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Jesus to be followed ] CHAP. XIII.
(without the camp. 12 Wherefore Jesus also, that he him without the camp, bearing his might sanctify the people with his own reproach. blood, suffered without the gate, 14 For here have we no continuing
13 Let us go forth therefore unto city, but we seek one to come. (S)
rulers to be considered ? Certainly not with (3) Ver. 1-14. Practical admonitions, any superstitious veneration, much less as to conclude the Epistle. At the head of the objects of devotion ; but as examples practical duties of the second table, St. “ Whose faith follow, considering the end Paul places “ the love of the brethren"- of their conversation ;" or, as Dr. Macthat new commandment which our Lord knight and Mr. M Lean render the pasgave to his disciples but just before his sage, “ Of whose conversation attentively death: “This is my commandinent, that considering the ending (or close), imitate ye love one another." (John'xv. 12, 17, their faith?" the object of which immedi&c.). And this love should display itself ately follows as here stated—“Jesus Christ, particularly toward two classes of the bre- the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.” thren"-strangers, and the afflicted. Under “ This is a strong argument (says Mr. the former class we include visitors, or M Lean), to imitate their faith; that messengers from other churches, and under though they were dead and gone, yet Jesus the latter, all who are in adversity, and Christ, in whom these holy men believed, particularly those who are in bonds for the continues still the same to-day as he was sake of the gospel.
then; and shall for ever continue the same The next maxim is levelled against li. all-sufficient Saviour, to the end of time; centious professors. “Marriage is ho- he being able to save unto the last, all them nourable in all”—that is, in all classes of so- that come unto God by himn. Seeing, thereciety, the clergy as well as laity; " but fore, the object of faith continued unwhoremongers and adulterers God will changeably the same, and [that he] was as judge;" and will punish. Such, there. able, faithful, and merciful, to succour, fore, should not be tolerated in Christian deliver, and reward them, as he was their churches or societies.
faithful pastors who had gone before them, Christian contentment is the next duty they ought to hold fast the same faith inculcated, and that upon the ground of which they had set before them, both by the divine promise bere recited, which in their doctrine and example." the Greek is very emphatical, and thus The immutability of Jesus Christ is thus literally rendered by Dr. Doddridge:-“I used as an argument against vacillation (or will not-1 will not leave thee; I will wavering) in opinion. So Dr. P. Smithlever, never, never forsake thee." A pro- " With our divine Saviour there is no nise originally given to Joshua on the changeableness : his perfections are always leath of Moses, and here applied to all the the same, infinite in their glory; thereervants of the true God. An application fore let your submission to his authority, by the way) which may justify us in the and your adherence to his truth, be firm ppropriation of such promises to ourselves, and unwavering." (See Note on verse 8.) vben we can justify our characters and The apostle adds, Be not carried (or ircumstances, as corresponding with those tossed) about with divers ard strange doco whom they were originally given. trines,” forcign to the Scriptures ; " for it
The following precept enjoins a grateful is a good thing that the heart be estaecollection of deceased pastors or rulers blished with grace." " That the heart be 2 the church : “ Remeinber them who established (says Mr. M Lean), is a Jewish ave presided (or had the rule) over you.” phrase for comforting, strengthening, or o Dr. Doddridge: and Theodoret, in a refreshing the heart, which is ascribed to ote on this text, specifies the two apostles food (Judg. xix. 5, 8; Ps. civ. 15): and fthe name of James, one of whom is ge- as the Hebrews had a strong attachment erally considered as the first Bishop of to the distinction of meats, and the Jewish erusalem, and President in all the Apos- festivals and eucharistical oblations (or lic Councils.
thank-offerings], he opposes this, by tellBut in what light are these deceased iug them, that it was “a good thing that
NOTES. Ver. 12. Without the gate.-Calvary was certainly been long since included, unless there be a mistake ithout the walls in our Lord's time, thougb it has As to its situation, which some travellers suspect.
Christ our medium)
(of access unto God. 15 | By him therefore let us offer the 18 Pray for us: for we trust we sacrifice of praise to God continually, have a good conscience, in all things that is, the fruit of our lips, giving willing to live honestly. thanks to his name.
19 But I beseech you the rather to 16 But to do good and to commu- do this, that I may be restored to nicate forget not : for with such sacri- you the sooner. fices God is well pleased.
20 Now the God of peace, that 17 Obey them that have the rule brought again from the dead our Lord over you, and submit yourselves : for Jesus, that great Shepherd of the they watch for your souls, as they that sheep, through the blood of the evermust give account, that they may do lasting covenant, it with joy, and not with grief: for 21 Make you perfect in every good that is unprofitable for you.
work to do his will, working in you
EXPOSITION-Chap. XIII. Continued. the heart be established with grace; that was carried within the veil; but all the is, the free love of God revealed in the flesh and skin and offal of the atoning anigospel through the sacrifice of Christ; . mals, was to be burut without the camp and not with meats and drinks, wbich ... “ Herehy Paul offers a most conviscing did not protit iu a spiritual sense, those proof to the Jews (says Mr. Pirie), that who had not been occupied therein." they must abandon their old ritual, and
To understand the following verses, it adopt a sytem that has changed the land is necessary to recollect that this Epistle the priesthood, before they can have any was written before the destruction of Jeru- claim to eat of our altar or sacrifice." I salem, while the temple was yet standing, is, therefore, as if he had said li faa and while the priests were still offering sa- would have any claim to participate with crifices daily, notwithstanding Christ had us of the peculiar privileges of the gospel, superseded them by his own infinitely me, all resulting from the sufferings of Jesus, ritorious sacrifice. To this he plainly al- you must leave the old Jerusalem; yok ludes, when he says, “ We have an altar, must go forth unto him without the camp, whereof they have no right to eat who bearing his reproach. Without the camp serve the tabernacle."-Altar is here he suffered, and without the camp he mus put for the sacrifice offered upon it, a figure be enjoyed." (Pirie's works, vol, ii, 277.) of speech (says Mr. M'Lean) very com- “ for here (auds our apostle) we have mon in Scripture.” The meaning is, ihat no continuing city;" we are merely pil. Christians have a sacrifice whereon to grims and strangers, dwelling in tents and feast, namely, that of Christ; and of this tabernacles; but still seeking " a city sacrifice those have no right to partake, wbich bath foundations" in the heavens, who still adhere to the sacrifices of the Old and which God hath provided for all those Testament, and look to them for justifica- who truly seek it, (Comp. chap. xi. ver. tion before God. “ Christ (indeed) will 10-16.) While, however, we remain ob profit them nothing." (Gal. v. 4.) This earth, and worship at this awful distance, may be inferred from the sin-offerings, on the utmost reverence and godly fear be the great day of atonement, being wholly comes us, considering that our God is, to burut without the camp (as directed in all who treat bim with neglect or with Levit. xvi. 27). Nothing was to be eaten contempt, a consuming fire." of these propitiatory sacrifices, whose blood
NOTES-Chap. XIII. Con. Ver. 15. The fruit of our lips.-Estius thinks # well.” See 2 Cor. 1. 12, that our praises may be justly called the fruit of our Ver. 19. Restored to you the sooner.-Doduridge, lips, even as the good works of a virtuous woman
" quickly.” are called "the fruit of her hands.” Prov. xxxi. 31. Ver. 20. Covenant.-Marg. " Testament ;" ** See Note on Hos. xiv. 2.-Giving thanks.-Marg. see Note on chap. xii. 24. “confessing."
Ver. 21. Make you perfect. The same card is Ver. 17. Thnt have the rule.—Marg." that guide." translated prepared, chap. x. 5; framed, chap. 2.8; Doddr. " who preside." Ver. 18. We trust -Doddr and Mackn.“ We are joined, 1 Cor. i. 10. It signifies to set things to
fitted, Rom. ix. 22; restorrd, Gal. vi, 1; perfectis confident that"--we have a good conscience, in all rights, and reduce them to their proper state. things willing to live honestly.-Doddr. Deter- M Lean, To whom be glory. - Compare : Peter mined in all things to behave bononrably." Greek, iv. 18; Res. v. 12, 13.
(and benediction. that which is well pleasing in his is set at liberty; with whom, if he come sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom shortly, I will see you. be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 24 Salute all them that have the
22 And I beseech you, brethren, rule over you, and all the saints. They suffer the word of exhortation : for 1 of Italy salute you. have written a letter unto you in few 25 Grace be with you all. Amen. (T) words.
Written to the Hebrews from Italy by 23 Know ye thatour brother Timothy
EXPOSITION (T) Ver. 15—25. Concluding admonis blind submission to whatever a Christian ions, prayer, and salutation.-Being deli- teacher may advance, without anthority ered from all typical sacrifices and cere- from the Scriptures. We have, in all cases, nonial rites, and placing our whole con- an appeal “ to the law and to the testiidence in the one great atonement of mony. If they speak not according to this Christ Jesus upon the cross, let us, through word, it is because there is no light in sim, offer to God “the fruit of our lips," them." (Isa. viii. 20.) which is the sacrifice of praise," as a The prayer and benediction which here ontinual thank-offering of gratitude, for follow are particularly interesting, in the ll the mercies which we derive through character in which Paul speaks of God the is atonement: and not “the fruit of our father, as "the God of peace;" and in ips” only, but also the offerings of our the tender relation in which he represents ands. To do good, and to communi. "our Lord Jesus,” as “ the great Shepherd ate, forget not, for with such sacrifices of the sheep," i, e. of his church, Messiah od is well pleased.”
had been predicted as the Shepherd of IsThe next duty enjoined, is subjection to rael by several prophets, particularly by uperiors in the church: “ Obey those David, by Isaiah, and by Ezekiel; and he who have the rule (or guide, or preside) applies to himself those predictions, when ver you,” in the church; meaning their he calls himself “ The good Shepherd," resent rulers, as the precept above (ver. 7) (John x. 14, &c.) eferred to those who were deceased. These There is much doubt among commenulers, presidents, or guides, are elsewhere tators, whether the words "through the allerl shepherds, elders, and overseers. blood of the everlasting covenant,” should The subjection enjoined may be judged of be connected with the preceding clause, as y the nature
of their office; i hey-watch for implying that it was through the blood of ur souls as those that must give account." the covenant that Christ became our shepThis responsibility is so weighty, that herd; or that, through the merit of that t. Chrysostom confesses, he never read blood, he was raised from the dead, it being he words without trembling, though he impossible that he should be “holden of as certainly an active and zealous pastor, death any longer" (see Acts ii. 24); or, 3dly, ften preaching several times a day. And whether it was through his atoning blood, such “watch over our souls” with ten- that the apostle implored for the believing erness and fidelity, the utmost care is due Hebrews the blessings following (ver. 21); om us, not to occasion them grief or all which senses are admissible and true. exation on our account: and a great grief But Mr. M Lean says, “I take it, that
such it certainly must be, when their this whole verse is just a periphrasis for eople act inconsistently with their pro- God the Father as the God of peace;" ession, or discover a refractory, discord- including the way in which he has manint, or volatile disposition. Christians fested himself to be so, viz. in raising our hould, however, never degenerate to a Lord Jesus from the dead, through, in, or
NOTES. Ver. 22. In few words. – Mackn. “ briefly." Postscript-Written to the Hebrews from Italy, 'his must be understood in reference to the great by Timothy. Dr. J. Owen says, “ This is partly ariety of matter, for it is far from being one of the untrue-as that it was sent by Timothy; being exbortest of his Epistles. But this Epistle is, as pressly contrary to what the apostle speaks concernwen expresses it, " A brief compendium of the octrine of the law and the gospel."
ing bím immediately before (ver. 23). But these
subscriptions have been sufficiently proved, by many, Ver. 23. With whom.-Timothy was Paul's perpe- to be spurious; being the additions of some unskil nal companion in all his travels, except when be ful transcribers in after ages." See also P.S. at the enthim on any special work for the church. Owen. end of I Corinthjaps.
[and sufferings 31 By faith the harlot Rahab pe- kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obrished not with them that believed nut, tained promises, stopped the mouths of when she had received the spies with lions, peace.
34 Quenched the violence of fire, 32 And what shall I mure say? escaped the edge of the sword, out of for the time would fail me to tell of weakness were made strong, waxed Gedeon, and of Barak, and of Sam- valiant in fight, turned to flight the son, and of Jephthae; of David also, armies of the aliens. and Samuel, and of the prophets : 35 Women received their dead
33 Who through faith subdued raised to life again : and others were
EXPOSITION-Chap. XI. Continued. to the world, however, promised no such Moses found it necessary, on account of an distinction. An exposed infant, discovered, act of homicide committed by him in the as it were, by accident; adopted, out of rescue of an Israelite, to flee into the land charity, by a young princess, who was pro- of Midian (Exod. ii. 11, 12), where be videvtially, led to its own mother as ils abode the next forty years; for he was not nurse, and, by this unexpected patronage, sent to deliver Israel till he was follo introduced into Pharaoh's court. The score years of age. Then he returned to beauty of his person was probably a prin- be their deliverer; and after a train of cipal mean, both of his preservation and most astonishing miracles, by which his his being adopted by Pharaoh's daughter own faith, and that of his brethren, was as her own son, and, as such, trained up established, " by faith he forsook (or left] in all the wisdom of Egypt; but when he Egypt; not fearing the wrath of the king," came of age, and was to have been in that whom he boldly and resolutely withstool, character introduced among the Egyptian as seeing himn who is invisible." (Exod. nobles, he refused to renounce his country X. 28, 29.) “ By faith also he kept the and his kindred, which was probably ne- passover,” wherein, by “ the spriukling cessary to taking rank as an Egyptian, or of blood,” he sully expressed his depen! as the son of Pharaoh's daughter. Thus ence on that atonement, which, in the ful“ choosing rather to suffer affliction with ness of time, Messiah was to offer for the the people of God," the persecuted Isra- salvation of mankind. By faith, also, in elites, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin God's protecting providence, and in obedi and of idolatry for a season. From what ence to his word, “they passed through is here said of the reproach of Christ, it the Red Sea as on dry land;" which the seems evident, 1. That the pious Hebrews Egyptians assaying (or attempting) to do, had been taught to look for a deliverer, in pursuit of them, were therein drowned. “ the seed of the woman, and of Abra- And when, after they had passed forty ham," who should one day appear for their years in the wilderness, and bad crossed salvation, and bring with him a great re
ihe Jordan under the direction of Joshus, warıl; aod 2. That the Egyptians were the successor of Moses, and besieged Je wont to reproach the poor oppressed Is- richo," by faith" in the promise of God, raolites with these expectations, which they though they used no weapons more formiconsidered as chimerical and ridiculous; dable than rams' horos, the walls fell and to ask, probably, "Where is the pro- down before them. And the harlot Rabab, mise of his coming 3. That Moses and who lived just within, or upon the wall, a few others (though probably but few) perished not with the rest,' because she esteemed this reproach to them " greater also believed on the God of Israel. So she riches," and far more permanent, thay all told the spies—" I know that the Lord the treasures and honours which Egypt hath given you the land ..... We bare could afford them.
heard how the Lord hath dried up the It was probably about this time, that water of the Red Sea for you, when ye is, when he was forty years of age, that came out of Egypt .... for the Lord your
NOTES--Chiap. XI. Con. Ver, 31. The harlot Rahab.-Our opinion of this Ver. 35. Others were torlared.-Mackn." berten woman's character may be seen in our Exposition The term probably refers to the cruel practice el of Joshua, chap.i1.-- With them that believed not. the bastinndo, stilí practised in the East. --Marg. " Were disobedient :” but we prefer the Ibid. A better resurrection-.e, a resurrection to text.
a better life.
Of other Old)
[Testament believers. tortured, not accepting deliverance; 38 (Of whom the world was not that they might obtain a better resur- worthy :) they wandered in deserts, rection :
and in mountains, and in dens and 36 And others had trial of cruel caves of the earth. mockings and scourgings, yea, more- 39 And these all, having ohtained a over of boads and imprisonment : good report through faith, received not
37 They were stoned, they were the promise : sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain 40 Gud having provided sume better with the sword : they wandered about thing for us, that they without us should in sheepskins and goatskins; being des- not be made perfect. (P) titute, afflicted, tormented ;
EXPOSITION. God, he is God in heaven above, and in ous judgments of God against offenders, earth beneath." Thus, from “ Abel the as did Phineas, Joshua, David, &c. :-obrighteous,” to “ Rabab the (converted) tained promises, and their fulfilment, as harlot," faith always prevailed to the sal- did Abraham and Sarah, Caleb and Jua vation of the soul, and often to the effect shua, &c.-stopped the mouths of lions, as of temporal, and even of miraculous de- in the case of Daniel-quencked the violiverance.
lence of fire, as in the instances of his
friends Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed. (P) Ver. 31–40. Various other instances nego-escaped the edge of the sword-out of faith enumerated. — The apostle here of weakness were made strong-waxed vafinding examples to multiply upon him, liant in fight-turned to flight the armies makes a sudden stop, and asks, “And of the aliens, their pagan enemies. Even what shall I say more? for the time would women received their dead to life again, as fail” to review them all. He therefore in the case of the widow of Zarephath, and rapidly enumerates a variety of other in the Shunamite : and others were tortured, stances he might have added-oaming not accepting deliverance, as in the heroic some, and alluding to others in a most instance of the mother and her seven sons, impressive strain of eloquence, of which as related in the second book of the Macwe can only add a brief paraplırase, which cabees (chap. vii.), when one of her sons may illustrate the subject, though it must thus addressed the tyrant Antiochus:weaken the force of his language, as pa. “ Thou, like a fury, takest us out of the apbrases always do :--The time would fail present life; but the King of the world ne to tell of Gideon, who, with a small sball raise us us, who have died for his vand of men, defeated many thousand Mi- laws, to everlasting life.” Another son ljanjtes (Judges vi.-viii.)-of Barak, who said, “ It is good, being put to death by outed Sisera, and delivered Israel from men, to look for hope from God, to be he hand of Jabin (Judges vi. 6.)-of raised up again by hiin.” All these died, Sampson, who wrought many extraordinary not accepting deliverance, the mother herchievements among the Philistines (Judg. self encouraging her sons, one after the iii. xvi.)-of Jephtha, and his victory other, in the same hope of a joyful rever the Ammonites (Judyes xi. xii.)-of surrection. David, also, and his conquest over Go- And others had trial of cruel mocking's ath, and many other enemies-of Sa- and seourgings, yea, moreover, of bonds muel, and otbers of the Prophets.
and imprisonment. They were, in many These, with many more, proceeds the cases, stoned ; in one instance, at least, as ispired writer, through faith subdued Isaiah (see C. B. vol. ii. p. 262), sawn ing doms, as did Joshua and others, just asunder--were tempted, being subject to ferred to ;-wrought righteousness, not " the fiery darts of Satan,” as well as to oly personally, but executed the righte- the insidious arts of men--were slain with
NOTES. Ver. 37. They wandered about in sheepskins, &c. of Christ. We mean Elias, Elisens, and Ezekiel, St. Clement of Rome, in his first Epistle to the the prophets.” See 2 Kings i. 8; Zech. xiij. 4. vrinthians, a 17, alludes to the same circumstance. Ver. 40. Gout having provided.-- Marg. Let us be imitators of those sho went about in seen." We prefer the text. 21-skins and sheep-shins, preaching the coming