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The duty of subjection] ROMANS.

sto authorities,

7 Render therefore to all their CHAP. XIII.

dues : tribute to whom tribute is due;

custom to whom custom ; fear to whom LET every soul be subject unto the fear; honour to whom honour

. higher powers. For there is no

8 Owe no man any thing, but to power but

God : the powers that be love one another : for he that loveth are ordained of God.

another hath fulfilled the law. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit power, resisteth the ordinance of God: adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou and they that resist shall receive to shalt not steal, Thou shall not bear themselves danınation.

false witness, Thou shalt not covet; 3 For rulers are not a terror to good and if there be any other commandworks, but to the evil. Wilt thou then ment, it is briefly comprehended in not be afraid of the power? do that this saying, namely, Thou shalt love which is good, and thou shalt have thy neighbour as thyself. praise of the same:

10 Love worketh no ill to his neigh4 For he is the minister of God to

bour : therefore love is the fulfilling of thee for good. But if thou do that

the law. which is evil, be afraid ; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the

11 And that, knowing the time, minister of God, a revenger to execute that now it is high time to awake out wrath upon him that doeth evil. of sleep: for now is our salvation 5 Wherefore ye must needs be sub

nearer than when we believed. ject, not only for wrath, but also for 12 The night is far spent, the day conscience sake.

is at hand : let us therefore cast off the 6 For, for this cause pay ye tribute works of darkness, and let us put on also : for they are God's ministers, at- the armour of light. tending continually upon this very 13 Let us walk honestly, as in the thing

day; not in rioting and drunkenness,

EXPOSITION—Chap. XII. Continued. The duties principally bere enjoined are which is the peculiar glory of Christianity, humility, and especially a low and modest however despicable it may appear to carnal estimation of our spiritual gifts and graces men, the rendering good for evil. (ver. 3-8): sincere and intense affection io the brethren : vigour, and activity, and

Tender and kind be all our thoughts; fervent zeal in the service of Christ :

Through all our lives let mercy run:

So God forgives our numerous faults, Christian sympathy and charity to the af- For the dear sake of Cbrist, bis Son." ficted and necessitous : and that duty


NOTES CHAP. XUI. Ver. 1. The higher powers-i. e. Ver. 6. Upon this very thing.- Poddr." to this one " the supreme authority," whether it be vested in affair." the people, or the nobles, or the sovereign, or be Ver. 7. Fear to whom fear.-Doddr," Reverence shared among these three orders, or whatever form to whom reverence.” of government may be established. Mackn. “ No Ver. 9. For this, Thou shalt not, &c.-Compart power but of God-i. e. derived from him, and or- Matt, xix. 18, 19, xxii. 39, 40. dained by him. Marg." appointed by him.".

Ver. 11. It is high time - Mackn, “ It is already Ver. 2. They that resist --Namely, the lawful the bour."--Our sairation is nearer-i. e. the exercise of authority, of whatever nature the go- completion of it-than when we believed-i. e, thep vernment may be.Shall receive .... damnation. wben we (first) believed. So Doddridge, Cox, &c. -(Gr. kerima.) Doddr, and Cox, " Condemnation." Ver. 13. Let us walk honestly.-Marg.

i des Mackn.“ Punishment." Bootbr. “ Judgment." cently." Dodur." bonourably."- Not in rioting.

Ver. 3. Rulers are not a terror-i, e. such is not Mackn. " revelling." The Greek (komois) denotes the design for which they are appointed.

feasting, with lascivious songs and dances in honoer Ver. 4. A revenger,- Doddr. * An avenger." of Bacchus.

And other]


[Christian duties. not in chambering and wantonness, Christ, and make not provision for the not in strife and envying.

flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof. (U) 14 But put ye on the Lord Jesus

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dressing the people of Rome, Paul makes (U) Ver. 1-14. St. Paul enforces obe- choice of an ainbiguous expression, dience to civil authorities, and to all their higher powers, without specifically deterjust dues.-We agree with the venerable miving what those powers were.' (Essay and pious Mrs. Hannah More, that “the on the Character of St. Paul, vol. ii. Gospel was never intended to dissolve the chap. 16.) ancient ties between sovereigo and subject, In citing these remarks from Mrs. More, master and servant, parent and child, but we would add with her, that “we are not rather to draw them closer, to strengthen advocating the cause of passive obedience ;” a natural by a lawful and moral obligation for it would be quite as inconsistent with As the charge of disaffection was from the the mild and peaceable spirit of Christianity, first most injurious to the religion of Jesus, to advocate the cause of arbitrary power it is obvious why the apostle (Paul) was so in a land of liberty, as ours happily is, as frequent and so earnest in vindicating it it would have been for Paul to have advofrom this calumny. It is apparent from cated the cause of Republicanism under every part of the New Testament, that our the Roman empire. Our readers, as BriLord never intended to introduce any tons, may justly admire and commend the change into the civil government of Judea, happy Constitution under which we live; where be preached, nor into any part of but it is no part of our duty, as Christians, the world to which bis religion might to recommend it to France or Spain. As extend. As his object was of a nature Paul claimed the privileges of a Roman specifically different, his discourses were citizen, so may we those of Britons; and, always directed to that other object. His in a country like this, loyalty is a cheap politics were uniformly conversant about his virtue, as we have less tempiation to the own kingdom, which was not of this world. contrary than any other nation under If he spake of human governments at all, heaven. Our obedience, therefore, while it was only incidentally, as circumstauces nothing contrary to our consciences is enoccurred, and as it gave himn occasion to forced, ought to be voluntary, cheerful, display or enforce some act of obedience. and uniform; and as St. Paul, as well as He discreetly entangled the Pharisees in his Divine Master, enjoins the paying tri. the insidious net which they had spread bute to Cesar, we should scorn to avoid, for bin, by directing, in answer to their by any mean evasion, our just proportion etisoaring question, that the things which to the expenses of the State ; or to defraud belonged even to the sovereign whom they the public revenue, by encouraging smugdetesied [the Roman Emperor] should be gling or any illicit commerce. rendered to him.

tices, however lightly they may be thought “St. Paul exhibited at once a striking of by some professors, are equally contrary proof of the soundness of his own prin- to the gospel and to the law : and how ciples and of the peaceable character of those who practice them cau atiempt to Christianity, in his full and explicit expo- claim the protection of the government to sition of the allegiance due to the ruling their persons and their property, is utterly powers. It is observable, that in the very unaccountable. short period from the origin of Christianity, Next to obedience to governors, St. Paul under Augustus, to the time at which St. enforces the principles of equity between Paul wrote, there were four successive man aud man, comprehending the preRoman Emperors, each of whom was worse cepts of the second table, all of which the thau the preceding, as if it had been pro- apostle comprehends, as his Master liad videutially so determined, as a test of the before dove, in one word, “ Thou shalt meek and quiet spirit of Christianity, whose love thy neighbour as thyself.” followers never manifested resistance to The conclusion of the chapter is partiany of these oppressive masters. St. Paul cularly animated aud beautiful. Considerknew how to unite a respect for the go. ing mankind, and even in a great measure vernment with a just abhorrence of the professing Christians, as sleeping in ignovices of the governor.” In this instance rance and sin, the apostle admonishes Mrs. More further remarks, no governor them that their night is nearly ended, and is named ; and as the Roman emperor and the hour is come to awake to the service senate did not always act iu concurrence, of God, and cast off the works of darkness with his usual exquisite prudence, in ad- (as the rising sun dissipates the shades of

Such prac

The duty of )



eateth not, and giveth God thanks. CHAP, XIV.

7 For none of us liveth to himself,

and no man dieth to himself. HIM that is weak in the faith re- 8 For whether we live, we live unto

ceive ye, but not to doubtful dis- the Lord; and whether we die, we putations.

die unto the Lord : whether we live 2 For one believeth that he may therefore, or die, we are the Lord's

. eat all things: another, who is weak, 9 For to this end Christ both died, eateth herbs.

and rose, and revived, that he might 3 Let not him that eateth despise be Lord both of the dead and living. him that eateth not; and let not him 10 But why dost thou judge thy which eateth not judge him that eateth: brother? or why dost thou set at for God hath received him.

nought thy brother? for we shall all 4 Who art thou that judgest another stand before the judgment seat of man's servant? to his own master he Christ. standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be 11 For it is written, As I live, saith holden


for God is able to make the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, him stand.

and every tongue shall confess to God. 5 One man

esteemeth one day 12 So then every one of us shal above another : another esteemeth give account of himself to God. every day alike. Let every man be 13 Let us not therefore judge one fully persuaded in his own mind. another any more: but judge this ra

6 He that regardeth the day, re- ther, that no man put a stumblinge gardeth it unto the Lord; and he that block, or an occasion to fall, in his broregardeth not the day, to the Lord he ther's way. doth nut regardit. He that eateth, eateth 14 I know, and am persuaded by to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing and he that eateth not, to the Lord he unclean of itself: bụt to him that

EXPOSITION—Chap. XIII. Continued. night), and clothe themselves with the hero or the patriot ; and to put on Christ armour of light, that is, with the suit of is to copy his tempers and bis example. Christian graces (Ephes. vi. 13, &c.) : or, We cannot close our Exposition without as he afterwards expresses it, “ Put on the remarking that this verse and the precedLord Jesus Christ." St. Chrysostom (the ing, as himself tells us, were mainly inmost eloquent of the Greek Fathers) bas strumental to the conversion of St. Augus. been cited to show, that, to put on another tin, in the fourth century, by inducing him person, was to imitate his character. The to put away the works of darkness, and allusion appears to us theatrical. To put "put on the Lord Jesus.” (See Milper's on Cesar or Cato, is to act his part, the Church Hist. vol. ii. p. 353, 354.)

NOTES. CHAP. XIV. Ver. 1. Not to doubtful disputa: gardeth it." This, we apprehend, refers only to tions.-Marg" Not to judge his doubtful thoughts." the Judaic holidays, and especially the seventh-day

Ver. 2. Euteth herbs.--Cox, “ vegetables." - sabbath, to which the Gentiles, having adopted the Whitby refers this to the Essenes, a Jewish seet, tirst day of the week instead, might reasonably to who in Gentile countries (as was Italy) ale no meat fuse conformity. at all, as they often could not have it killed accord. Ver. 7. None liveth to himself, &c.-Mackn., ia ing to their law.

both members of the sentence, ** By himself." Cox, Ver. 6. Let everymen be fully persuaded.-Doddr. " according to the will of :" but we have given in “Let every man freely enjoy his own sentiment.” the Exposition what we consider the trae meaning, So Cox. The allusion is to a vessel in fuil sail, Ver. 9. Lord both of the dead and living-i. with wind and tide : " Let every man go on in his our Lord, both in life and death. own way without impediment."

Ver. 10. We shall all stand-Comp. 2 Cor. F. 10. Ver. 6. To the Lard he doth not regard it.-Per. Ver. Il. It is written.-See Isa. xlv. 23, with haps the English idiom, and the true sense of the Exposition. words, would be better preserved by rendering, " He Ver. 14. Unclean.-Gr. " common," iwice. See that disregardeth the day, to the Lord he disre- Acts x. 15.

With our]


[weaker brethren, esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to wherewith one may edify another. him it is unclean.

20 For meat destroy not the work of 15 But if thy brother be grieved God. All things indeed are pure; with thy meat, now walkest thou not but it is evil for that man who eateth charitably. Destroy not him with thy with offence. meat, for whom Christ died.

21 It is good neither to eat flesh, 16 Let not then your good be evil nor to drink wine, nor any thing spoken of:

whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is 17 For the kingdom of God is not offended, or is made weak. meat and drink ; but righteous

22 Hast thou faith? have it to thyness, and peace, and joy in the Holy self before God. Happy is he that Ghost.

condemneth not himself in that thing 18 For he that in these things which he alloweth. serveth Christ is acceptable to God, 23 And he that doubteth is damned and approved of men.

if he eat, because he eateth not of 19 Let us therefore follow after the faith: for whatsoever is not of faith things which make for peace, and things is sin. (X)


was not to judge him who ate those only (X) Ver. 1-23. Christians not to cen- allowed by the law of Moses; nor was he sure, nor to give offence to one another.- who followed the strictness of the Mosaic The Church of Rome, we have before re- law to censure the Gentile, who not being marked, consisted partly of Jews and born under that law, was not governed by partly of Gentiles, from whicb circum- it ; veither was to reject the other, because stance disputes appear to have arisen iu it " God had received him;" but each was at a very early period, and that chiefly op cordially to receive the other into Christian two points—on the eating of certain meats, fellowship and communion. “ For the and the observance of certain days. These kingdom of God is .... righteousness and originated in the same principle as the peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost:" and question of circumcision, namely, the per- is he that in these things serveth Christ petuity of the Jewish law, and its obliga- (says Paul), is acceptable to God, and aption on the Gentiles. The last question proved of men.”. Consequently, converted had, however, been decided by the Coun- Jews and Gentiles ought to receive one cil of Jerusalem, and should not have been another” (chap. xvi. 7), as both of them revived; but St. Paul, instead of inter- had been received by Christ himself. posing officially, and deciding the question 2. We have the great law of Christian by apostolical authority, recomniends a toleration, as it respects the conduct of spirit of conciliation and forbearance be- Christians towards each other. Each may tween the parties. Without examining the consider the other as “ weak in the faith ;' chapter verse by verse, we shall offer only but“ God hath received him," and so must two or three general remarks.

we: for while each acts from a conscien1. We have the great principle of coin- tious principle, whether he cat meat or munion origiually adopted in the Christian vegetables—whether he observes the Jewish Church, namely, to receive all whom God holidays, or not-his eating or refraining, Teceives: for thus it is decided-him that observing or disregarding holidays—while ate meats in general, as did the Gentiles, arising from a sense of duty, are alike

NOTES. Ver. 15. Not chariinbly.-Marg. " According to Ver. 23. He that doubleth-Marg. “ He that charity." -Destroy not -The words used both discerneth and putteth a difference between meats.” here and in ver. 20 imply, literally, destruction by So (for substance) Doddr. and Mackn.-:Is damned. loosening the materials of which a building, &c. may Doddr, and Mackn. " condemned ;' i. e. both in his be composed; and seem to imply the loosening or own conscience and before God. disturbing of a person's faith and principles, and Ibid. Whatsoever is not of faitk.--Macknight, peace of mind; for it does not appear how our un- “ from (Gr. ek) faith;" that is, whatsoever a person charitable condnet can destroy the soul of a fellow does, while his own conscience and judgment conChristian : the greater danger

is to ourselves. Cora- demn hiin, is sin before God. parr fer. 21; also I Cor. viii. 11.

The subject]

[continued. CHAP. XV.

one mouth glorify God, even the Fa.

ther of our Lord Jesus Christ. WE then that are strong ought to 7 Wherefore receive ye one another,

bear the infirmities of the weak, as Christ also received us to the glory and not to please ourselves.

of God. 2 Let every one of us please his 8 Now I say that Jesus Christ was neighbour for his good to edification. á minister of the circumcision for the

3 For even Christ pleased not him- truth of God, to confirm the promises self; but, as it is written, The re- made unto the fathers : proaches of them that reproached thee 9 And that the Gentiles might glofell on me.

rify God for his mercy; as it is writ4 For whatsoever things were writ- ten, For this cause I will confess to ten aforetime were written for our thee among the Gentiles, and sing learning, that we through patience unto thy name. and comfort of the Scriptures might 10 And again he saith, Rejoice, ye have hope.

Gentiles, with his people. 5 Now the God of patience and 11 And again, Praise the Lord, all consolation grant you to be likeminded ye Gentiles; and laud him, all ye one toward another according to Christ people. Jesus:

12 And again, Esaias saith, There 6 That ye may with one mind and shall be a root of Jesse, and he that

EXPOSITION—Chap. XIV. Continued. acceptable to God. The kingdom of God, 4. So far from wantonly or carelessly as already stated, consists in " righteous- offending weak believers, Christians should ness and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost,” rather deny themselves even in lawful in comparison with which, in themselves things; refraining from any action that considered, ritual observauces, under this might grieve or offend their brethren, and dispensation, are of little value.

so unhinge their minds and unsettle their 3. Christians, having devoted themselves principles, than do which, the apostle says, wholly unto God, as expressed in chap. xii. Is it were good neither to eat flesh or to 1, are no more their own masters; but drink wine” at all; and Paul declares tbat, whether they live, they must study tu live sooner than do so, he would himself “eat to his glory, or whether they die, it must no flesh while the world standerb." (1 Cor. be in his service; even by martyrdom, if viii. 13.) A noble declaration, and highly called thereto. And not only are Christians worthy of imitation. not their own masters, but ihey are fellow- The concluding verse of this chapter has servants, and not only fellow-servants, but been often misunderstood; the sense given fellow-sippers, who must all appear before in the margin of our Bibles, and by the the judgment seat of Christ, and render ablest commentators, is, that he who, an account to him of all their conduct. in his own mind, discriminates between Let them not, therefore, put a stumbling- meats, and yet eats them against his conblock in the way of any of their weaker science, is condemned both in his own brethren, lest they should occasion him to conscience and before God; that being fall for whom Christ died, as well as for always criminal which a man does contrary themselves.

to his conscience and better judgment.

NOTES. CHAP. XV. Ver. 3. The repronches of them that the apostle produced as a proof that the Gentiles reproached thee. See Ps. lxix. 9. On this quo- were one day to glorify God, for the mercy vouchtation Bishop Horne remarks, . The usage our safed them by Jesus Christ." See our Exposition. Lord met with from his breibren (the Jews), for his Ver. 10. And again he saith, Rejoice, &c.-See zeal for the house of God, should comfort those who Deut. xxxii, 43. meet with the same usage, on the same account." Ver. 11. And again, Praise the Lord. See Pisa

Ver. 5. According 10.-Marg." After the example cxvii. i. of,” &c.

Ver. 12. And again, Esaias-i.e. in Isa, xi. 10; Ver. 9. For this causr I will confess to thee.-Psalm which see. xviij. 49. Bishop Horne says, "This verse is by

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