Lamb. This knowledge prepares us for words may more directly intend, all those eternal life, and directs us thither. who had been “ drawn” by the Father's In connexion with our Lord's prayer grace to believe on him, chap. vi. 44. (See for his disciples, occurs this remarkable Expos. p. 289.) This, in the first place, expression, which has occasioned much intends the apostles ; and in the next, those theological debate :-“ I pray for thein: I other disciples who had been drawn by the pray not for the world; but for them which same grace also to believe on him. To thou hast given me, for they are thine." them he had manifested the Father's name, The question is, Who constitute the world and to them delivered the Father's mess for which Cbrist did not pray? We apsage, and they had kept his words. But prehend it intends the unbelieving Jewish the petition is afterwards extended to all nation, out of which his own disciples had who should believe in him throughout the been selected ; and, in this view, we may world, and to the end of time.
see a reason why he refused to pray for Unitarian writers lay great stress upon them, for he had charged them with the the third verse, as appropriating the term sin against the Holy Ghost, which, in its "true God” to the l'ather only ; but as own nature, is unpardonable (Matt. xii. most of the augiist epithets applied to God 31, 32, &c.); and concerning which sin, as the Father (including every thing great, many thiuk, the saine Evangelist (1 John and wise, and good) are also applied to v.16) has this remarkable expression_“I the Son (See, for instance, John xxi. 17; do not say that he shall pray for it." These Rev. ii. 23 ; Matt. xviii. 20 ; xxviij. 20,&c.), men also (many of them at least) had, in so we conclude that the term only was not the most awful manner, imprecated upon intended to exclude the Son of God, but themselves the vengeance of the 'Almerely the false gods of the Gentiles, who mightym" His blood be on us and on our had no just title to the name. This may children” (Matt. xxvii. 25); and our Lord seem a little strange to us, who “know accordingly tells them, that upon them that an idol is pothing in the world;" but should come the punishment of “ all the it must have appeared different in that age, righteous blood shed upon the earth, from when the far greater part of the world the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood were accustomed to apply many of the of Zacharias." (Matt. xxiii. 35.) same epithets to Jupiter, and other" guds This, however, does not exclude from major" of the heathen. But, surely, if our Saviour's prayers, or from the Father's Jesus Christ be not truly God, to asso- mercy, all who were then unbelieving, but ciate the knowledge of him with that of only ihe finally impenitent; for we know the Father, and to make it equally essen- that he prayed for his murderers while on tial, is bighly indecorous; and is, if we the cross; and we know also that St. Peter may be allowed to use a commercial term, preached the doctrine of pardon to them on putting the Creator and the creature in the the day of Pentecost; when many “ looksame firm.
ed on him whom they had pierced," and
NOTES. Ver. 17. Sanctify them through thy truth.-Sem Mills and other critics reject the pronoun as une ancient MSS. and versions read, the truth ;'onl necessary.