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The Gospel]


(tolerates no sin. CHAP. VI.

2 God forbid. How shall we, that WHAT shall we say then? shall are dead to sin, live any longer

we continue in sin, that grace therein ? may abound?

3 Know ye not, that so many of

EXPOSITION. only temporal, but also spiritual and eter. selves, so all this is much the stronger, by nal life ; and this hy a resurrection both the opposition in which every one of them spiritual and literal-raising them to new- is put to the effects and benefits of Christ's ness of life here, and to a new and immor- death particularly to our justification tal life bereafter.

through him, in which there is an impu. That all men Jews as well as Gentiles tation of the merits and effects of his death, -are sinners and guilty before God, our that are thereby transferred to us; so that apostle had largely proved in the preceding the whole effect of this discourse is taken part of this Epistle, and he now asserts away, if the imputation of Adam's sin is that their guilt commenced in Adam, and denied. And this explication does certainly therefore extended to all his posterity, who quadrate more entirely to the words of the were alike connected with him. So the Article, as it is known that this was the ninth Article of the Church of England, tenet of those who prepared the Articles, on Original Sin, expressly states that “it it having been the generally received opis is the fault and corruption of the nature of nion from St. Austin's days downward.” every man, that naturally is engendered (Burnett's Expos. Art. 1x.) That this was of the offspring of Adam; whereby man indeed the doctrine of "the Fathers of the is very far gone from original righteous- English Church” is fully evident from the Dess, and is of his own nature inclined to Homilies aud other authentic documents. evil, so that in every person born into this (See Rev. W. Wilson on the Articles.) world it deserveth God's wrath and dam- What follows, with reference to the two nation." -This indeed sounds so harsh to great heads of mankind, Adam and Christ, modern ears, that many have endeavoured requires some explication ; the sin of the to persuade themselves that “God's wrath oue fell upon man universally, and all men and damnation" can mean only the tem- are sinners : the righteousness of the other poral evils of the present life: yet to say (Christ] is offered to the same extent, that infants du not deserve God's wrath, though it avails only to them who by faith and yet do deserve the pains and miseries receive it. Mr. Cox says, that the meanof sickness and of death; or that they ing of the apostle seems to be .... "That suffer without deserving them: either of the Gospel reveals a remedy fully adequate these positions seems equally iuconsistent; to the salvation of all men ; and actually and, if not so shocking to our ears, is no effectual to the salvation of all who do less so to our understanding. The fact is, not wilfully reject the remedy. As far as there are many things in God's moral Christians are concerned, their loss by the government of the world that we can by fall is more tban repaired to them; for no means account for; and if we are not they enjoy a capacity of obtaining [he content to leave them to the explanations might have said a promise of receiving) a of a future state, we may perplex and tor- far greater degree of happiness and glory ment ourselves through life in vain.

than that of Adam in Paradise." The As to the sense of the Scripture now effects of Christ's atonement exceed those

and of the article just cited, we of Adam's sin in some other respects. We copy only a single paragraph from were involved in misery by one trangresBp. Burnett, who has laboured to soften sion ; but are saved from infinite offences, the language of the latter : yet he says— Our misery admitted of a perfect remedy;

As these words [of St. Paul] are posi- but our salvation, when completed, is tive, and of great importance in them- beyond all danger of relapse.


us, shall

NOTES. CHAP. VI. Ver. 1. What shall we say then? - See Note on ch. iii. 4.How shall we, &c.-i.e. Marz, aud Doddr. “What shall we say then ?- How shall we wboare dead to lust live in adultery ? (Shall we say) Let us continue,” &c. Compare How shall we who are dead to the world, live in ebap ül. 8.

the pursuit of its wealth and pleasures ? Ver. 2. God forbid.- Mackn. “ By no means." Ver. 3. Were (twice over)-Doddr. "Have been."

but under grace.

Believers redeemed

ROMANS. [from the service of sin, us as were baptized into Jesus Christ God, as thuse that are alive from the were baptized into his death?

dead, and your members as instru4 Therefore we are buried with him ments of righteousness unto God. by baptism into death: that like as 14 For sin shall not have dominion Christ was raised up from the dead by over you: for ye are not under the law, the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. 15 What then? shall we sin, be

5 For if we have been planted toge- cause we are not under the law, but ther in the likeness of his death, we under grace? God forbid. shall be also in the likeness of his 16 Know ye not, that to whom ye resurrection :

yield yourselves servants to obey, his 6 Knowing this, that our old man servants"ye are to whom ye obey; is crucified with him, that the body of whether of sin unto death, or of obesin might be destroyed, that henceforth dience unto righteousness? we should not serve sin.

17 But God be thanked, that ye 7 For he that is dead is freed from were the servants of sin, but


have sin.

obeyed from the heart that form of 8 Now if we be dead with Christ, doctrine which was delivered you. we believe that we shall also live with 18 Being then made free from sin,

ye became the servants of righteous9 Knowing that Christ being raised ness. from the dead dieth no more ; death 19 I speak after the manner of men hath no more dominion over him. because of the infirmity of your flesh:

10 For in that he died, he died unto for as ye have yielded your members sin once : but in that he liveth, he servants to uncleanness and to iniquity liveth unto God.

unto iniquity ; even so now yield your 11 Likewise reckon ye also your- members servants to righteousness unto selves to be dead indeed unto sin, but holiness. alive unto God through Jesus Christ 20 For when ye were the servants our Lord.

of sin, ye were free from righteous12 Let not sin therefore reign in , ness. your mortal body, that ye should obey 21 What fruit had ye then in those it in the lusts thereof.

things whereof ye are now ashamed? 13 Neither yield ye your members for the end of those things is death.

instruments of unrighteousness 22 But now being made free from untu ein : but yield yourselves unto sin, and become servants to God, ye

him :


NOTES-Chap. VI. Cop. Ver. 4. Into death.- Doddr. and Mackp. “ Into Ver. 17. But God be thanked, that ye were the sete (his) death."

vants of sin.-This is one of the most unhappy transVer. 5. Planted together.-Drs. Wells and Doddr. Jations in the New Testament. Bishop Lowia res“Made to grow together.” Boothroyd, “United ders it, “But thanks be to God, thai (though7 ye together." See Ephes. ii, 21; iv. 15.

were the slaves of sin; yet have ye obeyed from the Ver. 6. Might be destroyed.--Doddr.“enervated," heart the doctrine, on the model of which ye were that it might not destroy us.

formed.” Doddridge translates it to the same effect, Ver. 7. Is freed.-Marg. “ justified.” Doddr. thus—“Thanks be to God, that whereas ye were the says, “ the word here seems to import, being deli. servants of sin, ye have obeyed from the beart the vered from future claims of subjection." So Mackn. model of doctrine into which ye were delivered."

Ver. 10. Died unto sin once. -Doddr.“ Died for The allusion andoubtedly is to the casting of tigures sin once.”

in a mould. Form of doctrine which was deliVer. 13. As instruments.-Margin, arms, or vered you.-The Margin reads, “ whereto ye were weapons," i. e. military instruments.Unto sin- delivered.” So Macknight. i, e. as soldiers armed in the cause of sin. See Note Ver. 19. After the manner of men.-See ch. iii. 5. on chap. v. 21.

Ver. 20. Free from righteousness.-. e. not under Ver. 14. Not under the law, but under grace.-- the control of its precepts. The two dispensations are here contrasted, as in Ver. 21. What fruii had ye, &c.-i. c. what adJohn i. 17,

vantage did ye derive from a life of sinful pleasures?


And from bondage]

[to the law. have your fruit unto huliness, and the if ler husband be dead, she is free end everlasting life.

from that law; so that she is no adul23 For the wages of sin is death; teress, though she be married to anobut the gift of God is eternal life ther man. through Jesus Christ our J.ord. (H) 4 Wherefore, my brethren, ye also

are become dead to the law by the CHAP. VII.

body of Christ ; that ye should be KN NOW ye not, brethren, (for I married to another, even to him who

speak to them that know the is raised from the dead, that we should law,) how that the law hath dominion bring forth fruit unto God. over a man as long as he liveth?

5 For when we were in the flesh, 2 For the woman which hath an the motions of sins, which were by the husband is buund by the law to her law, did work in our members to bring husband so long as he liveth; but if forth fruit unto death. the husband be dead, she is loosed 6 But now we are delivered from from the law of her husband.

the law, that being dead wherein we 3 So then if, while her husband were held ; that we should serve in liveth, she be married to another man, newness of spirit, and not in the oldshe shall be called an adulteress: but ness of the letter.


as a man dead and buried is from all the (H) Ver. 1-23. We must not live in sin, concerns of the present life. The consenor suffer it to reign in us.-By a strong quence of wbich was, that they who bad and beautiful imagery here introduced, formerly been the slaves of sin, and labelievers are said to be crucified, dead and boured only for the wages of eternal death, buried with Christ, by their baptism and were now enlisted as volunteers in the Christian profession, in which indeed the service of their Redeemer; and so far from early Christians were often exposed to living in sin, as had been slanderously martyrdom : but the figures used may reported, they had for ever renounced both farther intimate, 1. Their spiritual union its service and its delights : all the memFith Christ as the members of his mystical bers of their body were turned into body, “ growing together, more and

weapons against the enemy of their souls. more, into intimate union and communion And being now liberated from sin, and with him. 2. Their tender sympathy in become the servants of God, they were his sufferings and death, their lively joy bringing forth the fruits of loliness, which in his resurrection, and the influence of would end in nothing short of everlasting both in mortifying the flesh and sin, and life ; and their continual prayer isin raising them io newness of life, and animating them with the prospect of “O for a heart submissive, meek, future and everlasting felicity. 3. Their My dear Redeemer's throne ; increasing conformity to his sufferings and Where only Christ is heard to speak, death, by being crucified to the world, and Where Jesus reigns alone." separated from its criminal pleasures, even

NOTES. Ver. 23. The wages of sin is death. The term is dead to the Mosaic law, and the law to him, as Wages,” according to Macknight, is an allusion to all hopes of salvation from it. partienlarly to the pay of soldiers. Sin is here de- Ver. 5. When we were in the flesh. -We underSeribed as a tyrant,

whose service is sure to end in stand by this expression, an unconverted state. misery and death ; Jesus, as a conqueror, bestowing The motions of sins.-Marg." sinful passions."the rich reward of eternal life and happiness. The Which were by the law._" By the law was the death here mentioned must certainly be more than knowledge of sin,” chap. iii. 20. So here, ver. 7.

Fruit unto death-i. e. deadly fruits, or wicked

works, in opposition to good works, or fruit towards CHAP. VII. Ver. 1. As long as he liveth-Doddr. God. us JT liveth,” meaning the lan: but

by the gospel Ver. 6. In nenness of spirit-i. e. in a new and the relation is dissolved on both sides. The Christian spiritual manner. Cox.


The contest between


[the flesh and spirit, 7 What shall we say then ? Is the 15 For that which I do I allow not: law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had for what I would, that do I pot; but not known sin, but by the law: for 1 what I hate, that do I. had not known lust, except the law 16 If then I do that which I would had said, Thou shalt not covet. not, I consent unto the law that it is

8 But sin, taking occasion by the good. commandment, wrought in me all 17 Now then it is no more I that do manner of concupiscence. For without it, but sin that dwelleth in me. the law sin was dead.

18 For I kuow that in me (that is, 9 For I was alive without the law in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing : once : but when the commandment for to will is present with me ; but how came, sin revived, and I died.

to perform that which is good I find 10 And the commandment, which not. was ordained to life, I found to be 19 For the good that I would I do unto death.

not: but the evil which I would not, 11 For sin, taking occasion by the that I do. commandment, deceived me, and by it 20 Now if I do that I would not, it slew me.

is no more I that do it, but sin that 12 Wherefore the law is holy, and dwelleth in me. the commandment holy, and just, and 21 I find then a law, that, when good.

I would du goud, evil is present with 13 Was then that which is good mę. made death unto me? God forbid, 22 For I delight in the law of God But sin, that it might appear sin, after the inward man : working death in me by that which is 23 But I see another law in my good ; that sin by the commandment members, warring against the law of might become exceeding sinful.

my mind, and bringing me into capti14 For we know that the law is vity to the law of sin which is in my spiritual : but I am carnal, sold under members. sin.

24 O wretched man that I am!

NOTES-Chap. VII. Con. Ver. 7. Is the law sin ?-i. é. sipful, or inclining Gataker, Doddr., Mackn., and Cox," approve not." us to sin?--I had not known lust-Or what lust Ver. 20. Sin that dwelleth in me.- To illustrate was, namely, that it was an inordinate or unlawful

this passage, Doddr, alludes to the story of Araspes, desire.-Thou shall not covet. See Exod. xx. 17. in Xenophon's Cyropædia, book i., who, on being re Paul here refers to his own experience, were it proved by Cyrus for some improper conduct toward not for his knowledge of law, he would not Panthæa, replied—" Alas! now I know myself, and have known the criminality of lust.

perceive plainly that I have tno souls ; one that it Ver. 8. Concupiscence.-Mackn. " strong desire," clines me to good, and the other to evil: in your which here means lust, and is so rendered in the preceding verse.

presence the former prevails, but when I am aloze, Ver. 9. I was alive, &c.-Notwithstanding what Ver. 24. The body of this death.-Marg. " this is said in the Exposition, we do not think this body of death," alluding to a cruel custom of fastenproves the speaker to be either Jew or Gentile, buting the living to the dend. Doddr. says-" It is a converted man. Before he understood the law in well known that some ancient writers knention this its spirituality, as explained by our Lord in Matt. v.

as a cruelty, practised by some tyrants on miserable 28, he was "alive" and well; or, as our Lord ex- captives who fell into their hands; and a moore presses it, he was, like other Pharisees," whole, forcible and expressive image of the case represented. needing no physician,” Matt. ix. 12: but when the cannot surely enter into the mind of man." That law came,"' i. c. appeared to him as it really is, he such a cruelty was once practised is certain from

« sick ;" he felt the danger be was in, and. Virgil:“died," as to all hope of life or salvation thereby.

Ver. 10. Which was ordained to life. - See What words can paint those execrable times; chap. x. 5.

The subjects' sufferings, and the tyrant's crimes! Ver. 13. Might become-i.e. might evidently ap- The living and the dead at his comioand, pear-exceeding sinful- i. e. in its true colours Were coupled, face to face and hand to band : altogether criminal and inexcusable.

Till choakd with stench, in loath'd embraces tied, Ver. 14. The law is spiritual.-See on verse 9. The ling'ring wretches pined away and died. Ver. 15. I allow not.-Margin, “ know not."

Dryden's Virg. En, täi. 632.


And the triumph)

(of the latter, who shall deliver me from the body of Christ our Lord. So then with the this death?

mind I myself serve the law of God; 25 I thank God through Jesus but with the flesh the law of sin. (I)


tween the flesh and spirit-the old and new (1) Ver. 1--25. The law of Moses com- man. Many learned commentators are of pared to that of marriage, and the Christ- opinion tbat the Apostle here speaks not ian's deliverance therefrom :-the contest in his own, but in a borrowed character; between the flesh and spirit -The law of and the great majority of them, among marriage was originally ordained for life, whom are Drs. Hanmond, Taylor, and and no law cau follow us beyond the grave. Macknigbt, consider bim as speaking in Even the law of Moses, to which the Jews the character of an unconverted Jew. Mr. had been married by the Sinai Covenant, Alex. Pirie, however (certainly a very inhad dominion over a man no longer than genious writer), though he admits the be lived. But this law was become meta- personification, is confident that the obphorically dead, as to any authoritative jector could by no means be a native command over them, upon their being Hebrew. Could a Jew born and bred, he married to Christ by faith. So, on the asks, say, “I was alive without the law other hand, they were dead to the law, no once?" He thinks that impossible; and longer louking to it for justification or concludes, therefore, that the objector eternal life. This mode of reasoning, must have been a Gentile proselyted to the though it may appear to us somewhat ob- Jewish faith, whereby he became married scure, was perfectly familiar and intelli- to the Mosaic law, to which he had forgible to the Jews, and we shall find seve- merly been a stranger, but was now brought ral similar examples in Paul's Epistles, under the yoke of all its ceremonies. and especially in those to the Galatians This certainly is a plausible conjecture, and to the Hebrews.

but it is a conjecture only; and some The first part of this chapter seems ad- things here said are as inapplicable to a dressed particularly to Jewish converts-- proselyte as to a Jew, or indeed to any but "I speak (says be) to them that know the a true convert to Cbrist and Christianity. law"--and of these there were probably It is plain the speaker was a convinced many, as a great number of Jews resided sinoer, for he says (ver. 11) that sin had in Rome. And when Paul adverts to him- “deceived him," and that the law bad self and to b. own experience, it must be re- “ slain him.” He was convinced that in membered that he also was a Jew, and bor.. himself, naturally, there dwelt nothing under the Mosaic law. The great majority good. He felt within him the struggle of of members might be, however, Gentile the contrary principles of flesh and spirit converts, who had lived under the law of-of good and evil : his flesh or corrupt Nature oply, to which they were as much nature tempting him to sin, whilst in his wedded as were the Jews to the Mosaic new or regenerate nature be delighted in law; that is, they expected life and sal- the law of God; and though he confessed vation therefrom : Paul therefore now ads and bewailed his union to that corrupt verts to this, and shows that, as a covenant nature which was a body of sin anıl death, of life, they must be divorced from that yet he thanked God, through Jesus Christ, also, though not as a rule of life, in which ibat notwithstanding all his temptations respect the obligation of the moral law is and his failures, with the heart and mind universal and eternal: and therefore Paul he “served the law of God.” Now, then, himself still obeyed it with his heart and whether the apostle spake this “of him. mind, potwithstanding the leanings of bis self, or of some other man," that man corrupt nature to flesh and sin.

must have been converted by the grace of But the chief difficulty in the chapter" God. But it is equally plain that he spake Dow before us relates to the contest be- this of himself only for wbat can be

NOTES. Ver. 25. Bat-Doddr. “ though ;” (Gr. de) A more full, and, we think, a complete justification with the flesh, &c.-Mackn. and others read these of the application of this chapter to Paul's own case, words in the interrogative, but, we think, in direct may be found in Dr. Gill's Cause of God and Truth contradiction to the apostle's train of argument. See

vol. I, p. 397—105. the opening of chap. viii.

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