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[of God with men. 3 And I heard a great voice out of 6 And he said unto me, It is done. heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle I am Alpha and Omega, the beginof God is with men, and he will dwell ning and the end, I will give unto with them, and they shall be his people, him that is athirst of the fountain of and God himself shall be with them, the water of life freely. and be their God.
7 He that overcometh shall inherit 4 And God shall wipe away all all things ; and I will be his Gud, and tears from their eyes ; and there shall he shall be my son. be no more death, neither sorrow, nor
8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, crying, neither shall there be any more and the abominable, and murderers, pain : for the former things are passed and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and away.
idolaters, and all liars, shall have their 5 And he that sat upon the throne part in the lake which burneth with said, Behold, I make all things new. fire and brimstone : which is the And he said unto me, Write : for second death. (N) these words are true and faithful. 9 | And there came unto me one of
short extract on the scene before us. Dr. (N) Ver. 1-8. The new heaven and B. supposes the conflagration now uni. earth, and who shall be excluded therefrom. versal and complete; and seated, as it were, -Before we enter upon this chapter, it upon a vagrant cloud, he looks down and will be necessary to revert to some pas- asks,“ Where are now the great empires sages in the second Epistle of Peter, and of the world, and their great imperial other Scriptures, which we have already cities?-their pillars, trophies, and monubriefly noticed. St. Peter tells us, that ments of glory? Show me where they “ The heavens and earth which are now, stood !” And then turning his eye, as it are kept in store, reserved unto fire agaiust were, to look for a spot of peculiar interest, the day of judgment and perdition of un- he exclaims~" Rome itself, eternal Rome, godly men ;-that the day of the Lord the great city, the empress of the world, [here spoken of) will come as a thief in whose domination and superstition, anthe night; in the which the heavens shall cient and mnodern, make a great part of pass away with a great noise, and the ele. the history of this earth-what is become ments shall melt with fervent heat; the of her now? She laid her foundations earth also, and the works that are therein, deep, and her palaces were strong and shall be burned up. .... Nevertheless we, sumptuous. She glorified herself, and according to his promise, look for new lived deliciously, and said in her heart, I heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth sit a queen, and shall see no sorrow ! But righteousness.” Let us now contemplate her hour is come; she is wiped away from the fulfilment of this Scripture ; but pre- the face of the earth-buried in perpetual vious to our surveying the new heaven and oblivion. But they are not cities only, and earth, let us pause a moment, and admire works of men's hands, but the everlasting the astounding scene, of
hills, the mountains and rocks of the earth, " A God in glory, and a world on fre!" are melted as wax before the sun, and their Dr. Thos. Burnett, whose “ theory of place is no where found.” the earth” is too philosophical, or rather “ The cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces, too fanciful, to be adopted in our pages, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, has some contemplations that have been
Yea, all which it inherits shall dissolve, admired for their beauty and sublimity, And like the baseless fabric of a vision, and well deserve to be read for their prac
Leave not a wreck behind." tical effect. From these we shall give one
NOTES. Ver. 7. Shall inherit all things.-Marg. These Ver. 8. The fearful, and unbelieving -Woodh. things.” So the Alexandrian MS., Vulgate, Sy. “ The cowardly, and the faithless." Lowman,“ The riac, and Arabic versions.
cowardly and distrustful."
Description of the]
[New Jerusalem. the seven angels which had the seven twelve foundations, and in them the vials full of the seven last plagues, names of the twelve apostles of the and talked with me, saying, Come Lamb. hither, I will shew thee the bride, the 15 And he that talked with me Lamb's wife.
had a golden reed to measure the city, 10 And he carried me away in the and the gates thereof, and the wall spirit to a great and high mountain, thereof. and shewed me that great city, the
16 And the city lieth four-square, holy Jerusalem, descending out of and the length is as large as the heaven from God,
breadth : and he measured the city 11 Having the glory of God: and with the reed, twelve thousand furher light was like unto a stone most longs. The length and the breadth precious, even like a jasper stone, clear and the height of it are equal. as crystal ;
17 And he measured the wall there12 And had a wall great and high, of, an hundred and forty and four and had twelve gates, and at the gates cubits, according to the measure of a twelve angels, and names written man, that is, of the angel. thereon, which are the names of the 18 And the building of the wall of twelve tribes of the children of Israel : it was of jasper : and the city was
13 On the east three gates; on the pure gold, like untu clear glass. north three gates ; on the south three 19 And the foundations of the wall gates; and on the west three gates. of the city were garnished with all
14 And the wall of the city had manner of precious stones. The first
EXPOSITION_Chap. XXI. Continued. But let us turn our attention to the new is cast into the bottomless pit, to be libeheavens and the new earth now before us. rated no more for ever. God and redeemed We have already mentioned, that many sinners are completely and for ever redivines, those in particular who expect the conciled, therefore will he dwell for ever personal reign of Christ in the Millennium, with them, and be their God. But he that consider this chapter as retrospective, and is now shut out of this celestial state, must designed to give a more full account of the be shut out for ever. « The fearful and events of that period, and particularly the unbelieving"-by whom we do not under restoration of the Jews. But, upon a most stand timid and weak believers, but cutattentive cousideration of the subject, we ardly apostates, and impenitent transconfess ourselves compelled to reject that gressors—" the abominable, and moridea, and chiefly for this reason, that sin, derers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and sorrow,
and death, are now for ever and idolaters, and all liars, shall bare their done away; which caunot be the case in part in the lake which burneth with fire the Millennium, because that will end with and brimstone; which is the second the insurrection of Gog and Magog. But death.” On the contrary, he that has no enemy now remains : not only the beast been “ faithful unto death,” and overcome and the false prophet, but Satan himself, the world, with its temptations and its
NOTES-Chap. XXI. Con. Ver. 14. Twelve foundations. The ancients built height equal.-Mr. Lowman explains this, botas their walls with alternate layers of brick and stone, forming an exact cube, but as having all the parts in here improperly (perhaps ) rendered foundations. a due proportion; or as being of a uniform beight. But instead of this wall being built with alternate Ver. 19. Garnished with all manner of precious layers of brick and common stone, it is built with stones.-Compare Isa. liv. 11, 12 ; on which Bishop layers of various precious stones, which rendered Lowth pertinently observes, " These seem to be reeven the foundations inconceivably beautiful and neral images, to express beauty, magnificence, po splendid.-Orient. Customs, No. 1400.
rity, strength, and solidity, agreeably to the ideas of Ver. 16. The city lieth four-square-Woodhouse, eastern nations; and to have never been intended "quadrangular;"' i. e. having four equal sides.- to be strictly scratioized, or minutely and parties Twelve thousand furlongs-. e. says Mr. Lowman, larly explained, as if each of them had some mara 1600 miles in compass, each side being 375 miles and precise ineaning." long -The length, and the breadth, and the
[and glory. foundation was jasper; the second, in it: for the glory of God did lighten sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. the fourth, an emerald ;
24 And the nations of them which 20 The fifth, sardonyx ; the sixth, are saved shall walk in the light of it: sardius; the seventh, chrysolyte; the and the kings of the earth do bring eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the their glory and honour into it. tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a 25 And the gates of it shall not be acinth ; the twelfth, an amethyst. shut at all by day : for there shall be 21 And the twelve gates were twelve
no night there. pearls ; every several gate was of one 26° And they shall bring the glory pearl : and the street of the city was and honour of the nations into it. pure gold, as it were transparent glass. 27 And there shall in no wise enter
22 And I saw no temple therein: into it any thing that defileth, neither for the Lord God Almighty and the whatsoever worketh abomination, or Lamb are the temple of it.
maketh a lie : but they which are 23 And the city had nu need of written in the Lamb's book of life. (O) the sun, neither of the moon, to shine
EXPOSITION. nares, " he sball inherit all things ;" or, naan, that they were “ walled up to heaa is the margin explains it, “ all these veu” (Deut. i. 28), it could not be an unhings," great and blessed as they are, warrantable hyperbole to say of the New which God has provided and reserved for Jerusalem, that its height was equal to its them that love him.
breadth. The ideas meant to be conveyed,
were certaioly grandeur and security. (0) Ver. 9—27. The New Jerusalem de- To view this city, St. John was conducted scribed, with the privileges of its inhabi- to an exceedingly high mountain, from tants.—The quadrangular was the favourite
whence he saw the New Jerusalem, or perform of the ancieuts, in building both their haps a model of it, gradually descending cities and their bouses. And though, as from the throne of God in heaven. She is Mr. Lowman suggests, there may be no spoken of as the bride, the Lamh's wife, and necessity for supposing the height of the is said to be “adorned as a bride for her walls equal to the dimensions of the city; husband,” which accounts for the gold yet as the foundations were twelve layers and jewels with which she (the city) is so leep, so the walls were, doubtless, fur: richly embellished. Her foundations being nished with lofty turrets, which would of precious stoves, and inscribed with the make the whole appear very considerable ; names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, 10d high walls and towers were thought plainly indicates the precious truths which not only an ornament, but a protection to they delivered in his name. (See 1 Pet. ii. | city. Wherefore the Psalmist says— 4, 7.) Her gates are pearls, on which are
Walk about Zion, and count the towers engraved the nanies of the twelve tribes of hereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks; con- Israel; ivtimating, that noue but Israelites ider her palaces.” (Ps. xlviii. 12, 13.) indeed are admitted within these walls. lod if the proud sons of Babel (Gen. xiv.) When it is said, the street, or open part of vere ambitious to build their tower to the the city, is “ pure gold, transparent as kies; and if it is said of the cities of Ca- glass," we may understand, that the ma
NOTES. Ver. 21. The street of the city. This seems even Lowman and Dr. Doddridge give this explicaFell understood by Grotius (says Mr. Lowman), of tion: and let no philosopher sneer at it, since Dr. he Forum, or place of pablic assembly, which is Herschell thinks that he has discovered our sun to escribed as paved either with squares of gold and be an opaque body, enlightened by a phosphoric ata hrystals, or with chrystal squares set in gold bor. mosphere ers; than which imagination can conceive nothing Ver. 24. The kings of the earth do bring their Tore rich and magnificent.”
glory and honour into it--That is, says Doddridge, Ver. 23. The glory of God did lighten it.-Not * If you were to conceive all the monarchs upon ply Mr. Fleming, and other Millenarians, explain earth uniting all their treasures to adorn one single bis of the shechinah, or cloud of glory, which led place, they would produce nothing comparable to he Israelites through the red sea, and in their sub- what I then saw. Compare Isa, Ix. 3. eguent journies (Exod. xiv. 20, 24, &c. &c.); but
The river of life]
REVELATION. [and paradise of God. CHAP. XXII.
3 And there shall be no more curse :
but the throne of God and of the Lamb AND he shewed me a pure river of shall be in it; aud his servants shall
water of life, clear as crystal, serve him: proceeding out of the throne of God 4 And they shall see his face; ad and of the Lamb.
his name shall be in their foreheada. 2 In the midst of the street of it, 5 And there shall be no night there: and on either side of the river, was and they need no candle, neither lig'i there the tree of life, which bare of the sun ; for the Lord God givell twelve manner of fruits, and yielded them light : and they shall reign í her fruit every month: and the leaves ever and ever. (P) of the tree were for the healing of the 6 And he said unto me, These saj. nations.
ings are faithful and true : and the
EXPOSITION, terials of which the city is composed are One thing, perhaps, has not been so distinguished both by splendor and intrinsic ciently considered, namely, that there value. “ There being no temple, nor sun, “ was no more sea.” It is well knoes, nor moon (says Mr. Fuller), denotes that that the ocean covers by far the larger pa there will be no need of those means of of our present globe, and if all the part grace which we now attend upon : what covered by seas and lakes, and marshes
, we now receive mediately, we shall then and barren rocks and arid sands, were receive immediately. Finally, the nations clothed with vegetable food, as was paz of the saved walking in the light of it, may dise at the creation, it would not, perhaps allude to the interest which surrounding be too much to suppose that the earth coci nations take in a metropolitan city; and maintain many times its present number of denotes that the saved, who have been inhabitants : not to say, from the enlargel gathered from all nations, will rejoice in scale on which every thing in this ** the honour which God will have bestowed world is represented, it seeins highly pre upon his church."
bable that the new earth may be very ces The city before us is represented as of siderably enlarged, and even pertiap immense size, namely, 12,000 furlongs (or communication allowed with other worlds 1500 miles) in length and breadth; yet of pure and happy beings. But this is a there is no surrounding country men- fered only as conjectural. tioned, though much seems to be implied, by its gates remaining always open; and
CHAP. XXII. by kings bringing into it their “glory and (P) Ver. 1–5. The river and tree of honour," as is customary in royal cities. life, and the glory of this New Jeruica. But we understand " nations walking in -Our Lord assures us, that the children the light of it," in a manner somewhat of the resurrection " neither marry su different from Mr. Fuller, as above quoted. are given in inarriage," it not being the Many divines have supposed, that this New design of God farther to increase the se Jerusalem will be enlightened by a divine cies. It has been hence also generally isshechinah, a glory so brilliaut and so ele. ferred, that they will neither cat nor driak: vated, as that all the nations of the re- and it may be so ; yet our Lord ate erea deemed may be illumined by it. But animal food after his resurrection (Luke nothing defiling or defileil can enter into xxiv. 42, 43); and here is described a pathis heavenly world.
radise of fruits, resembling that given
NOTES, CHAP. XXII. Ver. 1. A pure river of water of ing; or, as Mr. Wesley explains it, * for the condi life.-Compare Ezek. xlvii. 12, and Exposition. nuing of their health, not the restoring it, fer Compare also Gen. ii. 9, 10.
sickness is there." Ver. 2. For the healing of the nations. This Ver. 5. And they need no cardie.-Theddridge seems to imply, that the inhabitants will be still "Jamp." subject to disease, which, we apprehend, was not Ver. 6. And he said.-Doubtlers, the angel who intended. The original word signifies to serve, as had been instructing St. Juln in the preceding well as to heal; and the writer begs lenve to sug- sions. These sayings. - Compare chap. xix."} gest, that the passage might be rendered, for the xxi. 5, service of the nations, without restraining it to heal.
(the unjust. Lord God of the holy prophets sent his the sayings of the prophecy of this angel to shew unto his servants the book : for the time is at hand. hings which must shortly be done. 11 He that is unjust, let him be
7 Behold, I come quickly: blessed unjust still: and he which is filthy, let s be that keepeth the sayings of the him be filthy still: and he that is prophecy of this book.
righteous, let him be righteous still : ☆ And 1 John saw these things, and and he that is holy, let him be holy eard them. And when I had heard still. nd seen, I fell down to worship before 12 And, behold, I come quickly ; he feet of the angel which shewed me and my reward is with me, to give hese things.
every man according as his work 9 Then saith he unto me, See thou shall be. do it not: for I am thy fellow-servant, 13 I am Alpha and Omega, the ind of thy brethren the prophets, and beginning and the end, the first and of them which keep the sayings of this the last. book : worship God.
14 Blessed are they that do his 10 And he saith unto me, Seal not commandments, that they may have
EXPOSITION. Adam in his state of innocence, but with- on either or both sides of the river; as put " the tree of knowledge of good and also in Ezek, xlvii. 7. Mr. Fuller remarks, evil." (Gen. ii. 9, 16, 17.) We are well “ There is doubtless an allusion in these aware, that evangelical expositors explain verses to Ezek. xlvii. 1-12. Both Ezekiel these fruits allegorically, for fruits of holy and John make mention of a city-of a enjoyment; as well as the water of life, river-of trees growing upon the banks of for the influences of divine grace and con. it-and of the fruit thereof being for meat, solation. But if we are to have material and the leaf for medicine. Ezekiel's waters bodies (though highly purified), and if flowed from the temple, near the altar ; we are to inhabit a material world, of those of John, out of the throne of God which there seems no question; if our and the Lamb." The city is doubtless the Lord himself ate with bis disciples after same in both; hut, I couceive, at different his resurrection, we should be afraid to times. Ezekiel's city had a temple ; but say that these promises in no degree admit that of John; as we have seen, had no of a literal interpretation; though some temple, for the Lord God Almighty and think that our Lord's body did not fully the Lamb are the temple of it. The first, attaio its glorified state till the hour of his therefore, describes the church in her lat. ascension.
ter-day glory; the last, in a state of perThere are some trees that, by engrafting, fection; and which answers to the promise produce differeut fruits, and at different in cbap. ii. 7 : “ To him that overcometh seasons, from the same stock; there seeins will I give to eat of the tree of life, which no absurdity, therefore, in admitting a li- is in the midst of the Paradise of God.” teral interpretation of what is said, that But the most important clause in this ** they yield twelve manner of fruits," and section of Scripture is the last-" And they one or other of them “ monthly,” though shall reign for ever and ever.” This may we would by no means contend for it. We be literally rendered, “ for ages of ages; have mentioned in our remarks upon the and some have strenuously argued from Paradise of Adam, Dr. Kennicott's hypo- hence, against the eteruity of misery inthesis, that the tree of life was not an in- Aicted on the finally impenitent. For dividual, but a species. Here we find it “ages of ages,” say they, means only for
NOTES. Ver. 7. Behold, I come.-Perhaps the words,“He does not charge him with a repetition of bis fault. said," or " saying,” should be supplied between the To this inclines also Archdeacon Woodhouse. verses. Archb. Newcome supplies, " saith Jesus ;" Ver. 10. Seal not the sayings. The contrary of Behold (saith Jesus], I come quickly.
what was said to bim, chap. x. 4. Comp. chap. i. 11. Ver. 8. I fell down.--It is difficult to accoant for Ver. 12. Behold, I come quickly.--Here again the the apostle attempting to worship the angel a second angel speaks in the name of Christ. See also ver. 19. time, but Mr. Fuller thinks it was the same incident Ver. 13. I am Alpha, &c.-Compare chap. i. 8, a second time related. The reproof is the same, and 11; xxi. 6.