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The pillar and]

1 TIMOTHY.

[ground of the truth. 15 But if I tarry long, that thou is the mystery of godliness: God was mayest know how thou oughtest to manifest in the flesh, justified in the behave thyself in the house of God, Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto which is the Church of the living God, the Gentiles, believed on in the world, the pillar and ground of the truth. received up into glory. (C)

16 And without controversy great

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. III.

which appears to have been spiritual, or (C) 1-16. How bishops, deacons, and rather intellectual, pride. their wives, should be qualified the ground The like purity of character is required of these directions.-We purposely avoid in deacons as in pastors; and in performinquiry into the particular nature and think ing well their office, they are said to "purof these officers in the Christian church; chase to themselves a good degree"but however their rank and office may be namely, of respectability in the Christian considered-whether bishops be understood church; and, as Dr. Hammond expresses as prelates, presidents, or pastors, most it, may be " assumed into holy orders ;" certainly moral character is to either, and or, as Dr. Doddridge explains it, "they to all, of the first importance. Their of- who have discharged the office of a deace fice is not a sinecure-it is a work, a good well, procure to themselves uot only a fair work, and requires a blameless character. report in the general, but very ofteu : One qualification is remarkable—he must good degree of farther advancement in a be “ the husband of one wife;" that is, of higher office"-namely, as pastors of one wife only: “ Neither guilty of poly- teachers. And not only ministers and gamy, nor of divorce, or the taking of a

but their wives also ought to be second wife before the death of the first; persons of grave, sober, and prudent conevils too common in those days, both with duct. Much of the respectability and use Jews and Gentiles; and, however borne fulness, either of a parish minister, or a with before the establishment of Christian- dissenting pastor, depends upon the Christity, they were nevertheless sins against the ian character and conduct of his wife. divine institution of marriage ; and there- In the close of this chapter, we are infore eminently culpable and scaudalous, in troduced to the temple of truth, which is a person who claimed so sacred and exem- the Christian churcb, in which the aposplary a character as that of a Bishop, or tles and evangelists (of which last Time President of a Christian church.” (Rev. thy was one) are to be considered as pilDr. Turner's Social Relig. p. 63, Note.) lars, and Christ as the foundation. So Dr.

Among other qualifications of a Bishop, Lightfoot tells us, that the members of the it is particularly enjoined that he should great Sanhedrim were called pillars of the not be a novice—that is, a new convert; truth; and St. Paul himself applies the but a man of some standing and experi- term pillars to James, Cephas, and Joha, ence in the Christian church, so as not as pillars of the Christian church (Gal. ii. likely to be elated with his situation, or to 9) : but in Revel. iii. 12, every Christian “ fall into the condemnation of the devil,” conqueror is promised to be made a pillar

deacons,

NOTES-Chap. III. Con. Ver. 15, 16. Pillar and ground-Marg. “ stay”- of religion !-) who was manifested in bnge of the truth.-The passage is difficult, and has been nature," &c. (See Dr. Smith's Ans. to Taylor's variously rendered. We shall give two or three, Manifesto, p. 59.) which appear to us the most probable, interpreta- Ver. 16.'And without controversy Gedras tions. 1. As by our translators, and many others. manifest (Marg. manifested) in the flesh, &c.-There 2. Dr. Henderson would render i he passage-" The is confessedly a doubt as to the original readine. pillar and establishment of the truth, and incontro- whether it should be, “ God was manifested in the vertibly great is the mystery of godliness : God ina- flesh;" or, " WHO (or which) was manifested;" nifested himself in the flesh," &c.; and this, he says, difference being small in the original, and unirhas the sanction of the principal dignitaries of the portant, since the title GOD (or Theos) (tbsugh in Greek church in Russia. (Travels in Russia, p. 123.) ibis text omitted by Griesbach), is in various etber 3. A third interpretation is that of Dr. Pye Smith pássages applied to Christ, as John i. I, &c. The Unie (partly borrowed from Dr. Cramer, of Kiel), " These tarian version reads, " He who was manifested in precepts I write unto thee (boping to come to thee the flesh ;” and without a masculine prongan it very soon, but if I should be longer than I expect), seems difficult to make any sense of the passage. that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to con- mystery might be "manifested," but the term weeld duct thyself in the house of God, which is the church by no means answer to the other particolars-i of the living God (-the pillar and foundation of could not be " received up into glory." the truth, and conlessedly great is this mystery

The grand apostacy]

CHAP. IV.

[of the latter times,

4 For every creature of God is CHAP. IV.

good, and nothing to be refused, if it

be received with thanksgiving : NOW. the Spirit speaketh expressly, 5 For it is sanctified by the word of

that in the latter times some shall God and prayer. depart from the faith, giving heed 6 If thou put the brethren in reto seducing spirits, and doctrines of membrance of these things, thou shalt devils;

be a good minister of Jesus Christ, 2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; hav- nourished up in the words of faith and ing their conscience seared with a hot of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast iron ;

attained. 3 Forbidding to marry, und com- 7 But refuse profane and old wives' manding to abstain from meats, which fables, and exercise thyself rather God hath created to be received with unto godliness. thanksgiving of them which believe 8 For bodily exercise profiteth little: and know the truth.

but godliness is profitable unto all

EXPOSITION. in the temple above. The apostle's design God; and, at the same time, as his resurmay then be, to admonish Timothy of the rection implies his previous death, it inimportance of his being steadfast in the cludes the doctrine of his atonement. doctrines and duties of Christianity, since 3. He was seen of angels_seems to refer he was himself to be a pillar in the church to his intercourse with spirits, both evil of God, which church itself was to be the and gooci; with the former of whom he great support of truth, since without a vi- had mysterious conflicts, in the various sible church, it could not be maintained scenes of his temptation, passion, and reon earth.

surrection; and by the latter of whom he The concluding verse gives an abstract was assisted and consoled.-4. Preached of the principal points which compose the unto the Gentiles-the mystery wbich St. great mystery of Christianity, so called in Paul speaks of as “ hidden in God from opposition to, and in distinction from, the tbe beginning of the world.” (Ephes.iii. 9.) mysteries of Paganism, which were neither 5. Believed on in the world-yea, in almost sublime in themselves, nor pious in their all parts of the then known world. (Rom. practical tendency and effect. This mys- x. 18.) 6th and lastly, Received up into tery comprehends, 1. The incarnation of glory, and exalted to the right hand of Christ-God manifested in the fesh. God. (Acts ii. 24, 30, 33.) These events 2. The resurrection of Christ, which we compose a great part (though not the consider to be the import of the expression, whole) of the mysteries of Christianity. justified in the Spirit; for he was “declared That they are not regularly arranged, is to be the Son of God with power, according not to be wondered at in St. Paul, whose to the Spirit of Holiness (or Holy Spirit), by rapid pen records events, not always achis resurrection from the dead.” (Rom. i. 4.) cording to the order of their occurrence, This was a complete justification of his but in the order in which they presented character and pretensions, as the Son of themselves to his vivid imagination,

NOTES. CHAP. IV. Ver.). Now the Spirit speaketh ex- theology of worshipping demons should be revived Bressly-Mackn. Or" saith, in so many words.”- in the adoration of saints and angels, as thus stated That in the latter limes.- Doddr, " the last times." in the Creed of Pope Pius IV.-" I believe, that the Mackn. “ jn aftertimes.” Doddr. thinks, that under saints who reign with Christ are to be worshipped his term may be included the whole of the gospel and prayed to." Macknight adopts this explanation; dispensation, or any part of it, as in Heb. i. 1, 2; but Mr. Granville Sharp contends in favour of the

Peter i. 20. Mr. Mede explains this expression, common version ; to which Doddridge also adheres. of the last times of the Roman Empire, Daniel's See Sharp on the case of Saul. ourth Monarchy.

Ver. 3. Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] Ibid. Depart from the faith.-Doddr. and Mackn. to abstain from meats.-" In the original of this A postatize." Comp. i Thess. ii. 3.

passage (says Macknight) is the boldest ellipsis Ibid. Doctrines of devils (or demons). -" Not found in the New Testament. Doddr. renders it, Eags Mr. Mede) that demons' were the authors of “ Requiring abstinence from marriage, and from hem (though that be true), but doctrines concern. (various kinds of) meat.” is demons;” meaning, that the Gentile idolatrous Ver. 8. Profitech lillle.-Marg." for a little time." 659

2 v 2

The living God]

1 TIMOTHY. the Saviour of all men. things, having promise of the life that

13 Till I come, give attendance to now is, and of that which is to come. reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.

9 This is a faithful saying and 14 Neglect not the gift that is in worthy of all acceptation.

thee, which was given thee by prophecy, 10 For therefore we both labour and with the laying on of the hands of the suffer reproach, because we trust in the presbytery. living God, who is the saviour of all . 15 Meditate upon these things ; men, specially of those that believe.

give thyself wholly to them; that thy 11 These things command and profiting may appear to all. teach.

16 Take heed unto thyself, and 12 Let nu man despise thy youth; unto the doctrine ; continue in them: but be thou an example of the believe for in doing this thou shalt both save ers, in word, in conversation, in charity, thyself, and them that hear thee. (D) in spirit, in faith, in purity.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. IV.

the like austerities, “furbidding to marry, (D) Ver. 1-16. The great apostacy fore- and commanding to abstain from meats," told. Apostolicul advice to Timothy.-" By on which the gospel dispensation iays 19 calling the Christian church, in the end of restraints. “ This false morality (saya the preceding chapter, the pillar and sup- Dr. Macknight) was very early introduced port of the truth (says Dr. Macknight), the into the church, being taught first by the apostle teaches us, that one of the important Eucratites and Marciouites, and afterwards purposes for which that great spiritual by the Mavicheans, who said Marriage was building was reared, was to preserve the the invention of the evil god, and consi

. knowledge and practice of true religion in dered it as sinful. .... lo process of time, the world. Nevertheless, knowing that in the mouks embraced celibacy, and repre aftertimes great corruptions, both in doc- sented it as the highest pitch of sanctity, trine and practice, would take place in the At length, celibacy was recommended by church itself; and that the general recep. the priests, and by the orthodox then. tion of these corruptions by professed selves; more especially by the Bishops of Christians, would be urged as a proof of Rome, the great patrous of the worship their being the truths and precepts of God, angels aud saints. Thus the worship of on pretence that the church is the pillar demons, and the prohibition of marriage, and support of the truth, the apostle ... though naturally unconnected, bave gone judged it necessary, in this 4th chapter, to hand in hand in the church, as the Spirit foretel the introduction of these corrup- here foretold." tions, under the idea of an apostacy from Bp. Newton also remarks, that " there the faith.

is no necessary connexion between the This passage is considered as speaking worship of the dead..., and commaoding of the same apostacy that is predicted in to abstain from meats; and yet it is certhe 20 Epistle to the Thessalonians (chap. taiu, that the great advocates of this wor ii. 3,4). This apostacy, which followed the ship have, by their pretended purity and days of apostolic purity, spread beyond the mortification, procured the greater revereach of the Roman church, and Anti- rence to their persons, and the readier rechrist appeared in a variety of forms: or, ception to their doctrines. But this idle, as St. John says, there were many Anti- popish, monkish abstinence, is as unsur christs (1 John ii. 18): so that this great thy of a Christian, as it is conatural to a defection must not be confined to Popery, man. It is perverting the purpose of nabut may be fairly construed as compre- ture, and commanding to abstain from hending other heresies, which at the same meats, which God hatb created to be retime sprung up and flourished; many of ceived with thanksgiving by believers, which, on the one hand, possessed the same and by them who know the truth.' The secular character; or, on the other, affected apostle, therefore, approves and sanctifies

NOTES-Chap. IV. Con. Ver. 12. In spirit.-This word is wanting in se- pear to have laid on their hands with Paul; 2 TiE. veral ancient manuscripts and versions. Mackn. 1. 6. Comp. Acts viii, 17, 18. Ver 14. The hands of the presbylory-who ap. Ver. 15. Appedr lo all. Marg." in all things."

Directions respecting]

CHAP. V.

[elders and widows.

piety at home, and to requite their CHAP. V.

parents : for that is good and accept

able before God. REBUKE not an elder, but intreat 5 Now she that is a widow indeed,

him as a father; and the younger and desolate, trusteth in God, and conmen as brethren ;

tinueth in supplications and prayers 2 The elder women as mothers ; night and day. the younger as sisters, with all purity. 6 But she that liveth in pleasure is

3 Honour widows that are widows dead while she liveth. indeed.

7 And these things give in charge, 4 But if any widow have children that they may be blameless. or nephews, let them learn first to shew 8 But if any provide not for bis own,

EXPOSITION. the religious custom of blessing God at of the blessings which it scatters by the our meals; as our Saviour, when he was way, in its march to immortality." to distribute the loaves and fishes (Matt. Some difference has arisen among

comxiv. 19; xv. 36), 'looked up to heaven, and mentators as to the sense in which God brake and what then can be said of those “ The living God, is the Saviour of all men, who have their tables spread with the most specially of them that believe.” “God plentiful gifts of God,

and yet constantly (says Dr. Macknight) preserves both man sit down and rise up again, without suffer- and beast by the care of his providence; ing so much as one thought of the Giver to but saves believers from eternal death." intrude upon them? .... can they be re- (See Job vii. 20; Ps. xxxvi. 6.) Drs. Dodputed either to believe or know the truth? dridge and Gill explain to the same effect. Man is free to partake of all the good crea- When the apostle adds, “ Give attendtures of God, but thanksgiving is the ne- ance to reading, to exhortation, to doccessary condition.” (Dissert. 23.)

trine," &c. we infer two things-1. That In enjoining these things upon Timothy, even divine iospiration did not supersede St. Paul assures him, that if he would the necessity of human means. They are prove himself a good minister of Jesus enthusiasts only who pretend to any diChrist, it must be by attention to sound vine influences, which may set aside the und scriptural doctrines, and not by listen- use of learning ; for Timothy, though an ng to Rabbinical traditions, or heathen

evangelist, was to give attendance to readancies, both which may be included under ing, and (ver. 15) to meditate on what he he denomination of " profane, and old read, for this purpose especially, that his vives' fables." “ Bodily exercise,” also, profiting might “ appear to all."-2. That y which he seems to refer to the voluntary both the private studies and public labours kortifications he had just reproved, Paul of ministers should be directed to the same onsiders of but little value; but he exhorts end; " for in doing this (says the apostle), is son Timothy to exercise himself in thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hose duties of practical religion, which hear thee.” The salvation of his own soul, re profitable for our present advance- is to every man the first and most importient in religion and happiness, and have ant object; but the circle of duty enlarges ttached to them, when performed in a with our connexions. A family brings roper spirit, the promise of eternal life.

upon us a multiplied responsibility; but pon this passage, Mr. Robert Hall re.

oh! the awful account that ministers of arks, that, “The happiness which reli- large congregations will have to render, on confers in the present life, consists for those who perish through their peglect !

NOTES. CHAP. V. Ver. 1. Rebuke not - Doddr. and shew piety.- Marg. “ kindness.” ackn. “ Rebuke not severely," nor sharply-An Ver. 5. Night and day-i. e. continually. See ler,—This is often used as a term of office ; but Luke ii. 37. re, as opposed to younger men, it must be taken Ver. 6. Liveth in pleasure.- Marg." delicately." Erally, with respect to age.

Doddr. “luxuriously.” Whitby says, the original Ver. 4. Widows indeed–That is, says Macknight, term has a particular reference to the drinking of lesolate" unable to maintain themselves, and strong and costly liqnors. ving no relations to maintain them.

Ver. 8. His own house. - Marg. " kindred;" par. Ibid. Nephews.-Doddr. and Mackn. “Grand. ticularly those who resided with him. ildren." - Let them (the children) learn first to

Ministers-how]

1 TIMOTHY.

[to be provided for and specially for those of his own them, and let not the church be charged; house, he hath denied the faith, and is that it may relieve them that are widows worse than an infidel.

indeed. 9 Let not a widow be taken into the 17. Let the elders that rule well be number under threescore years old, counted worthy of double honour, espehaving been the wife of one man, cially they who labour in the word and

10 Well reported of for good works; doctrine. if she have brought up children, if she 18 For the Scripture saith, Thou have lodged strangers, if she have shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth washed the saints' feet, if she have re- out the corn. And, The labourer is lieved the afflicted, if she have dili- worthy of his reward. gently followed every good work. 19 Against an elder receive not an

11 But the younger widow's refuse: accusation, but before two or three for when they have begun to wax wan- witnesses, ton against Christ, they will marry ; 20 Them that sin rebuke before all,

12 Having damnation, because they that others also may fear. have cast off their first faith.

21 I charge thee before God, and 13 And withal they learn to be idle, the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elet wandering about from house to house; angels, that thou observe these thiogs and not only idle, but tattlers also and without preferring one before another, busy-bodies, speaking things which doing nothing by partiality. they ought not.

22 Lay hands suddenly on no man, 14 I will therefore that the younger neither be partaker of other men's sins : women marry,

bear children, guide the keep thyself pure. house, give none occasion to the adver- 23 Drink no longer water, but use sary to speak reproachfully.

a little wine for thy stomach's sake and 15 For some are already turned aside thine often infirmities. after Satan.

24 Some men's sins are open before 16 If any man or woman that be- hand, going before to judgment; and lieveth have widows, let them relieve some men they follow after.

NOTES-Chap. V. Con. Ver. 9. Be taken.-Marg." chosen."--The wife Ver. 14. The younger women.-Instead of rome of one man-that is, having confined herself with which word is not in the original, Doddr. and strict fidelity to her lawful husband, and was not Mackn. adopt widows, from ver. ll, which therefor divorced to marry another. So Doldr. and Mackn. warrants, in such cases, second marriages on the It appears, however, that the Pagan Romans paid female side.-To speak reproachfally.-i. c. com particular respect to those who refused to marry cerning Christ, or Christianity. again, and on some of their tombs inscribed these Ver. 17. The elders that rule well.-Doddr. words, Uni viro nupta-she had only one husband. Mackn." preside well ;" especially they who latest But that St. Paul did not consider second marriages in the word and doctrine ; i. e, who are active and unlawful to women, is clear from his advising them. laborious preachers. Worthy of double kancer See ver. 14.

that is, a proportionate income. Ver. 10. If she have washed the saints' feet.-See Ver. 18.' The Scripture saitk.-See I Cor. ir. 9, Luke vii. 38-44, and Notes.

and Note. Ver. II. The younger widons refuse—that is, to Ver. 19. Bul before.—Marg." under;" i.c, unde receive them on the pension list, as widows to be the testimony of, &c. supported by the church. Towar wanton against Ver. 20. L'hem that sin-that is, that sio seasChrisl.-Macka.“When they cannot endore Christ's dalously, so as to bring reproach on the cause, la rein.” He says the original term is a metaphor, them be publicly rebuked, to warn others. taken from high fed animals who cannot bear the Ver. 21. The elect angels-Those wbo baving reins. Glassjus and Le Clerc translate it, “ who kept their stations when Satan and his adberests do not obey the reins.”

fell, are now fixed in permanent felicity by the dje Ver. 12. Having damnation.-Doddr." Exposing vine decree. So Doddr. Without preferring : themselves to condemnation." Mackn." Incurring efore another.-Marg. “ without prejudice." condemnation.”—Cast off their first faith-that Ver. 22. Lay hands suddenly on no man-Thal is, is, their fidelity to Christ, plighted when they as- according to Doddr, and Mackn. " Ordain noce sumed the office of Christian teachers : so Mackn. to a sacred office hastily, or without due inquiry and But, perhaps, tu cast off their first faith, was only to examination." " leave their first love," and lose their zeal. Com- Ver. 23. Drink no longer water-that is, water pare Rev. ii. 4.

alone; but mix wine with it. The Greeks oka Ver. 13. Speaking things which they ought not- mingled their wine with water in different propor That is, revealing family secrets.

tions. Orient, Lit No. 1507.

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