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The Second Epistle of JOHN.

HE elder unto the elect lady and into the world, who confess not that

her children, whom I love in the Jesus Christ is come in the filesh. This truth ; and not I only, but also all they is a deceiver and an antichrist. that have known the truth;

8 Look to yourselves, that we lose 2 For the truth's sake, which dwell- not those things which we have eth in us, and shall be with us for wrought, but that we receive a full ever.

reward. 3 Grace be with you, mercy, and 9 Whosoever transgresseth, and peace, from God the Father, and from abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the hath not God. He that abideth in the Father, in truth and love.

doctrine of Christ, he hath both the 4 I rejoiced greatly that I found of Father and the Son. thy children walking in truth, as we 10 If there come any unto you, and have received a commandment from bring not this doctrine, receive him the Father.

not into your house, neither bid him 5 And now I beseech thee, lady, God speed : not as though I wrote a new com- 11 For he that biddeth him God mandment unto thee, but that which speed is partaker of his evil deeds. we had from the beginning, that we 12 Having many things to write love one another.

unto you, I would not write with paper 6 And this is love, that we walk and ink: but I trust to come unto you, after his commandments. This is the and speak face to face, that our joy commandment, That, as ye have may be full. heard from the beginning, ye should 13 The children of thy elect sister walk in it.

greet thee. Amen. (A) 7 For many deceivers are entered

EXPOSITION. (A) Ver. 1--13. St. John commends a following epistle were written by St. John, certain pious matron and her sons, and though being addressed to private indiriexhorts them to perseverance.-There seems duals might occasion them not to be reno reason to question that this and the ceived and recognized in the church so

NOTES. VERSE 1. The elect lady. The learned Lord other deceivers." G. Sharp on the case of Saal, &c. Barrington conceived, that by this lady St. John p. 59.-Antichrist is a general pame nised by this meant a Christian church, which he did not think Apostle for all who opposed the trath and authority proper to name. The notion seems to have origi- of Christ. nated with Jerome, and was adopted by Hammond Ver. 8. Which we have wrought-Marg" gained." and Whitby; but it appears to us to be unfounded, It is added, " Some copies read, Which ye have and has not, we believe, at present, any advocates. gained, and that ye receiced," &c.' The copies bere Those here referred to, who denied that Christ was alluded to are, five of Stephen's MSS., the Alexan** come in the desh," were probably the first Gnos- drian and other MSS., the Vulgate, second Syriac tics. See Dict. of Religions, &c. in Gnostics. and Ethiopian versions.

Ver. 3. Grace be-Gr. " shall be "-with you. Ver. 10. Neither bid him God speed. --Doth.

Ver. 7. This is a deceiver and an antichrist. * Good success ”-i. e, in his propagation of error. Mackn." The deceiver and the antichrist ;" which Ver. 12. Face to face-Gr."“ Mouth to mouth ** the learned Granville Sharp explains of the spirit that our joy-Margin, “ your joy." See Note of anticbrist himself(i. c. Satan), as the first mover on verse 8: but in both cases we prefer the present and instigator, either by himselíor his angels, of all text.


Warnings against]


[all Antichrists. EXPOSITION Continued.

B od svolto early as some others. They are generally of Jesus. Thus, though they admitted the supposed to have been written about the divine

mission of Jesus Christ, they denied same time as the preceding, with wbich that Christ (or the Messiah) was really they correspond both in matter and style. come in the flesh, which St. John proThe writer calls himself “ The Elder," to nounces to be the mark of a deceiver and which appellation he appears well intitled, an Antichrist, meaning thereby an enemy as being now, probably, the only survivor to Christ. of the apostles, and much advanced in He cautions, therefore, the Elect Lady to years, which accounts for the use of his whom he wrote, against being drawn aside favorite appellation—" My little children.” from the truth by these deceivers. “Look • The chief topics here mentioned are to yourselves, that we lose not those things enlarged on in the preceding Epistle, viz. which we have wrought"—that is, that love to the brethren, and caution against we do not lose our ministerial labour; deceivers and impostors. “For many de- from which we infer that the venerable ceivers are entered into the world, who apostle had been her Christian adviser, and confess not that Jesus Christ is (or has) probably, also, the instructor of her chilcome in the flesh.” This corresponds with dren. He then cautions her against showchap. ii. 1-3 of the first Epistle ; and ing such deceivers even the rights of hosboth passages refer to the rise of a heresy, pitality; though it would certainly be a even in the apostolic age, which supposed straining of the text to include in this prothat Jesus Christ was possessed of human hibition the duties of humanity, to which nature merely in appearance, and conse- all our fellow-creatures are entitled. To quently that, in fact, he neither " died for admit such heretics, however, to our our sins, nor rose again for our justifi. family and table conversation, might he cation." This was the doctrine of the injurious to our own peace, and destrucGnostics, or at least of many of them : tive to the principles of our children and their objection to the humanity of our and domestics, if not our own. At the Lord seems to have arisen from the notion same time, the countenance thereby given that all matter was in itself essentially to such men might promote both the fundepraved, and the creation of the Evil prin- damental errors which they taught, and ciple. They were also ashamed of the the immoralities they practised; for they doctrine of the Cross, and therefore some are always spoken of, not as mistaken, but of them feigned the strange idea, that as wicked men. Simon the Cyrenian was crucified instead


THE elder unto the well-beloved 3 For I rejoiced greatly, when the

Gaius, whom I love in the brethren came and testified of the truth truth.

that is in thee, even as thou walkest in 2 Beloved, I wish above all things the truth. that thou mayest prosper and be in 4 I have no greater joy than to health, even as thy soul prospereth. hear that my children walk in truth.

NOTES. Ver. 1. Whom I love in the truth.-Marg. “truly,” Above all things.--Doddr.“ In every respect." or in truth.

Ver. 4. Walk in truth.-Dodar. " in the truth," Ver. 2. I wish.-Marg. “ pray.” So Doddr.— i. e. of the gospel.

Diotrephes and]

3 JOHN [Demetrius contrasted. 5 Beloved, 'thou doest faithfully words: and not content therewith, whatsoever thou doest to the brethren, neither doth he himself receive the and to strangers ;

brethren, and forbiddeth them that 6 Which have borne witness of thy would, and casteth them out of the charity lefore the church : whom if church. thou bring forward on their journey 11 Beloved, follow not that which after a godly sort, thou shalt do well : is evil, but that which is good. He

7 Because that for his name's sake that doeth good is of God: but he that they went forth, taking nothing of the dueth evil hath not seen God. Gentiles.

12 Demetrius hath good report of 8 We 'therefore ought to receive all men, and of the truth itself : yea, such, that we might be fellow-helpers and we also bear record; and ye know to the truth.

that our record is true. 9 I wrote into the church : but 13 I had many things to write, but Diotrephes, who loveth to have the I will not with ink and pen write unt pre-eminence among them, receiveth thee : us not.

14 But I trust I shall shortly see 10 Wherefore, if I come, I will thee, and we shall speak face to face. remember his deeds which he doeth, Peace be to thee. Our friends salute prating against us with malicious thee. Greet the friends by name. (A)

EXPOSITION. (A) Ver. 1-14. Gaius commended for who, instead of delighting in works of his piety and hospitality to Christian teach- beneficence, as Gaius did, unhappily ers. -Several persons of this name are “ loved to have the pre-eminence," and mentioued in the New Testament; this is to rule when it was bis duty to obey. A thought to be the one named in Rom. xvi. busy, prating, party man: a man of words, 23, who had been remarkably hospitable, but not of deeds. A man who talked muci and whom the apostle Paul therefore calls about religion, but showed no kindness to “mine host," he having kindly entertained, the poor brethren; who even opposed and and probably assisted him, in preach- persécuted those who were so disposed. ing the gospel gratis to the Gentiles; and Him the aged apostle promises to call to St. John now requests him to assist certain account, if he should live to visit them : others going on the same errand. This in the mean time he hesitates not to say, Gaius, it should seem, though a man of a that such a man could not have seen God strong and liberal mind, was rather delicate that is, could not have had any believing iu his health and constitutiou ;'and there. views of him, nor have enjoyed any sweet fore the venerable elder prays that his body, communion with him. migbt prosper and be in health, even as his But a third character is now introduced, soul prospered.

even Demetrius, of whom nothing is known But he severely censures the charac- but wbat is here mentioned, that he had ter of one Diotrephes, another persou of a good report of all" who knew him, wealth and consequence in the church, and “evea of the truth itself.”

NOTES-Con. Ver. 6. After a godly sort.-Marg. n sort worthy Ver. 12. Ye know that our record is true - See of God;" i. e. in a manner and with a temper suited John xix, 25; xxi. 24. to God's service.

The general Epistle of JUDE.

JUDE, the servant of Jesus Christ, godly men, turning the grace of our

and brother of James, to them God into lasciviousness, and denying that are sanctified by God the Father, the only Lord God, and our Lord and preserved in Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ. called :

5 I will therefore put you in re2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and membrance, though ye once knew this, love, be multiplied.

how at the Lord, having saved the 3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence people out of the land of Egypt, o write unto you of the common sal- afterward destroyed them that bevation, it was needful for me to write lieved not. unto you, and exhort you that ye 6 And the angels which kept not should earnestly contend for the faith their first estate, but left their own which was once delivered unto the habitation, he hath reserved in eversaints.

lasting chains under darkness unto the 4 For there are certain men crept judgment of the great day. in unawares, who were before of oid 7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, ordained to this condemnation, un- and the cities about them in like


* Our only

Ver. 1. Jude (Gr. Judas)-the servant of Jesus scribed in many parts of the word of God. Sce Christ, and brother of James--wbo, as we find in Psalm 50, v. 16. Sorue, however, refer this to the Matt. X. 3, was also called Lebbeus, whose surname ancient prophecies respecting such men.

See verse was Thaddeus. This book, like the 2d of Peter, and 14, &c. some other Epistles, was at first scrupled, and by

Ibid. The only Lord-(Gr. despotes), Master. See some rejected from the sacred canon, chiefly, as we Note 2 Peter ii. l. God.- this word ( Theion) believe, on account of its reference to the prophecy is wanting in several MSS., and in the Vulgate. of Enoch (of which in its place), and periaps some Doddr. reads it, “ God the only Sotereign, and our other apocryphal book; but, in our view of ine sub.

Lord Jesus Christ;" Dr. Pye Smith, ject, this is no reason for rejecting an inspired book, Sovereign and Lord Jesus Christ." Messiah, vol. ii. for the prophets themselves quote several books now p. 602. Macknight adheres to the common version, lost (see Note on Josh. x. 13). Their quotations but admits the others to be equally just. can only sanction what they quote, and ihat as to

Ver. 5. Destroyed them that believed not.-See matters of fact oply, unless they quote them as in.

Heb. iv. 1-3. spired. The authority of this book, however, is re. jected only by such as reject St. Peter's second

Ver. 6. Their first estate.- Marg.“ principality.” Epistle, which it very much resembles ; nor can

Doddr, adheres to the former; bat Mackn. observes we reject either of them as inspired, without re

they amount to the same meaning their original garding them as forgeries, which is utterly improba.

state was that of leaders, or princes, in the heavenly ble, as may be seen in Mr. Horne, and most writers

host. But left their own habitation--more

strictly, we conceive, the station assigned to them upon the Canon.

; Ver. 3. The common salvation-i. e. the salvation which, we presume, was a voluntary act, and constiof Christ, common to both Jews and Gentiles.

tuted their rebellion. This and the following verses Ver. 4. Crept in.-Doddr. “ giided in.”-Of may be compared with the 20 Epistle of Peter, chap. old ordained-literally, “proscribed.” (Beza, olim

ii. ver. 4, 6, 11-12, &c.; both which passages are prescripti.) Doddr. "registered;" an allusion, as supposed to be taken from some ancient Jewish some think, to a custom among the Romans, of

writer; but of this we are not certain. posting up in the forums the names of persons ac- Ver. 7. Going after strange flesh.-Marg, " other cused of certain crimes, with rewards for their ap- fesh.” The fact appears to be, that they gave themprehension, and sometimes for killing them. Such selves up to all kinds of uncleanness: the more abo. men, that is, wicked teachers or preachers, are pro- minable, the more agreeable to their depraved minds.

God's judgments on)


[notorious sinners. manner, giving themselves over to for- 15 To execute judgment upon all

, nication, and going after strange flesh, and to convince all that are ungodly are set forth for an example, suffering among them, of all their ungodly deeds the vengeance of eternal fire.

which they have ungodly committed, 8 Likewise also these filthy dream- and of all their hard speeches which ers defile the flesh, despise dominion, ungodly sinners have spoken against and speak evil of dignities.

him. 9 Yet Michael the archangel, when 16 These are murmurers, complaincontending with the devil he disputed'ers, walking after their own lusts ; and about the body of Moses, durst not their mouth speaketh great swelling bring against him a railing accusation, words, having men's persons in admibut said, The Lord rebuke thee. ratiou because of advantage.

10 But these speak evil of those 17 But, beloved, remember ye the things which they know not: but what words which were spoken before of the they know naturally, as brute beasts, apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; in those things they corrupt them- 18 How that they told you there selves.

should be mockers in the last time, who 11 Woe unto them ! for they have should walk after their own ungodly gone in the way of Cain, and ran lusts. greedily after the error of Balaam for 19 These be they who separate reward, and perished in the gainsaying themselves, sensual, having not the of Core.

Spirit. 12 These are spots in your feasts 20 But ye, beloved, building up of charity, when they feast with you, yourselves on your most holy faith, feeding themselves without fear: clouds praying in the Holy Ghost, they are without water, carried about 21 Keep yourselves in the love of of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, God, looking for the mercy of our without fruit, twice dead, plucked up Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. by the roots ;

22 And of some have compassion, 13 Raging waves of the sea, foam- making a difference: ing out their own shame ; wandering 23 And others save with fear, pullstars, to whom is reserved the blackness ing them out of the fire ; hating eren of darkness for ever.

the garment spotted by the flesh. 14 And Enoch also, the seventh 24 Now unto him that is able to from Adam, prophesied of these, say- keep you from falling, and to present ing, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten you faultless before the presence of his thousand of his saints,

glory with exceeding joy,


Ver. 9. Michael the archangel.-Peter says, “ Angels, which are greater (or excelling) in power and might." 2 Pet. ii. ll. Our translators in the Margin refer us to Dan. X. 13 ; xii. l; Zecb, iii. 2. See our Exposition of, and Notes on these passages.

Ibid, About the body of Moses.-Abp. Tillotson thinks this may allude to Deut. xxxiv. 6; and that Satan wished to discover the body of Moses, that he might tempt the Jews to worship him. Mackn. supposes, that by the body of Moses might be meant the Jewish church, as the Christian church is called " the body of Christ," I Cor. xii. 27.-Durst not - Doddr. Did not presume to”—bring. Abp. TilJotson wittily suggests, that the angel was afraid the devil would be too hard for him at railing. See Doddridge. 10. But what.- Doddr.“ And what." They cor

rupe themselves.- Doddr." are corrupted."

Ver. 12. These are spots in your feasts of charity -Literally, “ love-feasts." -Freding themselter without fear-i.e without cantion, will they eat and drink to excess. To this St. Paul is also suppesed to allude, I Cor. xi. 21.

Ver. 13. Wandering stars.-Ge. “ planets," je which two ideas may be suggested, napely, that they are always changing their aspects and situstions, and that they shine only by a borroved light

Ver. 15. Ungodly committed. --Doddr. " impi. ously committed.”

Ver. 18. Hon that they told you. See 1 1; 2 Tim. iii. 1,2; 2 Pet. iii. 3.

Ver. 23. The garment spotted by the desk-. 6.8 leprous garment. Or perhaps the allusion paay be to Zech. iii. 4, 6.

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