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A woman clothed)
(with the sun. CHAP. XII.
feet, and upon her head a crown of
twelve stars : AND there appeared a great wonder 2 And she being with child cried, in heaven ;
a woman clothed travailing in birth, and pained to be with the sun, and the moon under her delivered.
EXPOSITION—Chap. XI. Continued. contempt; their enemies carousing and which was soon after bis decease. Commaking merry over them, until after three menting on verse 13 of this chapter, by days (or years) and a half they obtain a “the tenth part of the city"
" be under triumphant resurrection, and ascend to stands the kingdom of France, and by the glory. And now the scene is wonderfully slaying of “7000 men," or (as the margin reversed; many of their enemies are slain, reads)“ names of men," he understands and the rest, affrighted, repent and give men of title, office, and dignity," wba, glory to God.
for having killed the witnesses, themselves But the question which now presents are to be killed; “haply," says he, " by itself is, Have these witnesses been already being berest of their names and titles, slain, and when ? or, if not, When may which are to be rooted out for ever." the event be expected ? Many events have Rev. Peter Juricu, a French Protestant been pointed out by expositors and divines divine, within four years after the publiwhich have been a partial slaying of the cation of the above, viz. in 1687, explains wituesses, and have corresponded with the the above quoted text as follows:-Tbert period of three years and a half ; but they shall be an earthquake, i.e. a great emotion have been partial, and not followed with and trouble in the world, and in the Antithat state of triumph and felicity which christian kingdom. In this emotion & the prediction leads us to expect, espe- tenth part of the city shall fall : that is, a cially as it contains an evident allusion to tenth part of the Antichristian kingdom the resurrection and ascension of our Lord shall be taken away from it. himself. Of these events the following what is this tenth part of the city which are the most considerable :--l. The Ses- shall fall ? In my opinion, we cannot sion of the Council of Constance, by which doubt that it is France. .... This does not John Huss and Jerom of Prague were signify that the French monarchy shall be burnt; this lasted from November 1414 to ruined : it may be humbled; but, in all April 1418, and greatly contributed to for- appearance, Providence does desigo : ward the Reformation in Germany.The great elevation for her afterwards. .. .... sanguinary reign of our Queen Mary, Afterward it must build its greatness o which lasted from February 1555 to Nós the ruins of the Papal empire." M. Jurica vember 1588, and was followed by the Re- goes on to state his expectation that the formation under Queen Elizabeth. The death of these witnesses had a particular Popish reign of our James II. lasted from relation to that kingdom (France) as the February 1685 to November 1688 ; and street of the Papal city. “The wituesses from the revocation of the edict of Nantz, (says he) must remain dead upon this in October 1685, to the coronation of our street, and upon it they must be raised William II1., in April 1689, which provided gain." On the earthquake and the slayan asylum for many of the persecuted ing of 7000 names of men, be gives an French Protestants, was nearly the same ex position similar to Dr. Goodwin, only, period. Other similar events bave been instead of secular titles, be supposes it may remarked, but that which excited by far be the ecclesiastical orders of monks and the greatest interest is the French Revo- friars that will be destroyed. lution, near the close of the last century; Rev. Mr. Fleming, Minister of the Scots and which was, in fact, foretold from this Church in London in the beginning of the very passage,
18th century, is still more particular and The Rev. Dr. Thos. Goodwin, sometime express, and fixes this great revolution to President of Magdalen College, Oxford, the year 1794 : but as his chief obserand afterwards one of the ejected minis- vations are founded on the pouring out ters, wrote his exposition of the Apocalypse the vials (ch. xvi.), we shall till then defer in 1639, but it was not published ull 1683, our extract from this writer ; in the mean
NOTES. CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. A great wonder.-Margin, or symbol of Christianity, or the Christian charcb. “sign." So verse 3. Meaning, properly, a type Ver. 2. And pained.- Dodds, " in agony."
(red dragon, 3 And there appeared another won- horns, and seven crowns upon his der in heaven ; and behold a great red heads. dragon, having seven heads and ten 4 And his tail drew the third part
EXPOSITION. time, we heg leave to observe, that we symbols of the prophecy, especially in the should be extremely cautious in offering latter part (he says), will not be found to expositions upon prophecies unfulfilled; be fulfilled so completely in the history since, though several of the above conjec- which we exhibit, as should reasonably be tures seem to have been remarkably ful expected. “And, therefore (adds Dr. W.), filler, it is plain that none of them were I am inclined to agree with Bishop Newcompletely so; for none of them have issued ton, that the final conflict of the beast with in that state of permanent reform and the witnesses may be yet to come. The triumph which is predicted.
.... are not yet elapsed; and Had the late Revolution in France pro- in a prophecy, of which parts only are yet duced a reform also, and had true religion fulfilled, there must remain difficulties." since flourished in that country, we sup- Mr. Fuller, also, who agreed with the Archpose there are few expositors who would deacon in applying this portion of pronot have considered that event as a com- phecy to the Reformation, and some more plete fulfilment of the prediction. But the recent events, in the conclusion of his failure here leads iis to look farther for its work, hesitates whether he may not have accomplishment, though it appears to us gone too far. Speaking (in 1814) of these not at all improbable that France may still very recent events, he says-" These tides be one of the next kingdoms that shall de- in human affairs may be permitted, as by sert the Pope. The Scriptures are now a flux and reflux of the ocean, to wash freely circulating there, and “a godly away those things which it is the purpose seed" is being disseminated through the of heaven to destroy. The Antichristian country, which, we hope, may hereafter power may rise and fall repeatedly, before glorify God. Iudeed, France, and espe- it falls to rise no more. Popery must be cially the South of it, has always produced what it always has been, a persecuting a full proportion of witnesses, not only to enemy of true religion, or nothing. The the truth, but also to the power of the gos• preponderating powers of Europe, by repel: and, at the same time, we know that storing its authority, and recommending there are still popish monks and priests it to exercise a liberal goverument, suited enough to kindle a fire of persecution, if to the times, bave done all, perhaps, that God should so permit. And as it is not was in their power towards lengthening clear that the 1260 days of the witnesses, out its tranquillity: but it is in vain. We or of the beast, are yet fultilled, we may would have healed Babylon, they may say, reasonably fear that a farther" fiery trial" but she is not healed." may still await the church, though we This hesitation in interpreting the Scriphave every reason to believe it will be a tures as it may be called), may be conshort one; and are well assured it will end denned by the ardent spirits of modern in the triumph of Christianity. That the prophets; but is, perhaps, the best proof death and resurrection of the witoesses is both of reverence to tlie Scriptures, and of not yet fully accomplished, was the opi- modesty and humility in the expositors : nion, not only of Dr. Gill, and the old conmentators, but also of Archdeacon Wood- “But fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” house ; who, though he applies the great earthquake to the great agitations which took place in Europe about the time of the We are now told (ver. 14), “The second Reformation, and ihe fall of a tenth part woe is past; and, behold, the third woe of the city to the secession of the Pro- cometh quickly." The sevenih trumpet testant nations from Rome; yet, in the then sounds, anıl occasions at once joy in close of this chapter, hesitates,
heaven, and vengeance upon earth. These calm review" of what he has written, whe. intimations of the interest which the ther he may not be mistaken. « All the blessed inhabitants of heaven take in the
NOTES. Ver. 3. A great red dragon. The redness here is mous serpent, such as we have mentioned in our properly thai of tire. A dragon is properly an enor- Exposition of chap. xiii. 4.
The woman flies]
REVELATION. [into the wilderness, of the stars of heaven, and did cast which accused them before our God them to the earth : and the dragon day and night. stood before the woman which was 11 And they overcame him by the ready to be delivered, for to devour blood of the Lamb, and by the word her child as soon as it was born. of their testimony; and they loved Dot
5 And she brought forth a man their lives unto the death. child, who was to rule all nations with 12 Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, à rod of iron : and her child was and ye that dwell in them. Woe ts caught up unto God, and to his the inhabiters of the earth and of the throne.
sea! for the devil is come down unto 6 And the woman Aled into the you, having great wrath, because he wilderness, where she hath a place knoweth that he hath but a short time. prepared of God, that they should 13 And when the dragon saw that feed her there a thousand two hundred he was cast unto the earth, he perseand threescore days.
cuted the woman which broaght forth 7 And there was war in heaven : the man child. Michael and his angels fought against 14 And to the woman were given the dragon ; and the dragon fought two wings of a great eagle, that she and his angels,
might Ay into the wilderness, into her 8 And prevailed not; neither was place, where she is nourished for a their place found any more in heaven. time, and times, and half a time, from
9 And the great dragon was cast the face of the serpent. out, that old serpent, called the Devil, 15 And the serpent cast out of his and Satan, which deceiveth the whole mouth water as a flood after the world: he was cast out into the earth, woman, that he might cause her to be and his angels were cast out with him. carried away of the flood.
10 And I heard a loud voice saying 16 And the earth helped the woman, in heaven, Now is come salvation, and and the earth opened her mouth, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, swallowed up the food which the and the power of his Christ : for the dragon cast out of his mouth, accuser of our brethren is cast down, 17 And the dragon was wrath with
EXPOSITION—Chap. XI. Continued. affairs of Christ's kingdom on earth (of edly before us in the next and follor. which there are several in this book), ap- ing chapters. In the mean time, we agree pear to us to imply, that they are not kept with Mr. Lowman and Mr. Fuller, that the iu ignorance of its progress. And if there judgment here spoken of (ver. 18) is not is joy in the presence of the angels of God the last judgment, or “ the consummation "overone sinner that repenteth," as our Lord of all things ;" but“ manifestly refers to assures us (Luke xv. 7, 10), we need not the avenging of the martyrs, by the judig. wonder at the joy en kindled among them ments to be inflicted on tbe Papal power by the proclamation of the Millennium. under the seven vials, antecedent to the On this subject, however, we shall not Millennium." enlarge here, as we shall have it repeat
NOTES-Chap. XII. Con. Ver. 5. A man child.-Doddr. “a masculine 20; Ezek. xx. 35; Hos. ii. 14, 15. son," which is literal - And her child, &c.-Some Ver. 14. Two wings of a great eagle.-To be borse place these words to the end of verse 6, in a pa- on eagles' wings, implies divine miraculous delirenthesis,
verance. See Exod. xix. 4; Isa. xl. 31, &c. Ver. 6. Fled into the Wilderness. By a wilder. Ver. 15. Water as a flood.- Dodd. and Woodh. derness, in Scripture, is always meant a place bar. " like a river," ren, and destitute of human food. See Isa, sli. 19,
And the dragon makes] CHAP. XII.
[war with her seed. the woman, and went to make wat keep the commandments of God, and with the remnant of her seed, which have the testimony of Jesus Christ. (U)
tended; but, with Lowmun and Frellet, we (U) Ver. 1-17. The woman clothed will rather refer it to the seed of the church, the sun, and the great red dragon.-Dr. mentioned in the close of the chapter. “ It Doddridge (and, we think, properly) pre- was this seed (says the latter expositor) fixes to this chapter the last verse of the that the dragon aimed, by persecution and preceding, which, therefore, we did not corruption, to destroy. This child was notice in that place. We have before re- born to rule ; not, however, at present : for peatedly observed, that there are in many if so, there had been no need of his being of these visions allusions to the scenery caught up to the throue of God, nor for his of the Jewish temple, and this is one of mother's Aying into the wilderness for 1260 the most reniarkable instances. The holy years. It is at the end of that period that of holies is now laid open to the apostle's the man child, or the seed of the church, view, and the ark of the covenant appears, shall rule; and this accords with Daniel with the usual awful tokens of the divine vii. 27, “ The kingdom and dominion shall presence; but in the foreground of this scene be given to the people of the saints of the behold, a pregnant woman, and that woman Most High." clothed in glory. She is clothed, accord- As to the woman, a place had also been ing to Bishop Newton, by being invested prepared for her. The child (like young with the rays of Jesus Christ, the sun of Joash, in the time of Athaliah, 2 Kings xi. rightevusness; having " the moon"—the 2, 3) was secured in the temple opened in Jewish new moons and festivals, as well as heaven ; but the woman had a refuge proall sublunary things—" under her feet, vided in the wilderness, or desert, as was and upon her head a crown of twelve stars the case with Elijah; and the wings of a -an emblem of her being under the light great eagle (as mentioned in ver. 14) were and guidance of the twelve apostles. given her, to facilitate ber escape. The
This woman, the commentators seem time of her scclusion was also commensuuniversally agreed, must represent the rate with that of the prophecying of the Christian church, according to the prace witnesses, and of their mourning. While tice of the ancients, who commonly de. the witnesses were persecuted, the church picted empires, nations, and cities, under must needs " weep in secret places." ihe feminine form, with proper and distin- God will, however, take part with them; guishing emblems. This woman, we are and the dragon is not only deprived of his farther told, was pregnant-was taken in prey, but cast down from heaven in disa labour, and in much agony " brought forth comfiture and disgrace. Michael and his a man (or masculine) child.” Before this host are sent to engage with Satan and his woman also appeared a great red (or scar- angels, in which there is doubtless an allet) dragon, representing Satan himself as lusion to Dau. X. 13, &c. xii. 1; where Mithe demon of Pagan tyranny and persecu- chael is described as fighting the battles of tion. When we are told his tail drew the Lord, and of his church. down a third part of the stars of heaven," If the great red dragon, with seven heads it may probably allude to his seduction of and ten horns, intend, as we conceive it that part of the heavenly host“ who kept does, the demon of Paganism under the not their first estate,” for he was a liar and old Roman empire, bis waiting to destroy a tempter from the beginning; or it may the new-born child of Christianity must refer to those stars of the Christian church represent his watchful cruelty during the below, which he had seduced into error and ten Pagan persecutions. After this, when worldly ambition ; for we know from other he was cast out of heaven, and Pagadism Scriptures, he lieth in wait, “ seeking was subdued under the establishment of whom he may devour.” His object now Christianity, he raged the more : first, in was to devour this new-born child: but attempting to revive the old system of there is an eye in heaven that never sleeps ; idolatry under Julian the apostate ; and, and in this critical moment, when the dra- afterwards, in corrupting the Christian god was feasting his eyes with the hopes church itself by heretical doctrines and of prey, it was suddeuly caught to heaven. secular ambition, until at length the same
But who was this masculine child ?- spirit animated and inspired the Papal Archdeacon Woodhouse interprets this of monster; the woman (i.e. the true church), our Saviour himself; and Bishop Newton who had hidden herself as well as she supposes that Constantine might be in. could hitherto, was now upborne, as upon
The beast with seven heads) REVELATION.
(and ter korns CHAP. XIII.
they worshipped the beast, saying,
Who is like unto the beast? who is AND I stood upon the sand of the able to make war with him?"
sea, and saw a beast rise up out 5 And there was given unto him : of the sea, having seven heads and mouth speaking great things and ten horns, and upon his horns ten blasphemies ; and power was giren crowns, and upon his heads the name unto him to continue forty and two of blasphemy.
months. 2 And the beast which I saw was 6 And he opened his mouth in blaslike unto a leopard, and his feet were phemy against God, to blaspheme bis as the feet of a bear, and his mouth name, and his tabernacle, and them as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon that dwell in heaven. gave him his power, and his seat, and 7 And it was given upto him to great authority.
make war with the saints, and to uvei. 3 And I saw one of his heads as it come them: and power was given him were wounded to death; and his deadly over all kindreds, and tongues, and wound was healed : and all the world nations. wondered after the beast.
8 And all that dwell upon the earth 4 And they worshipped the dragon shall worship him, whose names are which gave power unto the beast: and not written in the book of life of the
EXPOSITION-Chap. XII. Continued. eagles' wings, to her refuge in the wilder- the sacred writers, and especially the pas ness, during the reign of Antichrist, and phets, do not, we know, pay that attention the testimony of the wituesses; all being to method and order, which we find in confined to the same period of 1260 days, modern compositions ; and these flights of or years ; or, as expressed in verse 14, for the church are so exactly similar, chat, a time, and times, and half a time, i. e. with Archdeacon Woodhouse, we are satisthree prophetic years and a half.
fied of their being the same. Now, wlien the Old Serpent found that There is a like difference among exposihe was disappointed of his prey by the flight tors, as to the “ war in heaven;" some of the church into the wilderness, he poured supposing it to refer directly and solely to forth after her a flood, whether of tempta- the first fall of Satan and the rebel bosts, tion, affliction, or persecution, all of which so circumstantially described hy Mille are compared to waters; from bis doing (Par. Lost, book i.); and others consithis, however, it should seem that he was dering it only as an allusion to that event, not aware that she had received wings but referring more directly to the afairs from heaven. By the earth swallowing up of the Christian church, and that this those floods, may, perhaps, be iutended was the real case, we think evident fros the assistance aud protection that the the soug of triumph sung on this occasion, church oftentimes receives from worldly by which it appears that the victors were
not augels, strictly speaking, but there From the flight of the woman (or church) deemed, who “overcame by the blood of being twice mentioner, some have consi. the Lamb, and by the word of their testidered that two flights are here intended ; mony; who loved not their lives even to and, true enough, the church has often the death,” which can never be said of been obliged to save herself by light: but angels.
NOTES. CHAP. XIII. Ver. 1. Out of the sea-See Dan. ch. xvii. 8, it is said, “ whose names are not write vii. 2, 3.the name, Marg. " names."
in the book of life, from the foundation
of the serik" Ver. 2. His sout-Gr.“his throne," as before. So, in this place, the Unitarian version results Ver. 5. To continue-Marg. " to make war." “ was not written from the foundation of the world
Ver. 8. Whose names are not written, &c.- in the book of life of the Lamb that syss slain." Doddr. “ Whose names are not written in the book Which Dr. Pse Smith propounces *sjast tranh of life of the Lamb, who was slain, from the foun- lation.” Messiah, vol. 1. p. 166. dation of the world.” In the parallel passage,