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10 As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the houshold of faith.

11 Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand. 12 As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.

14 But God forbid that I should


[due to all. glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.

16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.

17 From henceforth let no man trouble me for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.

18 Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen. (F)

Unto the Galatians, written from Rome.


(F) Ver. 1-18. Farther admonitions, concluding with the apostolical benediction. -The preceding chapter concludes with recommending an humble and spiritual walk and conversation: this begins, with admitting that it was possible for the most careful, and most pious believer, to be overtaken in a fault, either from the depravity of human nature, or the sudden temptation of the enemy; even as a man, in the fairest weather, may sometimes be overtaken in a thunder storm: in this case, however, he should by no means be abandoned to his fate; but the most spiritual of his brethren should endeavour to restore him to the church, even with the same care and tenderness as they would restore a dislocated limb; considering, at the same time, that they are all exposed to the same danger, and might one day stand in need of the same attentions. They should be candid to each other's failings, and kind to each other in affliction, according to the Saviour's great command, of love and unity and humility.

He cautions them against self-deception, to which persons of a vain-glorious dispo sition are most exposed; it therefore becomes such to be particularly watchful over their tempers and conduct. He encourages them to liberality, especially toward

their faithful teachers; and never to be weary in well-doing, under the idea that they have done enough already. None is more worthy of reward than the faithful minister of the gospel; and no labour more entitled to remuneration than that which is exerted for the good of souls. "Nothing is more conformable to the dictates of reason and of justice, than that those who receive regular public instructions on the most important of all topics, should, according to their ability, compensate their instructors."

In the close of the Epistle, we find, as has before been intimated, that St. Paul was in the habit of employing an amanuensis-(see Rom. xvi. 22)-only himself adding the salutation, as we see in the close of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, and the second to the Thessalonians; but in this case he evidently wrote the whole, and meant this to be considered as a mark of his attention and respect for them. And here we should expect the letter to have closed, but his anxiety will not suffer him to end without a farther caution against their Judaizing teachers, who seemed to glory only in circumcision; whereas, he says, for his part, "God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ!"

NOTES-Chap. VI. Con.

Ver. 11. Ye see how large a letter.-Whitby, Doddridge, and others, render it, "With what large letters"-alluding to the size of the characters: but the sense of our authorized version is adopted and justified by Beza, Lardner, Paley, and Macknight; for his writing in large and ugly characters could afford no proof of his affection to them.

Ver. 14. By whom-Marg, “Whereby."

Ver 15. Neither circumcision, &c.-See 1 Cor. vii. 19; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. v, 6.

Ver. 17. The marks of the Lord Jesus-That is, the scars of the wounds which he had received in Christ's cause.

Subscription-Written from Rome.-It is gene rally agreed that these words were not written by St Paul. See Paley's Hor. Paul, ch. XV.



PAUL the Apostle to the EPHESIANS.


PAUL, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:

2 Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:

4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:

5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us ac cepted in the beloved.

7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;

8 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;

9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:

10 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:

11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who


CHAP. I. Ver. 1. To the saints which are at Ephesus. Of the authenticity of this Epistle there is no doubt: but, so early as the second century, Marcion, a well known heretic, asserted, that some copies for Ephesus, read Laodicea; and some such copies still exist, though the great majority, both of copies and versions, read Ephesus. This doubt has been revived in modern times by Grotius and Dr. Mill, and the arguments on that side are collected and enforced by Dr. Paley. (Hore. Paul. chap. vi. No. 1) On the other hand, Drs. Lardner and Macknight have no less ably defended the present reading. An abstract of the evidence on both sides may be seen in Mr. Horne's invaluable Introduction, vol. iv. p. 356, last edition; where it is also remarked, that some ancient copies left a blank for the name, as if it had been a circular intended to be sent to different churches; and as we shall see Paul was in prison when he wrote this, it is not impossible that he might have a copy taken with a blank inscription, to be sent to Laodicea also. One thing strikes us forcibly, that though here is no allusion to the circumstances which occurred while he was at Ephesus, the affectionate language in which he speaks of the Ephesians well agrees with his known attachment to them, and with their pious character;

whereas of that in Laodicea, we know little to its advantage. See Col. ii. 1; iv 16; Rev.iii. 14.

Ibid. And to the faithful.-Some understand this as implying, that this Epistle was addressed, not to the church at Ephesus only, but to all believers, and favours the idea of copies having been sent to Laodicea, and perhaps other churches; and this also will account for the Epistle having no allusion in it to any circumstances peculiar to the Ephesians.

Ver. 3. In heavenly places-Marg, and Doddr. "heavenly (things);" but Macknight preserves "places;" understanding thereby the Christian church, which our Lord repeatedly calls" the kingdom of heaven." (Matt. xiii. 24, 31, 33, &c.) Beza understands it, however, of heaven itself, and the blessings there laid up, as in Coloss. i. 5.

Ver. 9. The mystery of his will-Seems to refer to the calling of the Gentiles-a mystery long kept secret, and, when revealed, but slowly understood. See Rom. xi 25; xvi. 25.


Ver. 10. In the dispensation of the fulness of times-Namely, in the gospel. Gal. iv, 4th!" heaven (Gr. "the heavens and on earth. By this, Mr. Locke, and others, understand the Jews and Gentiles. (See Matt. xxi. 43.) Whitby, Doddridge, &c. "Angels and men.” We under•

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worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

12 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.

13 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise;

14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.

15 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,

16 Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;

17 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:


[divine mercy,

18 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints;

19 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power;

20 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places;

21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:

22 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the Church,

23 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all. (A)


(A) Ver. 1-23. Paul implores upon the Ephesian Church all the richest blessings of divine grace.-The first preaching of the gospel at Ephesus, the chief city of Proconsular Asia, was by the ministry of St. Paul, as we find it recorded in the 18th and 19th chapters of the Acts. There we learn, that at first he was kindly received, both by Jews and Gentiles, until the great adversary of souls raised an opposition against him, by means of Demetrius and his craftsmen. This obliged Paul to leave the city; not, however, before his doctrine had taken deep root, and a Christian church had been there established. Some

time after this, in his way to Jerusalem, he sailed past Ephesus, through fear of being detained there by his kind friends (Acts xx. 16); but landing at Miletus, he sent for the elders of the Ephesian church, and delivered to them the very affectionate address, which we have already considered in Acts xx. 17-33; and from which, as well as from the Epistle now before us, it appears that a strong attachment had been formed between them and our apostle.

"What an improbable union!" says the pious Mrs. More. "The late idolatrous worshippers of Diana, and the late persecutor of the saints of Jesus, have now but one heart and one soul. These recent ene

NOTES-Chap. I. Con.

stand the expression to mean, that all persons or things chosen in Christ, should be brought into actnal union and communion with him See Col. i. 20. Ver. 12. Who first trusted.-Marg. " hoped." This is generally explained of the Jews, and, we presume, justly. See Luke ii, 25, 38.

Ver. 13. Sealed with that Holy Spirit.-See Rom. viii. 1-16, Exposition; also 2 Cor. i. 22.

Ver. 14. Redemption of the purchased possession. -The "purchased possession" is the church, Acts xx. 28; and the redemption here spoken of, that final one of" the redemption of the body." Rom.

ii. 23.

Ver. 15. After I heard.-St. Paul not having n at Ephesus for five or six years, had made

anxious inquiries after their welfare, and rejoiced in the reports which he received.

Ver. 18. The eyes of your understanding being enlightened-Doddr. [and that he would give you to have]"the eyes of your understanding enlightened." Ver. 19. The exceeding greatness, &c.-Bishop Pearson notices the great beauty and emphasis of this passage (On the Creed, Art. v.)-Mighty power.-Doddr." Power of his might."

Ver. 23. That filleth all in all.-Doddr. "all [persons] in all places." See Coloss. ii. 9. Dr. Chandler thinks here is an allusion to the famous statue of Diana; who, according to St. Jerom, was considered as the nurse, supporter, and life of all living creatures." See Espos, of Acts xix. 23–41.

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mies to Christ, and to each other, now meet in one common point of attraction. With what holy triumph does he dilate on their mutual faith!-that love of God in Christ Jesus, which is their common centre, their indissoluble bond of union!"(More's Char. of St. Paul, chap. xii.)

At least five of St. Paul's Epistles were written from a prison, and this is one of them; in which, as the same excellent female remarks, "He speaks not as from a prison, but as from a region of light, and life and glory. His thoughts are in heaven; his soul is with his Saviour; his heart is with his treasure. No wonder then that his language has a tincture of the idiom of immortality."

The leading doctrine of this Epistle is the union between Jews and Gentiles; not merely in themselves considered, but in Christ Jesus, their common Lord and Saviour, and the centre of all those blessings, which flow from the fountain of eternal light, and love, and blessedness. So the Epistle opens, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places (or things) in Christ."The blessings here referred to, as Dr. Doddridge observes, must "manifestly take in every spiritual blessing, and principally must refer, not to extraordinary and miraculous gifts, but to the sanctifying and saving graces of the Spirit; such as effectual calling, justification by grace, the adoption of children, the illumination of the Spirit, and all the graces of the Christian life, which are common to all believers, and communicated to them in all their several branches. And these are blessings in the heavenlies, or in heavenly things (as I would choose to render it), as they are things

that have a manifest relation and respect to heaven, and have a tendency to fit us for it."

These blessings, we have said, flow from the Fountain of all blessedness: "According (says the apostle) as he hath chosen us in him (that is, Christ) before the foundation of the world." We do not think it necessary here to enter into the doctrine of divine decrees; thus far appears to us obvious, both from the Scriptures and common sense if God is that infinite, eternal, and unchangeable Being we are accustomed to believe, whatever he does in the course of infinite duration, he must always have intended to do; and if he constituted his only begotten Son to be the Head and Saviour of his people before the foundation of the world, he must also have then chosen and appointed them to be the members of his church (or mystical body), and the subjects of his kingdom. But it is important for us always to bear in mind the great end and object of this appointment; namely, that they should be holy and without blame before him in love." It is, therefore, a contradiction in terms, as well as an error in fact, to pretend that the doctrine, that men are predestinated to holiness, has in itself a tendency to lead them to licentiousness.

We are not, however, warranted to say, that such was the happy lot of all the members of the Ephesian church, since undoubtedly there were hypocrites among them, as well as in other churches; but the apostles, as Dr. Doddridge remarks, "had reason, in the judgment of charity, to believe, that the greater part were" true believers.

There is a singular richness and evangelical unction in the stile of this epistle,


CHAP. II. Ver.1. And you hath he quickened.-By the words, "hath be quickened," being put by our translators in Italic, we are warned that they are not in the original of this passage, but supplied from some other verse, which in this case may be from the preceding chapter, wherewith, no doubt, it is intimately connected; as from verse 20. God raised Christ from the dead, and set him at his own right hand so also "bath he quickened you," who were spiritually dead dead in trespasses and sins:" and, upon the whole, we think with Doddridge, that this is the most natural supplement,

corresponding, as it does, with verses 6 and 7 following. Drs. Chandler and Macknight, however, take the supplement from the verse immediately preceding: And you bath he filled" namely, from the fulness which is in Christ. John i. 14, 16. This also is a good and pertinent sense, though we prefer the former.

Ver. 2. Prince of the power of the air.-Satan, who is a captive prince, and reigns within his prison. See Jude 6.

Ver.3. Desires.-Gr. "Wills."

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conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

4 But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,

5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved ;)

6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:

7 That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

11 Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;


12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

13 But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ.

14 For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;

15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace ;

16 And that he might recon. cile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby :

17 And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.

18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the houshold of God;

20 And are built upon the foun

EXPOSITION-Chap. I. Continued.

which attributes every thing" to the praise of the glory of divine grace," and the mercy of that divine Being, who, perfectly independent of his creatures, "worketh all things after the counsel of his own will." In describing the operations of divine grace, they are compared to that almighty energy by which Christ was raised from the dead; and then St. Paul bursts into a rapture on

contemplating the glories to which our Saviour is exalted, far above all princi pality and power:" and the fullness of grace which he possesses, as "Head over all things to his church, which is his [mys tical] body, the fullness of him that filleth all in all;" that is, that filleth with light, and happiness, and glory, all the pure iutelligent creation.

NOTES-Chap. II. Con.

Ver. 5. By grace-Marg. "By (whose) grace." Ver. 10. God hath before ordained.-Marg. and Doddr. "prepared us." The former sense, if not here, is plainly expressed in verse 4 of chap. 1; and the latter cannot be better expressed than in the 10th Article of the Church of England:-"We have no power to do good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing [i. e. going before] us, that we may have a good will, and working with us when we have that good will.

Ver. 12. Having no hope-i. e. no well-grounded hope. Without God-Gr. Atheists.

Ver. 16. Thereby-Marg. " in himself." Ver. 19. Strangers and foreigners.-The strangers were probably proselytes, who resided with them.

Ver. 20. Corner stone.-Builders tell us, this cer ner stone (akrogoniaiou) was the key-stone of an arch. "It is a chief stone, and in the most conspi cuous situation-the highest place. It is precious, or valuable; generally a picked piece, and richly sculptured. It is exactly in the centre of the arch;

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