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The river of life] REVELATION. [and paradise of God. CHAP. XXII.

3 And there shall be no more curse :

but the throne of God and of the Lamb AND he shewed me a pure river of shall be in it; and his servants shall

water of life, clear as crystal, serve him: proceeding out of the throne of God 4 And they shall see his face; sad and of the Lamb.

his name shall be in their foreheada. 2 In the midst of the street of it, 5 And there shall be no night there and on either side of the river, was and they need no candle, neither lig's there the tree of life, which bare of the sun ; for the Lord God giveth twelve manner of fruits, and yielded them light: and they shall reign in her fruit every month: and the leaves ever and ever. (P) of the tree were for the healing of the 6 And he said unto me. These are nations.

ings are faithful and true : and the

EXPOSITION, terials of which the city is composed are One thing, perhaps, has not been suf distioguished both by splendor and intrinsic ciently considered, namely, that there value. " There being no temple, nor sun, “ was no more sea.” It is well knoes nor moon (says Mr. Fuller), denotes that that the ocean covers by far the larger part there will be no need of those means of of our present globe, and if all the parti grace which we now attend upon : what covered by seas and lakes, and marshes, we now receive mediately, we shall then and barren rocks and arid sands, were receive immediately. Finally, the nations clothed with vegetable food, as was para of the saved walking in the light of it, may dise at the creation, it would not, perhaps, allude to the interest which surrounding be too much to suppose that the earth coas pations take in a metropolitan city; and maintain many times its present number of denotes that the saved, who have been inhabitants : not to say, from the enlarge gathered from all nations, will rejoice in scale on which every thing in this m the honour which God will have bestowed world is represented, it seeins highly pre upon his church.”

bable that the new earth may be very cus The city before us is represented as of siderably enlarged, and even perbiap a immense size, namely, 12,000 furlongs (or communication allowed with other worlds 1500 miles) in length and breadth; yet of pure and happy beings. But this is a there is no surrounding country men- fered only as conjectural. tioned, though much seems to be implied, by its gates remaining always open; and

CHAP, XXII. by kings bringing into it their “ glory and (P) Ver. 1-5. The river and tree of honour," as is customary in royal cities. life, and the glory of this New Jeruskea. But we understand " nations walking in -Our Lord assures us, that the children the light of it, in a manner somewhat of the resurrection « neither marry out different from Mr. Fuller, as above quoted. are given in inarriage," it not being tbe Many divines have supposed, that this New design of God farther to increase the spe Jerusalem will be enlightened by a divine cies. It has been hence also generally isshechinah, a glory so brilliaut and so ele. ferred, that they will neither cat nor drink: vated, as that all the nations of the re, aod it may be so; yet our Lord ate erra deemed may be illumined by it. But animal food after his resurrection (Luke nothing defiling or defileil can enter into xxiv, 42, 43); and here is described a pathis heavenly world.

radise of fruits, resembling that given to

NOTES. CHAP. XXII. Ver.). A pure river of water of ing; or, as Mr. Wesley explains it, « for the courth life.-Compare Ezek. xlvii. 12, and Exposition. nuing of thelr health, not the restoring it, fer Compare also Gen. ii. 9, 10.

sickness is there." Ver. 2. For the healing of the nations. This Ver. 5. And they need no cardie.Doderere seems to imply, that the inhabitants will be still "Jamp.” subiect to disease, which, we apprehend, was not Ver. 6. And he said. -Doubtless, the angel who intended. The original word signifies to serve, as had been instructing St. John in the preceding well as to heal; and the writer begs lenve to sug sions. These sayings. - Compare chap. xix. "; gest, that the passage might be rendered, for the xxi. 5. service of the nations, without restraining it to heal.

Warnings to]

(the unjust. Lord God of the holy prophets sent his the sayings of the prophecy of this angel to shew unto his servants the book : for the time is at hand. chings which must shortly be done. 11 He that is unjust, let him be

7 Behold, I come quickly: blessed unjust still : and he which is filthy, let s be that keepeth the sayings of the him be filthy still: and he that is prophecy of this book.

righteous, let him be righteous still : 5 And I John saw these things, and and he that is holy, let him be holy beard them. And when I had heard still. and seen, I fell down to worship before 12 And, behold, I come quickly ; he feet of the angel which shewed me and my reward is with me, to give hese things.

every man according as his work 9 Then saith he unto me, See thou shall be. do it not: for I am thy fellow-servant, 13 I am Alpha and Omega, the and of thy brethren the prophets, and beginning and the end, the first and of them which keep the sayings of this the last. book: worship God.

14 Blessed are they that do his 10 And he saith unto me, Seal not commandments, that they may have

EXPOSITION. Adam in his state of innocence, but with on either or both sides of the river; as put “ the tree of knowledge of good and also in Ezek, xlvii. 7. Mr. Fuller remarks, evil." (Gen. ii. 9, 16, 17.) We are well “ There is doubtless an allusion in these aware, that evangelical expositors explain verses to Ezek. xlvii. 1-12. Both Ezekiel these fruits allegorically, for fruits of holy and John make mention of a city-of a enjoyment; as well as the water of life, river--of trees growing upon the banks of for the influences of divine grace and con. it-and of the fruit thereof being for meat, solation. But if we are to have material and the leaf for medicine. Ezekiel's waters bodies (though highly purified), and if flowed from the temple, near the altar; we are to inhabit a material world, of those of John, out of « the throne of God which there seems no question; if our and the Lamb." The city is doubtless the Lord himself ate with bis disciples after same in both; but, I couceive, at different his resurrection, we should be afraid to times. Ezekiel's city had a temple ; but say that these promises in no degree admit that of John; as we have seen, had no of a literal interpretation ; though some temple, for the Lord God Almighty and think that our Lord's body did not fully the Lamb are the temple of it. The first, attaio its glorified state till the hour of his therefore, describes the church in her latascepsion.

ter-day glory; the last, in a state of perThere are some trees that, by engrafting, fection; and which answers to the promise produce different fruits, and at different in cbap. ii, 7: " To him that overcometh seasons, from the same stock; there seeins will I give to eat of the tree of life, which no absurdity, therefore, in admittiog a li. is in the midst of the Paradise of God." teral interpretation of what is said, that But the most important clause in this ** they yield twelve manner of fruits," and section of Scripture is the last-" And they one or other of them “ monthly," though shall reign for ever and ever." This may we would by no means contend for it. We be literally rendered, “ for ages of ages ;" have mentioned in our remarks upon the and some have strenuously argued from Paradise of Adam, Dr. Kennicott's hypo. hence, against the eteruity of misery inthesis, that the tree of life was pot an in- flicted on the finally impenitent. For dividual, but a species. Here we find it “ages of ages,” say they, means only for

NOTES. Ver. 7. Behold, I come.-Perhaps the words,“He does not charge him with a repetition of his fault. wid." or " gaving,” should be supplied between the To this inclines also Archdeacon Woodhouse. perses. Archb. Newcome supplies, " saith Jesus;" Ver. In, Seal not the sayings.-The contrary of Behold (saith Jesus], I come quickly.

what was said to him, chap. X. 4. Comp. chap.i. ii. Ver. 8. I fell down.--It is difficult to accoant for Ver. 12. Behold, I come quickly.--Here again the the apostle attempting to worship the angel a second angel speaks in the name of Christ. See also ver. 19. time; but Mr.Faller thinks it was the same incident Ver. 13. I am Alpha, &c.-Compare chap. i. 8, a second time related. The reproof is the same, and 11; xxi. 6,

Invitations from the] REVELATION. Spirit and the Bride right to the tree of life, and may enter that heareth the words of the prophecy in through the gates into the city of this book, If any man shall add

15 For without are dogs, and sor- unto these things, God shall add nato cerers, and whoremongers, and mur- him the plagues that are written in derers, and idolaters, and whosoever this book : loveth and maketh a lie.

19 And if any man shall take away 16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to from the words of the book of the testify unto you these things in the prophecy, God shall take away is churches. I am the root and the off- part out of the book of life, and on spring of David, and the bright and of the holy city, and from the thisg morning star.

which are written in this book. 17 And the Spirit and the bride 20 He which testifieth these this say, Come. And let him that heareth saith, Surely I come quickly; Anei. say, Come. And let him that is Even so, come, Lord Jesus. athirst come. And whosever will, let 21 The grace of our Lord Jese him take the water of life freely. Christ be with you all. Amen. (Q) • 18 For I testify unto every man

EXPOSITION-Chap. XXII. Continued. a long period. God forbid we should take connectedly, and through them to the pleasure in such a painful subject! But Christians in every age. " Reader (si have those persons considered, that while he should say), you have read of the rate they are endeavouring to comfort the of life : you are invited to come and drink wicked, they are distressing the pious and freely of it. You have heard or read of ti: the just ? If there may be an end to the Spirit that spake to the churches; k punishment of sinners, why not to the speaks also to you individually, and the happiness of good men ? The duration of sum of what he saith is, Come. You haar both is expressed in the same terms, and heard of the bride, and of the glories per God forbid we should comfort the former pared for her: she does not covet to enja to distress the latter!

these things by herself, but joins with the (2) Ver. 6—21. Conclusion of this book, Spirit of inspiration in inviting yes and of the New Testament. The angel come. Nay, every one that heareth, and confirms his message by a solemn asse- believeth these things, is warranted to itveration in the name of God; and the fol- vite his neighbour. And let every k lowing words, “ Behold, I come quickly," who has any regard for his own soul, apelid are evidently spoken in the name of Christ, the cup of the mother of harlots, and conce and as from him. These expressions, “the to the living waters. There need be D time is at hand,” and “ behold, I come hesitation on the score of qualification, for quickly," imply only, that their accom- it is free to all who are willing to receiveit plishment was shortly to commence, and “Know, also, that the words of this prowould rapidly proceed ; but, certainly, not phecy are sacred. If any man add to them, that their accomplisbment would shortly God will add to him its plagues; and if be completed, for they contain the fate of any man take away from them, God w] many centuries.

take away from him wbatever be may bave Onr Lord Christ, having, from the 10th expected to receive of its blessings. He to the 16th verse, addressed the apostle, who testifieth these things saith, Sura! now, in verse 17. and sequel, addresses come quickly. To this solemn testimonya himself to the churches of Asia, as in the Christ, the apostle adds his solemn fac. beginning of the book ; not separately, but Even so; come, Lord Jesus."- [Fuller.]

NOTES-Chap. XXII. Con. Ver. 15. Without are dogs. Dogs in the East are are to guard. See Note on Phil, iii. 2. generally left to range the streets at Jarge, except Ver. 19. His part out of the book of life.-Mart. they are wanted to guard any particular premises, "From the tree of life." "So read some copies; but and then they are chained up outside the door they compare chap. iii. 5; and Exposition is. 14, &c.





bridged from the Index to our authorized Quarto Bibles (taken from the Chronology of

Archbishop Usher), with additions from the Chronology of the Life of Christ,"
by the Rev. C. Benson, M.A.; and other Authorities.

.B.-The facts not in the Index above referred to, nor in the sacred text, are inserted in a smaller type,

or in brackets,

Six months after the birth of John the Baptist-Christ, Luke ii. 6.
our Lord and Saviour (in the fulness of time), was born of
the Virgin Mary, at Bethlehem, and laid in a manger, and 21.
on the 8th day circumcised, and named Jesus.

It has been long since ascertained, that the birth of Christ took
place four years before the vulgar era of the year of our Lord (or
Anno Domini) ; so that, in A.D. 1, our Lord was full four years old
- Herod the Great being King of the Jews, and Augustus Cesar
Emperor of Rome. The year of Christ's birth is commonly dated
A.M. (or Anno Mundi) 4000 ; by Mr. Benson, 4009; and by Dr.
Hales, 5406.

The wise men (or Magz) of the East bring presents to the Mat. ii, 1.
new-born King of the Jews.

Mr. Benson arranges the arrival of these wise men in Jerusalem
a little before, and at Bethlehem a little after the presentation of
Jesus in the Temple ; and that event, of course, between them.

Simeon and Anna, seeing Jesus in the temple, prophecy. Luke ii.

Joseph, being warned of God in a dream, flies into Egypt 28, 36.
with the child Jesus, and Mary his niother.

Mat, ii. 14.
Herod, finding himself neglected by the wise men, com-

mands the infants in and about Bethlehem to be slain-
This was about a year after the birth of Jesus 1
Almost immediately after this, Herod himself dies, and


| Josephus
his son Archelaus is made by Cesar Tetrarch of Judea :

Antiq. lib.
other dominions, which belonged to Herod, are divided | xvii. cap.8.
among his sons.
Herod died in the 37th year of his reign, aged about 70. Benson.

Mat. ii.
Christ, by God's appointment, is brought back out of | 21–23.

A.D. Egypt into Nazareth, in Galilee, where he resided till about

his 30th year.

The first year of the Vulgar Christian æra (Ann. Dom.)
begias here, being, according to the common account, 4004
from the creation ; according to Dr. Doddridge, 4710, and
according to Mr. Benson, 4713, Julian period; but according
to Dr. Hales, 5411.

By the reckoning of Doddridge, Benson, and the common ver-
sion, John is supposed to have been born about Midsummer; and
Jesus, in the beginning of the year following: but Dr. Hales
| reckons John to have been born about the Spring quarter, and
Jesus at Michaelmas.
_Archelaus, accused by the Jews, disgraced and banished. Mr.

By occasion of the Passover, our Lord [at twelve years of Lukeü. kl.
age] goes up with his parents to Jerusalem, and there dis-
putes with the doctors in the temple.

Tiberius made equal with Augustus in the armies and pro-
viaces. Mr. Benson.

Augustus dies, and Tiberias succeeds him.
| Josephus, called Caiaphas, is made High Priest of the
Jews, by favour of Valerius Gratus, the Roman governor.

Pontius Pilate is sent to be Procurator of Judea, in the Jos. Antia.
place of Valerius Gralus.

1. xii.c.
John the Baptist begins to preach and tu baptize in the Mat. ii. l.
desert of Judea. At which time

Jesus entering upon the 30th year of his age, comes from L
Galilee to Jordan, and is baptized of John; the Spirit of Lukei #!
God visibly descending on him, and a voice from heaven Sohniy
is heard, saying, “ This is my beloved Son."

Jesus returns from Jordan, and is led by the Spirit into Mat. it.l.
the wilderness, where he fasteth 40 days and nights, and Luke iv..
is tempted by the devil.

Christ, at a marriage in Cana of Galilee, turneth water John ü.l.
into wine : this was his first miracle.

John gives testimony to our Saviour, passing by himn. Johti, ,
Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathaniel, acknowledge him to
be tlie Messiah, and become his disciples.

Jesus soon after cometh to Jerusalem, at the time of the Joho il.
Passover, and entering into the temple, scourgeth out those

that bought and sold there.
The Jews requiring a sign or miracle, to prove his autho-

rity thus to act, Christ bids them “ Destroy this temple,
meaniac tie temple of his body, and in three days (said be)
I will raise it up," alluding to his resurrection.

Nicodemus cometh to Jesus for instruction by night, for Johoji.
fear of the Jews.

The same year, Herod the Tetrarch casts John the Bap- Mat. xir, I
tist into prison, for reprehending his incest with his brother
Philip's wife, and other evils by him committed.

Soon after this, Christ discovers himself to the woman of Joho ir.
| Samaria, and holds an important conversation with her. I 7.

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