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[with Pharaoh. 17 For the Scripture saith unto fering the vessels of wrath fitted to de Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose struction: have I raised thee up, that I might 23 And that he might make known shew my puwer in thee, and that my the riches of his glory on the vessels of name might be declared throughout mercy, which he had afore prepared all the earth.
unto glory ; 18 Therefore hath he mercy on 24 Even us, whom he hath called, whom he will have mercy, and whom not of the Jews only, but also of the he will he hardeneth.
Gentiles ? 19 Thou wilt say then unto me, Why 25 As he saith also in Osee, I will doth he yet find fault? For who hath call them my people, which were not resisted his will ?
my people; and her beloved, which 20 Nay but, О man, who art thou was not beloved. that repliest against God? Shall the 26 And it shall come to pass, that thing formed say to him that formed in the place where it was said unto it, Why hast thou made me thus? them, Ye are not my people; there
21 Hath not the potter power over shall they be called the children of the the clay, of the same lump to make living God. one vessel unto honour, and another 27 Esaias also crieth concerning unto dishonour?
Israel, Though the number of the 22 What if God, willing to shew children of Israel be as the sand of the his wrath, and to make his power sea, a remnant shall be saved : known, endured with much long-suf- 28 For he will finish the work, and
EXPOSITION-Chap. IX. Continued. posterity of Jacob; nor “because they vidual; but the result of mere favour. This are the seed of Abraham, are they there- instance of the divine conduct is here fore all children” of the promise, for the given to show, that neither the blessings promise was limited to the seed of Isaac, of providence nor grace are given in consaying, “in Isaac shall thy seed be called.” sideration of human merit ; but, accordAnd, again, when Isaac had two children, ing to his own words,,“ I will have mercy the younger was preferred : “ Jacob have on whom I will have mercy.” So God I loved, but Esau have I hated.” We have, bestows or withholds his favours as he however, before had occasion to observe, thinks proper; and salvation is "pot of him on Luke xiv. 26, that the term hate is not that willeth, nor of him that runnetb;" always to be taken absolutely, for no man that is, the blessivgs of providence, and, is bound to hate his own flesh ;" but the by analogy, those of grace also, depend text before us is quoted from Mal. i. 3, not on man, but on Gud only. To apply where it evidently means that God loved this doctrine to the argument before us, Jacob in a sense in which he did not love the dispensation of the Gospel was given Esau ; and gave to his posterity the land neither to Jews nor Gentiles under any of Canaan, with many privileges that were consideration of their merits or deservings; given to no other nation. And this prefer- but merely because such was the good ence of Jacob to Esau, was declared before pleasure of God, who claims the right to the birth of either, that it might not be sup- confer his blessings as he pleases. posed dependant on the conduct of the incli
NOTESẠChap. IX. Con.
Ver. 20. Thou that repliest against God.-Marg. Ver. 25. In Osee.- i. e." in Hosea,"chap. ii, 23. “ Answerest again, or disputest with God." See Ver, 26. Ye are not, &c.-Hosea i. 10. Isa. xlv. 9,
Ver. 27. Though ihe number.-Isa. I. 22. 23. Ver. 21. Hath not the potter. Dnddr. remarks, This is quoted, with a slight variation, from the lis. that Plutarch has used the same similitude. But Ver. 28. Finish the work - Marg. " the account. see Jer. xviii. 6.
Doddr." cutting short his account, &c.--Upon tá Ver. 22. Fitted.-Marg. " Made up." The ori. earth-or"land;" namely, of Israel. ginal, being in the middle voice, implies, that they
The calling of the]
[Gentiles foretold. cut it short in righteousness because 31 But Israel, which followed after a short work will the Lord make upun the law of righteousness, hath not atthe earth.
tained to the law of righteousness. 29 And as Esaias said before, Ex- 32 Wherefore? Because they sought cept the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a it nut by faith, but as it were by the seed, we had been as Sodoma, and works of the law. For they stumbled been made like unto Gomorrha.. at that stumbling-stone;
30 What shall we say then? That 33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in the Gentiles, which followed not after Sion a stumbling-stone and rock of righteousness, have attained to righte- offence: and whosoever believeth on ousness, even the righteousness which him shall not be ashamed. (P) is of faith.
EXPOSITION. (P) Ver. 17–33. God's judgments on ordinary influence of second causes, which Pharaoh and the unbelieving Jews, and causes would not have been productive of his mercy to the Gentiles.-Another case, such effects but for their depravity. The of a nature somewhat different, is now bardness of clay, no less than the softness brought forward in the person of Pharaoh, of wax, is ascribed to the sun ; yet the King of Egypt. There were possibly other sun's producing either of these effects is kings as wicked as Pharaoh, and equally entirely owing to the qualities of the object meriting the divine displeasure ; but as on which it shiges, God hardened the Jehovah had selected Jacob to display his heart of Pharaoh, by so ordering things gratuitous mercy to himself and his poste- in his providence, that certain cousiderrity, so Pharaoh was raised up by the Al- ations should present themselves to his mighty, in order to display in him the mind when under certain circumstances, divine power as superior to the highest and which (he being righteously given up throne on earth, and the divine wisdom as of God) would be certain to provoke his confounding even that of Egypt: that tbus pride and resentment, and to determine the name of Jehovah might be “declared him to run all risks, for the sake of having throughout all the (then known habitable) his will. In other words, God led him into earth.”. And comparing this instance temptation, and there, in just judgment, with that of Jacob above mentioned, in left him to its influence.” (Fuller's Harm. the one (Jacob), the God of Israel exhi- of Script. p. 25.) bited his sovereignty in showing mercy to But here arises an objection-If God whom he pleased, and preparing him as a hardens the hearts of sinners, “Why doth vessel of mercy for his glory; and in the be yet find fault?"-" The apostie had other (Pharaob), by making his power justly concluded (says Mr. Cox) that God known, after much long-suffering, in exe- might bestow his favours on whom and ac, cuting his wrath on those who had pre- cording to what terms he judged fit, and viously fitted theinselves for destruction, as permit those who rejected such terms to was the case with Pharaoh.
be hardened. A caviller might, however, It is indeed said of the Lord, in ver. 18, object that the continuance of the Jews in that “whom he will he hardeneth ;" and, a state of disobedience, was the consein the history of Pharaoh, it is repeatedly quence of the determination of God to remarked (in Exodus ch. ix. 12; x. 1, &c.), leave them to themselves; and hence that the Lord " hardened Pharaoh's heart." might arrogantly demand, How God could In addition to what we have there re- still find fault with them? To such an marked on this event, we now add the fol- objector the apostle indignantly rejoins, lowing observation from the late judicious Nay, but, o man, who art thou,' with all Mr. Fuller. "God is said to do that which thy imagined wisdom and discerament, is done upon the minds of men by the who enterest into a debate with God ?'
NOTES. Ver. 29. Esaias said before-Isa. 1.9.-Lord of the prize, which was righteousness, or jastification; Sabaoth-i. e." of hosts." Sodoma, or Sodom. which the unbelieving Jews lost by stumbling, Ver. 30. Which followed not after.
–The terms Verse 32. here used are agosistical. To“ follow after,” or pur. Ver. 33. As it is written.--Isa, xxviii. 16.--She was to engage in the races--to attain, was to gain Ashamed. - Marg. * confounded.”
[of the law ousness which is of the law, That the CHAP. X
man which doeth those things shall
live by them. BRETHREN, my heart's desire 6 But the righteousness which is of
and prayer to God for Israel is, faith speaketh on this wise, Say not that they might be saved.
in thine heart, Who shall ascend into 2 For I bear them record that they heaven ? (that is, to bring Christ down have a zeal of God, but not according from above :) to knowledge.
7 Or, Who shall descend into the 3 For they being ignorant of God's deep? (that is, to bring up Christ righteousness, and going about to esta- again from the dead.) blish their own righteousness, have not 8 But what saith it? The word is submitted themselves unto the righte- nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in ousness of God.
thy heart : that is, the word of faith, 4 For Christ is the end of the law which we preach; for righteousness to every one that be- 9 That if thou shalt confess with lieveth.
thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt 5 For Moses describeth the righte- believe in thine heart that God hath
EXPOSITION—Chap. IX. Continued. If God for a season spare wicked persons, Some learned men, indeed, wish to conwho, by filling up the measure of their fine all that is here said to the dealings of iniquities, have fitted themselves for de- Providence with pations only, on which struction, that he may deduce greater Mr. Scott remarks-" It is wonderful ebat good for those who, by his grace, are pre- the great Mr. Locke should confidently pared for glory, viz. for the believing Gen- assert, that the apostle here speaks of men tiles, as well as for the remuant of be- nationally, and not personally, in reference lievers among the Jews,-have the repu- to their eternal state ; when the rejection diated Jews any reason to complain? of the Jewish nation, with the reservation May not a sovereign, without injustice, of 'a remnant, according to the election delay the execution of a criminal, if such of grace,' was the apostle's main subject, delay appear to him likely to be beneficial to illustrate which all the other examples to his obedient subjects, and calculated to are introduced. This remnant consisted subserve some important purpose for the of a small number of individuals, not of welfare of his kingdom in general ? God a nation ; and the Gentile converts were had thus acted in the case of Pharaoh, individuals out of their several nations, and He was about to do the same in the forming, with the Jewish converts, the case of the Jews. The apostle then shows Christian Church: and not whole nations that the calling of the Gentiles in general, or one whole nation chosen, as a collective and the rejection of many of the Jews for body, to succeed to the external adlranitheir unbelief, had been plainly predicted tages, which the nation of Israel had forby the prophets, so that any objections feited : and surely the vessels of mercy which the Jews might raise against the before prepared unto glory,' which the equity of the divine proceedings, in these apostle next mentions, must have been respects, would at once be futile and anti- chosen, not to external advantages, but to scriptural."
NOTES CHAP. X. Ver. 4. The end.- Doddr. "scope and Lowth thinks that Moses here alludes to a custom design." Beza thinks Christ is so called, because of the Egyptians, who buried their dead on the other by his death he hath procared that justification for side of a lake, in what they called " the isles of the sinners through faith, which the law proposed to blessed." Lect. ix. bestow through works. Mackn. “ the end or pur. Ver 8. The word is nigh thee.--" Things obscure, pose for which the law was given, nainely (by its or difficult to be obtained (says Mr. Cox), were retypes, &c.), to lead the Jews to believe in Christ."
presented by the Jews as being far off; whereas Ver. 6. Moses describeth.-See Levit. xviii. 5. such as were plain, or easily attainable, were said
Ver. 6. Who shall ascend. See Deut. xxx, 11-14, to be nigh." and Exposition.
Ver. 9. The Lord Jesus.- Doddr. « Jesus the Ver. 1. Into the deep.-(Greek abyss.) Dr. Camp- Lord." bell refers it to hades, the world of spirits. Bishop
And of faith)
[contrasted. raised him from the dead, thou shalt bring glad tidings of good things ! be saved.
16 But they have not all obeyed 10 For with the heart man believeth the Gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, unto righteousness; and with the who hath believed our report? mouth confession is made unto sal- 17 So then faith cometh by hearvation.
ing, and hearing by the word of 11 For the scripture saith, Whoso - God.
. ever believeth on him shall not be 18 But I say, Have they not heard ? ashamed.
Yes verily, their sound went into all 12 For there is no difference be- the earth, and their words unto the tween the Jew and the Greek : for the ends of the world. same Lord over all is rich unto all that 19 But I say, Did not Israel know? call upon him.
First Moses saith, I will provoke you 13 For whosoever shall call upon to jealousy by them that are no people, the name of the Lord shall be saved. and by a foulish nation I will anger
14 How then shall they call on him you. in whom they have not believed ? and 20 But Esaias is very bold, and how shall they believe in him of whom saith, I was found of them that sought they have not heard ? and how shall me not; I was made manifest unto they hear without a preacher ?
them that asked not after me. 15 And how shall they preach, ex- 21 But to Israel he saith, All day rept they be sent? as it is written, long I have stretched forth my
hands How beautiful are the feet of them unto a disobedient and gainsaying that preach the Gospel of peace, and people. (R)
predestinarians rank among the most (2) Ver. 1-21. Puul farther distin- zealous and active propagators of the Gosguishes between the law and the gospel, and pel. St. Paul himself, who had written shows that the call of the Gentiles had been more in the support of this truth than all foretold. It has been said that the doctrine the other writers of the New Testament, of predestination has a tendency to liarden was certainly not exceeded by any of them the heart against feelings of tenderness for in the zeal with which he sought the con. our fellow sinners; and to render persons version of both Jews and Gentiles ; and indifferent to their salvation, under the “his heart's desire and prayer to God” for suspicion of their not being elected. But both was, “ that they might be saved.” with God's secret will we have really no But it is to the former class that the concern : "the things that are revealed apostle chiefly addresses himself in tbis belong to us and to our children for ever," and the following chapters, bearing them and our only concern with them is, to record “that they had a zeal for God," believe and to obey them : “to do all the that is, for their religion ; but it was “not words" of God's blessed book. (See Deut. according to knowledge. They were Ixix. 29, and Expos.) Among those pre- ignoraut even of the great and importCepts, some of the first and most import. ant doctrine of justification, and being ant are, to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ ignorant of God's righteousness, that is, ourselves, and to recommend faith in him the righteousness wbich he had provided and obedience to his will, so far as our in his Son, they went about seeking to meaos extend, to all our fellow sinners. establish their own righteousness ; whereas And without attempting any invidious com- he assures them that “ Christ is the end parison, it cannot be devied that many of the law;" as in him was exhibited the
NOTES. Ver. 11. Shall not be ashamed.-See chap.'ix. 33. Ver. 18. Their sound, &c.-See Psalm xix. 4. Ver. 12. Lord over all.-Doddr.“ Lord of all.” So Ver. 19. Moses saith. -Deut. xxxii. 21. the Greek. Compare cb. x. 36.
Ver. 20. Esaias.-See Isa. !xv. 1, 2.-Is very Ver. 13. Whosoever shall call.-See Joel ii. 32 ; bold-i.e. open and plain in his predictions. Com. and Compare Acts ii. 21.
pare 2 Cor. iii, 12,
I finally rejected, CHAP. XI.
seven thousand men, who have not
bowed the knee to the image of Baal. I SAY then, Hath God cast away 5 Even 60 then at this present time
his people? God forbid. For I also there is a remnant according to also am an Israelite, of the seed of the election of grace. Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 6 And if by grace, then is it no
2 God hath not cast away his peo- more of works : otherwise grace is no ple which he foreknew. Wot ye not more grace. But if it be of works, what the Scripture saith of Elias? then is it no more grace: otherwise how he maketh intercession to God work is no more work, against Israel, saying,
7 What then? Israel hath not ob3 Lord, they have killed thy pro- tained that which he seeketh for; but phets, and digged down thine altars; the election hath obtained it, and the and I am left alone, and they seek rest were blinded,
8 (According as it is written, God 4 But what saith the answer of God hath given them the spirit of slumber
, unto him? I have reserved to myself eyes that they should not see, and
EXPOSITION-Chap. X. Continued. perfection of the moral law, and the fulfil- when he exclaimed, “Who hath believed ment of the ceremonial.
our report?" &c. (See Isaiah liji, 1, and In what follows, the apostle refers to the Expos.) farewell discourse of Muses to the Israelites, From the preceding premises the apostle in which he speaks of the faws which be draws this general inference, that "faith had delivered, as not so high that they comes by hearing, and hearing by the word must be again fetched from heaven, as at of God;" that word, that is, the Gospel, Sinai; nor so foreign and obscure that must therefore be universally promulgated, the deep must be fathomed for them; but as like the sunbeams which shine from east brought near, that is, rendered easy and to west, and from one extremity of the familiar to them: so God had “brought world to the other : and has not this been near his righteousness for their salvation.” accomplished ? Even at the time when (Isa. xlvi. 13.) After exhibiting it in the the apostle wrote, he and his colleagues types and figures of the law at a distance, had been employed nearly thirty years in he had now, in the Gospel, applied it home preaching; and churches had been founded to their hearts and consciences, saying, not only in Jerusalem and Judea, but af “If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Rome, Corinth, Ephesus, and in most Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart parts of the Roman empire; so that, it that God hath raised him from the dead, his Epistle to the Colossians, not long after thou shalt he sayed.” Kuowledge is, how- this, he tells them, as he does the Romani ever, necessary previous to faith; it is ne- here, that it had spread into all the world cessary, therefore, that the Gospel should (Col. i. 6), meaning (of course) so far as be preached to both Jews and Gentiles; it was then known. and those who feel their need of it, and its Nor were the Jews theinselves unap suitableness to their necessities, will bail prized of this, since it was foretold by it with a hearty welcome, and say, with Moses and the prophets in several passages the Prophet Isaiah (ch. lii. 7), “How beau- here referred to; though it must be coli tiful are the feet of ihem that publish it !" fessed that they showed the greatest obstiBut this is not the case with all. Many bacy in refusing to believe or to underwill reject and despise the messengers of stand it, even such of them as had beel mercy, as the prophet himself foresaw, converted to Christianity.
NOTES. CHAP. XI. Ver. 2.. Which he foreknew. See Ver. 7. Israel hath not obtained-i, e, the nation Exposition of chap. viii. 28-30. — Wot ye not- at large hath not obtained salvation. See chap is, i. . Know ye not--what the Scripture sailh of 31, 22.-Were blinded. – Marg. “hardened;" Elias ?-i. c. of Elijah ? -How he maketh inter- namely, by unbelief. cession-i. e. pleadeth, or complaineth. See Note Ver. 8. According as it is written.-Isa. xxix. 20, on chap. viii. 27.- Against Israel.--See 1 Kings Compare Jcho xii, 40, and Note. xix. 11-18.