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But to be restored with] CHAP. XI. [the fulness of the Gentiles. fars that they should not hear ;) unto 12 Now if the fall of them be the his day.

riches of the world, and the diminish9 And David saith, Let their table ing of them the riches of the Gentiles; le made a snare, and a trap, and a how much more their fulness? tumbling-block, and a recompence 13 For I speak to you Gentiles, ininto them :

asmuch as I am the apostle of the Gen10 Let their eyes be darkened, that tiles, I magnify mine office: hey may not see, and bow down their 14 If by any means I may provoke ack alway.

to emulation them which are my flesh, 11 I say then, Have they stumbled and might save some of them. hat they should fall? God forbid: 15 For if the casting away of them ut rather through their fall salvation be the reconciling of the world, what

come unto the Gentiles, for to pro- shall the receiving of them be, bit oke them to jealousy.

life from the dead? (R)


But let us examine St. Paul's own state(R) Ver. 1-15. The Jews not finally ment.-That God had finally and totally ist off by God; but a remnant of them rejected his beloved nation, is a propoall be saved, together with the Gentiles. sition of which the apostle refuses for r. Locke gives us the subject of this a moment to admit the thought-“God teresting chapter in the few following forbid !” In former instances, indeed, les :-" St. Paul, in this chapter, goes when Israel fell into idolatry, they were I to show the future state of the Jews sent into captivity and bondage for a cerid Gentiles, as to Christianity, viz. that tain time, but restored on their repentance : ough the Jews were, for their unbelief, now they have rejected the Messiah, such jected, and the Gentiles taken in their a crime cannot be less severely punished, om to be the people of God, yet there hut demands far heavier judgments. Then is a few of the Jews that believed in they were sent to Egypt or to Babylon; Orist, and so a small remnant' of them now they shall be scattered over the face ntinued to be God's people, being incor- of the whole earth : still, however, while rated with the converted Gentiles into on earth, they are not beyond the reach of e Christian Church. But when the mercy. In the first place we see, as in Iness of the Gentiles is come in (see former instances of apostacy from God, r. 25, 26), the whole nation of them (as even now (that is, in the apostolic age) is ingenious commentator thinks) shall there is a considerable “remnant" saved, converted to the Gospel, and again be “according to the election" of grace, as had itored to be the people of God."

formerly been the case in the Babylonish Some have, indeed, supposed that what captivity. (Isa. x. 21, 22.) And, at a said by St. Paul, both here and else- future period, when “the fulness of the lere, of the conversion of the Jews, Gentiles shall be brought in," then the ght relate to those converted in the first body of the Jews, as a nation, shall be ppagation of the Gospel; but it is au converted also, and thus "all Israel shall portant observation of Dr. W. Harris, be saved.” it this Epistle was written, as above re- The strain of the apostle's reasoning in irked, about thirty years after that event. this chapter is, by Dr. Macknight, thus id supposiog it to have reference to some elucidated :-"Our Lord baving declared ure timne, no event has since occurred to the chief priests and elders, .... that ich can reasonably be considered as its the kingdom of God was to be taken from filment.

them and given unto the Gentiles (Matt.

NOTES. 'er. 9. And David saith.-See Ps. Ixix. 22, 23; Ver. 12. The riches of the world-i. e. the defeccom pare Acts i. 20.

tion of the Jews enriched other nations, by making 'er. il. That they should.-The terms “ut the Gentile Church the depository of divine truth. y," or "irrecoverably," or " for ever,” are by and of Christian privileges. The diminishing, nmentators in general here understood, or sup. Marg. “ decay, or loss.”

d: and the sense evidently requires this; for Ver. 13. The apostle of the Gentiles-i. e. exte 15 speaks of their being raised up again, and, pressly deputed to preach the gospel to them. See ourse, their fall could not be final,

Acts ix, 16, &c.

Israel's final restoration] ROMANS. { predicted by the prophets:

16 ( For if the firstfruit be holy, the 23 And they also, if they abide not lump is also holy: and if the root be in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for holy, so are the branches.

God is able to graff them in again. 17 And if some of the branches be 24 For if thou wert cut out of the broken off, and thou, being a wild olive olive tree which is wild by nature, and tree, wert graffed in among them, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a with them partakest of the root and good olive tree: how much more shall fatness of the olive tree;

these, which be the natural branches, 18 Boast not against the branches. be graffed into their own oliveBut if thou boast, thou bearest not the tree? root, but the root thee.

25 For I would not, brethren, that 19 Thou wilt say then, the branches ye should be ignorant of this mystery, were broken off, that I might be graff- lest ye should be wise in your own ed in.

conceits; that blindness in part is hap20 Well; because of unbelief they pened to Israel, until the fulness of the were broken off, and thou standest by Gentiles be come in. faith. Be not high-minded, but fear: 26 And so all Israel shall be saved:

21 For if God spared not the natu- as it is written, There shall come out ral branches, take heed lest he also of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn spare not thee.

away ungodliness from Jacob: 22 Behold therefore the goodness 27 For this is my covenant unto and severity of God: on them which them, when I shall take away their fell, severity ; but toward thee, good. sins. ness, if thou continue in his goodness: 28 As concerning the Gospel, they otherwise thou also shalt be cut off. are enemies for your sakes: but as

EXPOSITION-Chap. XI. Continued. xxi. 43; xxii. 7, &c.), we cannot think as a no less effective instrument for the the Christian preachers would conceal conversion of the Gentiles. The controthese things from their unbelieving bre- versy is needless and unprofitable. It is thren. Stephen seems to have spoken of highly probable these events may be, in a them, Acts v. 13, and St. Paul often. .... great measure, coincident. When it shall Wherefore that the foreknowledge of the please God to “pour out his Spirit from evils which were coming on their brethren on high," the infidelity of both nust yield might not affect the Jewish Christians too to the invincible efficacy of his grace. much, the apostle, in this chapter, com- When the Jews shall witness the conversion forted then that they were not to be total of the Gentile nations among whom they .. (nor) final, but for a limited time only, reside, especially the Hiodoos, the Chinese, to make way for the entering of the Gen- and the Mahometans, it must naturally tiles into the church, by whose reception lead them to reflections on their own infithe Jews at last will be provoked to emu- delity, and may be the means of bringing late them, and will receive the Gospel. them to Christ; at the same time there (ver. 11-16.)"

can be no doubt but that the conversion of Dr. Macknight here evidently considers the Jews, in a body, to Christianity, must, the conversion of the Gentiles, when that with the divine blessing, have a like influshall be accomplished in its full extent, as ence on the heathen, nominal Christians, a powerful means of converting the Jews; and avowed infidels. (See Expos. of Ezek. on the other hand, many consider the con- xxxvi. latter part.) version of the Jewish nation to Christianity

NOTES-Chap. XI. Con. Ver. 16. If the firstfruit be holy. - This may Ver. 25. The fulness of the Gentiles-i. c. the refer to the early Patriarchs and believing Hebrews. general conversion of the heathen, For the allusion, see Num. xv. 20, 21. Abraham Ver. 26. As it is wrillen.- Isa. lix, 20. The quowas the root of the Jewish nation.

tation here is from the lxx. Ver. 17. Among them.- Marg. " for them."

Gentiles not to]


[insult the Jews. touching the election, they are beloved 33 O the depth of the riches both for the fathers' sakes.

of the wisdom and knowledge of God! 29 For the gifts and calling of God how unsearchable are his judgments, are without repentance.

and his ways past finding out! 30 For as ye in times past have not 34 For who hath known the mind believed God, yet have now obtained of the Lord? or who hath been his mercy through their unbelief:

counsellor? 31 Even so have these also now not 35 Or who hath first given to him, believed, that through your mercy they and it shall be recompensed unto him also may obtain mercy.

again? 32 For God hath concluded them 36 For of him, and through him, all in unbelief, that he might have and to him, are all things: to whom mercy upon all.

be glory for ever. Amen. (S)

EXPOSITION. (8) Ver. 16 — 36. Gentiles cautioned [namely, the Jews], that I might he grafted against insulting the Jews; and both called in, Well! (remember] because of unbelief upon to admire and adore the mysteries of they were broken off, and thou standest grace and providence.-If the branches of by faith. Be not, therefore, high minded, Abraham's generous olive-tree be broken but fear, .... lest he also spare not thee. off, and Gentile nations, who were like the Behold, therefore (and at once consider), boughs of the wild olive, grafted in, then the goudness and severity of God !” onght the latter to be doubly careful lest The apostle then compares the calling they should provoke the Almighty, by their of the Gentiles, as founded on the rejection infidelity, in like manner to reject them. of the Jews, to the grafting of the branches Indeed, the calamities which, but a few years of the wild olive into a good and fruitful since, had nearly overwhelmed the French olive-tree : a practice contrary to Nature, nation, ought to be a warning to others and what is never done by man, though against imbibing their infidel priuciples, the opposite is not uncommon. But “God's which are now rapidly spreading in the ways are not our ways:" He can control countries round them; but to wbich there Nature, and command fertility. The is happily a great counteraction in the erec- apostle concludes this interesting discourse tion of Bible, Missionary, and other Reli- with observing, that Jews and Gentiles, in gious Societies on the Continent; and it is their turn, having been disobedient to God, to such Institutions that we look, in God's he hath locked them all up as condemned good time, for the introduction of the glo- crimiuals, that he migbt, in one and the rious period of the Millennium, of wbich same manner, have mercy on all, by we shall have to treat hereafter. In the making them bis people, and bestowing mean time, let us pray that God may not on them, from mere favour, the blessings give to those nations “ the spirit of slum- promised in the covenant with Abraham, ber,” lest they dream away the oppor- ver. 30–32. And being deeply affected tunities of mercy thus afforded them. with the survey which he had taken of

But, to returu to the text before us, we God's dealings with mankind, he cried out, find the apostle concludes all the great as ravished with the grandeur of the view, doctrinal truths which he had advanced, O the riches both of the wisdom and of the with this solemn waroing to us Gentile knowledge of God! How unscarchable are Christians_“ Boast not against the [ori- his judgments, and his ways past finding ginal) branches" of God's church, namely, out? yer. 33, 34, 35. the Jews : “but, if thou dost boast (re- “In this sublime manger hath the apostle member], thou bearest not the root, but finished his discourse concerving the disthe root thee." And if “ Thou wilt say, peosations of religion which have taken The (natural] branches were broken off place in the different ages of the world.


. 29. Without repentance-i. e. God never considered Jews and Gentiles as alike guilty, that Pepents of the grace and favour which he bestows. he might on both display the same mercy.


See John xiii. 1.

chap. lii. 9. Ver. 31 and 31. Believed.-Marg." obeyed." Ver. 31. Who hath known, &c.-See Isa. xl. 13. Ver. 32. Hath concluded all in unbelief.- Marg. Ver. 36. To whom.-Marg. "to lim." " Hatta shut them up together,"' &u.-that is, hath

The preceding topics] ROMANS. (practically improved. CHAP. XII.

us, whether prophecy, let us prophecy

according to the proportion of faith; I BESEECH you therefore, brethren, 7 Or ministry, let us wait on our

by the mercies of God, that ye pre- ministering: or he that teachetb, on sent your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, teaching; acceptable unto God, which is your 8 Or he that exhorteth, on exhortareasonable service.

tion: he that giveth, let him do it 2 And be not conformed to this with simplicity; he that ruleth, with world: but be ye transformed by the diligence; he that sheweth mercy, renewing of your mind, that ye may with cheerfulness. prove what is that good, and accept- 9 Let love be without dissimulation. able, and perfect, will of God. Abhor that which is evil : cleave to

3 For I say, through the grace that which is good. given unto me, to every man that is 10 Be kindly affectioned one to among you, not to think of himself another with brotherly love ; in homore highly than he ought to think; nour preferring one other; but to think soberly, according as God 11 Nut slothful in business ; fervent hath dealt to every man the measure in spirit; serving the Lord; of faith.

12 Rejoicing in hope ; patient in tri4 For as we have many members bulation; continuing instant in prayer; in one body, and all members have not 13 Distributing to the necessity of the same office :

saints; given to hospitality. 5 So we, being many, are one body 14 Bless them which persecute you: in Christ, and every one members one bless, and curse not. of another.

15 Rejoice with them that do re6 Having then gifts, differing ac- joice, and weep with them that weep. cording to the grace that is given to 16 Be of the same mind one to

EXPOSITION-Chap. XI. Continued. And from his account it appears that these their nature is capable: and that, both in dispensations were adapted to the then cir- its progress and its accomplishment, the cumstances of mankind; that they are scheme of man's salvation contributes to parts of a grand design, formed by God, the establishment of God's moral govern for delivering the human race from the ment, and to the displaying of his perfecevil consequences of sin, and for exalting tions in all their lustre to the whole intellithem to the highest perfection of which gent creation.” (Macknight.)

NOTES CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. A living sacrifice. This Ver. 8. With simplicity.-Margin, “ with libeimplies that the body was not to be presented with- rality." So Boothri-He that ruletk-or "preout the sool.

side ih," as Doddr. renders it after Lord Barrington Ver. 2. That ye muy prove.--Doddr. “ experi- but as the same word is in the last chapter (verse 2) mentally know."

applied to Phebe, it probably means a person Ver. 3. The measure of faith.—This refers, pero taking the lead in any department, either of minishaps, to the faith by which they were enabled to terial duty or Christian charity. But see cb. xvi. I. work miracles.

Ver. 16. Be kindly affectioned. --The original Ver. 6. Prophecy-Preaching by inspiration, whe, term, philostorgos, Mr. Cox observes, " is exceedther in the way of prediction, or otherwise. --Ac- ingly expressive ; philos, signifying delight in a cording to the proportion of faith.--"If we sup- thing, and storge, that tender affection which mopose the prophetic gift to be given in proportion to thers naturally bear to their own offspring." the exercise of faith, i.e. dependance on God .... we Ver. 13. Given to hospitality. This was a virtme have, I think, the clearest explication the phrase of primary importance in the East, where there are will admit.” Doddr.

few public inns; and at this time, as Doddridge Ver. 7. Ministry-Literally,“ deaconship.” The observes, it was peculiarly important, as Christians sense appears to us to be, that all the servants of were persecuted both by Jews and heathens. Christ wure to exert themselves to the utmost, in Ver. 16. Be of the same mind.-Cox, " be united their different lines of duty, whether in public or in affection to each other." _Condescend to mer in private - whether as inspired or uninspired of low eslale.--Marg, Be content with me teachers, catechisers, or Scripture readers-all were things :" but we prefer the text, to do their best. So Mr. Cox.

Exhortations to]

[moral virtue. ward another. Mind not high things, selves, but rather give place unto but condescend to men of low estate, wrath : for it is written, Vengeance is Be not wise in your own conceits. mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

17 Recompense to no man evil for 20 Therefore if thine enemy hunevil

. Provide things honest in the ger, feed him; if he thirst, give him sight of all men.

drink : for in so doing thou shalt heap 18 If it be possible, as much as lieth coals of fire on his head. in you, live peaceably with all men. 21 Be not overcoine of evil, but

19 Dearly beloved, avenge not your- overcome evil with good. (T)


The first thing here recommended is (T) Ver. 1-21. A practical exhortation Devotion—and " Devotion (as Mr. Law to devotedness to God." The nature and justly observes) signifies a life given, or excellency of the Gospel having been fully devoted to God.' He, therefore, is the devout developed (says Mr. Cox), the apostle man, who lives no longer to his own will, labours to persuade all professing Christ- or the way and spirit of the world, but to ians (and especially true believers) to act the sole will of God; who considers God in a manner suitable to their high vocation. in every thing, who serves God in every For this purpose he commences by urging thing, who makes all the parts of his upon them the necessity of an entire con- common life parts of piety, by doing every secration of themselves to God, and an thing in the name of God, and under such eargest endeavour to glorify him in their rules as are conformable to his glory." respective stations. I beseech you, brethren, (Serious Call, ch. i.) by the mercies of God, that ye present your

The first instance required of devotedbodies a living sacrifice, holy [and] accept- ness to God, is nonconformity to the world able to God, which is your reasonable ser- -its pleasures, its hopes, and its pursuits : vice. The terms here used are sacrificial, and it is only by a “ transformation"-not and forcibly intimate that, as under the conforming to the world, but unto the temOld Testament dispensation, the burnt per and spirit of Christ Jesus, that we can offerings were wholly the Lord's, property, possibly prove by our own experience what 80 Christians are required to give up them- really is the good, acceptable, and perfect selves entirely to the service of God.” And will of God. And so far is this devotedness this service is most reasonable, both in of heart from implying a neglect or conitself and as compared with other forms of tempt of moral duties, that it is, in fact, worship. It is reasonable in itself, because the only source from which they can arise, thereby we render nothing to God hut what so as to be acceptable to God : for when we have received from him, “our life, our moral, or even religious duties are persoul, our all :” and because we are gainers formed from motives of ostentation, to by the surrender ; for, in giving up our- excite the praise of men; or from views of selves to him as a faithful Creator and as merit in them, and with the mercenary a merciful Redeemer, we know that he will hope of reward, they are so far from being preserve us to that great day, when he will acceptable to God, that they are abhorred by receive his chosen into everlasting felicity. him. Such good works as these consti. (2 Tim. i. 12.)—Viewed comparatively, it tuted the righteousness of the Scribes and is also not only infinitely more reasonable Pharisees; and except our righteousness than any of the Pagan superstitions, but be of a nature far superior to theirs, our also far preferable to the carnal services Lord himself assures us there is no hope of the Jews, which, indeed, owed all their of our acceptance-we" shall iu no case excelleycy to a prospective reference to enter the kingdom of heaven." (Matt. v, Christianity.


NOTES. Ver. 17. Provide things honest - Kala, good, him.-Prov. xxv. 21, 22.- Thou shalt heap coals usefal, profitable. Parkhurst.

of fire, &c.—The expression here quoted from SoVer. 19. It is written.- Deut. xxxii. 35.-Give lomon refers to the method adopted in melting and pluce unto wrath-i. e. submit, and do not return it. purifying certain metals; and is generally explained Leave that to him who hath said-Vengeance is to imply, that the enemy shall by such means be mine - Vengeance here means retributive justice, melted down, but Dr. Whitby explains it to import, as chap. iii. 5.

rather, that ly sach means the Almighty will be ena Ver. 20. Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed gaged to take the sufferer's part. See Bs. cxl. 9, 10,

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